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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912324/foxg1-regulates-the-postnatal-development-of-cortical-interneurons
#1
Wei Shen, Ru Ba, Yan Su, Yang Ni, Dongsheng Chen, Wei Xie, Samuel J Pleasure, Chunjie Zhao
Abnormalities in cortical interneurons are closely associated with neurological diseases. Most patients with Foxg1 syndrome experience seizures, suggesting a possible role of Foxg1 in the cortical interneuron development. Here, by conditional deletion of Foxg1, which was achieved by crossing Foxg1fl/fl with the Gad2-CreER line, we found the postnatal distributions of somatostatin-, calretinin-, and neuropeptide Y-positive interneurons in the cortex were impaired. Further investigations revealed an enhanced dendritic complexity and decreased migration capacity of Foxg1-deficient interneurons, accompanied by remarkable downregulation of Dlx1 and CXCR4...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904965/abnormalities-in-cortical-interneuron-subtypes-in-ephrin-b-mutant-mice
#2
Asghar Talebian, Rachel Britton, Mark Henkemeyer
To explore roles for ephrin-B/EphB signaling in cortical interneurons we previously generated ephrin-B (Efnb1/b2/b3) conditional triple mutant (TMlz ) mice using a Dlx1/2.Cre inhibitory neuron driver and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporters for the two main inhibitory interneuron groups distinguished by expression of either glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1; GAD67-GFP) or 2 (GAD2; GAD65-GFP). This work showed a general involvement of ephrin-B in migration and population of interneurons into the embryonic neocortex...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724796/gad65-promoter-polymorphism-rs2236418-modulates-harm-avoidance-in-women-via-inhibition-excitation-balance-in-the-rostral-acc
#3
Lejla Colic, Meng Li, Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Shija Li, Iris Müller, Anni Richter, Constanze I Seidenbecher, Oliver Speck, Björn H Schott, Oliver Stork, Martin Walter
Anxiety disorders are common and debilitating conditions with higher prevalence in women. However, factors that predispose women to anxiety phenotypes are not clarified. Here we investigated potential contribution of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2236418 in GAD2 gene to changes in regional inhibition/excitation balance, anxiety-like traits and related neural activity in both sexes. 105 healthy individuals were examined with high-field (7T) multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including resting state fMRI in combination with assessment of GABA and Glutamate (Glu) levels via MR spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590552/various-transgenic-mouse-lines-to-study-proopiomelanocortin-cells-in-the-brainstem-label-disparate-populations-of-gabaergic-and-glutamatergic-neurons
#4
Andrew R Rau, Alexander R Hughes, Shane T Hentges
Products of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) prohormone regulate aspects of analgesia, reward and energy balance and thus, the neurons that produce POMC in the hypothalamus have received considerable attention. However, there are also cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) that transcribe Pomc, although low levels of Pomc mRNA and relative lack of POMC peptide products in the adult mouse NTS has hindered the study of these cells. Therefore, studies of NTS POMC cells have largely relied on transgenic mouse lines...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551974/neurobehavioral-effects-of-cephalosporins-assessment-of-locomotors-activity-motor-and-sensory-development-in-zebrafish
#5
Ying Han, Yangmin Zheng, Jingpu Zhang, Changqin Hu
Most third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, such as cefotaxime, cefmenoxime, cefepime, and cefpirome, contain an aminothiazoyl ring at the C-7 position. Drug impurity, which may be produced either during synthesis or upon degradation, can induce adverse effects. Various reports have indicated that neurotoxicity is a side effect of cephalosporin. In this study, we developed methods for assessing the free-swimming activities and behaviors in zebrafish larvae in response to continuous darkness and stimulation of light-to-dark photoperiod transition by chemical treatments...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516342/responsiveness-of-the-anxiety-depression-dimension-of-the-3-and-5-level-versions-of-the-eq-5d-in-assessing-mental-health
#6
Katelynn Crick, Fatima Al Sayah, Arto Ohinmaa, Jeffrey A Johnson
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression disorders are associated with significantly lower health-related quality of life (HRQL). The EQ-5D is a commonly used generic measure of HRQL; it captures mental health through a single domain-the anxiety/depression dimension. Evidence on the responsiveness of this measure in assessing changes in mental health changes is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the performance of the anxiety/depression dimension (A/D) of the 3- and 5-level (3L and 5L) versions of the EQ-5D in assessing changes in mental health...
June 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433172/further-investigation-about-the-expression-of-sst-gad2-and-pvalb-in-medulloblastoma
#7
Sheng Zhong, Shanshan Jiang, Yida Peng, Yong Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289296/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-response-to-tcdd-in-rat-brain-after-long-term-low-dose-exposure
