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Gastroesophageal reflux disease, bile reflux

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606884/proton-pump-inhibitor-refractory-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-challenges-and-solutions
#1
REVIEW
Joseph Mermelstein, Alanna Chait Mermelstein, Maxwell M Chait
A significant percentage of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) will not respond to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The causes of PPI-refractory GERD are numerous and diverse, and include adherence, persistent acid, functional disorders, nonacid reflux, and PPI bioavailability. The evaluation should start with a symptom assessment and may progress to imaging, endoscopy, and monitoring of esophageal pH, impedance, and bilirubin. There are a variety of pharmacologic and procedural interventions that should be selected based on the underlying mechanism of PPI failure...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529473/in-vivo-short-term-topical-application-of-bay-11-7082-prevents-the-acidic-bile-induced-mrna-and-mirna-oncogenic-phenotypes-in-exposed-murine-hypopharyngeal-mucosa
#2
Clarence T Sasaki, Sotirios G Doukas, Dimitra P Vageli
PURPOSE: Bile-containing gastroesophageal reflux may promote cancer at extraesophageal sites. Acidic bile can accelerate NF-κB activation and molecular events, linked to premalignant changes in murine hypopharyngeal mucosa (HM). We hypothesize that short-term in vivo topical application of NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 can prevent acidic bile-induced early preneoplastic molecular events, suggesting its potential role in disease prevention. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We topically exposed HM (C57Bl/6j wild-type) to a mixture of bile acids at pH 3...
March 9, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435660/indications-for-total-esophagogastric-dissociation-in-children-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#3
REVIEW
Yujiro Tanaka, Takahisa Tainaka, Hiroo Uchida
Total esophagogastric dissociation (TED) is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux (GER) after failed fundoplication in neurologically impaired patients. It is now performed for some otherwise healthy patients with severe GER. In this procedure, the gastrointestinal tract is reconstructed in a non-physiological way with a Roux-en-Y esophagojejunal anastomosis and jejuno-jejunostomy. Although TED eliminates almost all GER, some patients experience late complications. In this review, we investigated the long-term outcomes after TED to determine the best indications...
February 12, 2018: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390281/comparison-of-safety-and-effectiveness-between-laparoscopic-mini-gastric-bypass-and-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Fu-Gang Wang, Zhao-Peng Yu, Wen-Mao Yan, Ming Yan, Mao-Min Song
BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass is a newly emerged surgical procedure in recent years. Owe to safe and simple process and effective outcomes, laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass has quickly become one of the most popular procedures in some countries. The safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass versus laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy remain unclear. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library from inception to May 20, 2017...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941013/deoxycholic-acid-promotes-development-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-and-barrett-s-oesophagus-by-modulating-integrin-%C3%AE-v-trafficking
#5
David O Prichard, Anne Marie Byrne, James O Murphy, John V Reynolds, Jacintha O'Sullivan, Ronan Feighery, Brendan Doyle, Osama Sharaf Eldin, Stephen P Finn, Aoife Maguire, Deirdre Duff, Dermot P Kelleher, Aideen Long
The fundamental mechanisms underlying erosive oesophagitis and subsequent development of Barrett's oesophagus (BO) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the contribution of specific components of the gastric refluxate on adhesion molecules involved in epithelial barrier maintenance. Cell line models of squamous epithelium (HET-1A) and BO (QH) were used to examine the effects of bile acids on cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins (Collagen, laminin, vitronectin, fibronectin) and expression of integrin ligands (α3 , α4, α5 , α6 and αν )...
December 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855537/activation-of-nadph-oxidases-leads-to-dna-damage-in-esophageal-cells
#6
Vikas Bhardwaj, Ravindran Caspa Gokulan, Andela Horvat, Liudmila Yermalitskaya, Olga Korolkova, Kay M Washington, Wael El-Rifai, Sergey I Dikalov, Alexander I Zaika
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the strongest known risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. In the center of tumorigenic events caused by GERD is repeated damage of esophageal tissues by the refluxate. In this study, we focused on a genotoxic aspect of exposure of esophageal cells to acidic bile reflux (BA/A). Analyzing cells generated from patients with Barrett's esophagus and human esophageal specimens, we found that BA/A cause significant DNA damage that is mediated by reactive-oxygen species...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827081/management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#7
REVIEW
C Prakash Gyawali, Ronnie Fass
Management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) commonly starts with an empiric trial of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and complementary lifestyle measures, for patients without alarm symptoms. Optimization of therapy (improving compliance and timing of PPI doses), or increasing PPI dosage to twice daily in select circumstances, can reduce persistent symptoms. Patients with continued symptoms can be evaluated with endoscopy and tests of esophageal physiology, to better determine their disease phenotype and optimize treatment...
January 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768359/-laryngopharyngeal-reflux-disease-lprd-in-children
#8
Oliver Reichel, Panagiotis Saravakos, Kai J Lorenz
LPRD in children is characterized by symptoms, clinical findings, and sequelae caused by the reflux of gastric acid, bile acid or refluxate containing pepsin beyond the esophagus. For diagnostic procedures and therapy of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children and adults widely accepted guidelines have been established. However, diagnosis and therapy of LPRD in children remains a continuous issue of inter- and intradisciplinary discussions. Although both GERD and LPRD in children are reflux-induced diseases, these two entities are different in symptoms, cause, diagnostic procedures, and therapy...
July 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336546/barrett-s-metaplasia-develops-from-cellular-reprograming-of-esophageal-squamous-epithelium-due-to-gastroesophageal-reflux
#9
Carlos D Minacapelli, Manisha Bajpai, Xin Geng, Christina L Cheng, Abhishek A Chouthai, Rhonda Souza, Stuart J Spechler, Kiron M Das
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) clinically predisposes to columnar Barrett's metaplasia (BM) in the distal esophagus. We demonstrate evidence supporting the cellular origin of BM from reprograming or transcommitment of resident normal esophageal squamous (NES) epithelial cells in response to acid and bile (A + B) exposure using an in vitro cell culture model. The hTERT-immortalized NES cell line NES-B10T was exposed 5 min/day to an A + B mixture for 30 wk. Morphological changes, mRNA, and protein expression levels for the inflammatory marker cyclooxygenase-2; the lineage-determining transcription factors TAp63 (squamous), CDX2, and SOX9 (both columnar); and the columnar lineage markers Villin, Muc-2, CK8, and mAb Das-1 (incomplete phenotype of intestinal metaplasia) were assessed every 10 wk...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303507/laparoscopic-conversion-of-one-anastomosis-gastric-bypass-to-a-standard-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#10
Imed Ben Amor, Niccolo Petrucciani, Radwan Kassir, Abdullah Al Munifi, Thierry Piche, Tarek Debs, Jean Gugenheim
INTRODUCTION: One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) demonstrated results similar to traditional Roux-en-Y procedures [1-3], in terms of weight loss and resolution of obesity-related comorbidities. The main controversy regarding OAGB is the concern for an association between biliary alkaline gastritis and esophageal or gastric cancer raised by some studies [4]. METHODS: We present the case of a 51-year-old woman with a BMI of 41 kg/m2 who underwent a laparoscopic OAGB in 2014...
May 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090811/rapid-progressive-long-esophageal-stricture-caused-by-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-after-pylorus-preserving-pancreatoduodenectomy
#11
Masahide Fukaya, Tetsuya Abe, Masato Nagino
BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a major postoperative complication after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PpPD) and sometimes causes reflux esophagitis. In most cases, this morbidity is controllable by proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) and very rarely results in esophageal stricture. Balloon dilation is usually performed for benign esophageal stricture, and esophagectomy was rarely elected. In the present case, there were two important problems of surgical procedure; how to perform esophageal reconstruction after PpPD and whether to preserve the stomach or not...
2016: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27072265/factors-regulating-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-activation-in-esophageal-cancer-cells-role-of-bile-acids-and-acid
#12
Mohamed Mahmoud M Abdel-Latif, Hiroyasu Inoue, Dermot Kelleher, John V Reynolds
AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is considered to be a major risk in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) plays important roles in the regulation of several genes coding for cytokines, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. To understand the role of bile and acid in the causation of esophageal cancer, we have examined the effects of bile acids and acid on NF-κB activation in the esophageal epithelial cells OE33 and SKGT-4 qualitatively and quantitatively...
January 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934647/ape1-mediated-dna-damage-repair-provides-survival-advantage-for-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-cells-in-response-to-acidic-bile-salts
#13
Jun Hong, Zheng Chen, Dunfa Peng, Alexander Zaika, Frank Revetta, M Kay Washington, Abbes Belkhiri, Wael El-Rifai
Chronic Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is the main risk factor for the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and its progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Accordingly, EAC cells are subjected to high levels of oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) protein in promoting cancer cell survival by counteracting the lethal effects of acidic bile salts (ABS)-induced DNA damage. Immunohistochemistry analysis of human tissue samples demonstrated overexpression of APE1 in more than half of EACs (70 of 130), as compared to normal esophagus and non-dysplastic BE samples (P < 0...
March 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876392/new-style-laparoscope-and-endoscope-cooperative-gallbladder-preserving-surgery-for-polyps
#14
Ming Li, Haorong Wu, Shaohua Wei
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new style of Laparoscope and Endoscope Cooperative gallbladderpreserving Surgery (LECS), an improved method of minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving polypectomy. STUDY DESIGN: An experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, China, from January 2009 to July 2013. METHODOLOGY: Clinical data of patients subjected to LECS and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) was analysed...
February 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26843915/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-a-review-of-surgical-decision-making
#15
REVIEW
Maureen Moore, Cheguevara Afaneh, Daniel Benhuri, Caroline Antonacci, Jonathan Abelson, Rasa Zarnegar
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disorder with increasing prevalence. It is estimated that up to 20%-25% of Americans experience symptoms of GERD weekly. Excessive reflux of acidic often with alkaline bile salt gastric and duodenal contents results in a multitude of symptoms for the patient including heartburn, regurgitation, cough, and dysphagia. There are also associated complications of GERD including erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, stricture and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus...
January 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715559/bile-salts-at-low-ph-cause-dilation-of-intercellular-spaces-in-in-vitro-stratified-primary-esophageal-cells-possibly-by-modulating-wnt-signaling
#16
Sayak Ghatak, Marie Reveiller, Liana Toia, Andrei I Ivanov, Zhongren Zhou, Eileen M Redmond, Tony E Godfrey, Jeffrey H Peters
BACKGROUND: The presence of dilated intercellular spaces in the stratified squamous lining of the esophagus is the pathognomonic feature of reflux esophagitis secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In addition to stomach acid, bile salts are major constituents of gastroesophageal refluxate. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of bile salts cocktail at different pHs on epithelial junctions in an in vitro transwell model of stratified esophageal squamous epithelium...
March 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26243580/consistent-efficacy-of-wendan-decoction-for-the-treatment-of-digestive-reflux-disorders
#17
Wei Ling, Yi Huang, Jia-Hua Xu, Yang Li, Yan-Mei Huang, Hai-Bing Ling, Yi Sui, Hai-Lu Zhao
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and bile reflux gastritis (BRG) are common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders with unmet medical needs. Traditional Chinese medicine has long been used for the treatment of GERD and BRG whereas the ginger-containing formula Wendan decoction (WDD) targets homeostatic disturbances characterized by "reflux" and "gut-juice exposure" problems. Here we used WDD as a therapeutic tool to unravel the common pathogenesis of GI reflux disorders. Control clinical trials reporting the WDD-treated patients with GERD and BRG were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis...
2015: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26104973/gastroesophageal-reflux-and-lung-disease
#18
EDITORIAL
Keith C Meyer
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) can cause respiratory symptoms and may trigger, drive and/or worsen airway disorders, interstitial lung diseases and lung allograft dysfunction. Whether lifestyle changes and acid suppression alone can counter and prevent the adverse effects of GER on the respiratory tract remains unclear. Recent data suggest that antireflux surgery may be more effective in preventing lung disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or lung transplant recipients who have evidence of allograft dysfunction associated with the presence of excessive GER...
August 2015: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26054318/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-in-the-obese-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Barbara F Nadaleto, Fernando A M Herbella, Marco G Patti
Obesity is a condition that has increased all over the world in the last 3 decades. Overweight and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are related. GERD may have different causative factors in the obese compared with lean individuals. This review focuses on the proper treatment for GERD in the obese based on its pathophysiology. Increased abdominal pressure may play a more significant role in obese subjects with GERD than the defective esophagogastric barrier usually found in nonobese individuals. A fundoplication may be used to treat GERD in these individuals; however, outcomes may be not as good as in nonobese patients and it does not act on the pathophysiology of the disease...
February 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25822684/rat-reflux-model-of-esophageal-cancer-and-its-implication-in-human-disease
#20
REVIEW
Christina L Greene, Stephanie G Worrell, Tom R DeMeester
OBJECTIVES: The epidemiologic shift in esophageal cancer from squamous cell carcinoma to esophageal adenocarcinoma coincided with popularization of proton pump inhibitors and has focused attention on gastroesophageal reflux disease as a causative factor in this shift. The aim of this study is to review the literature on the rat reflux model in an effort to elucidate this phenomenon. METHODS: An extensive online literature review (PubMed) was carried out to identify all seminal contributions to the study of esophageal adenocarcinoma using the rat reflux model...
December 2015: Annals of Surgery
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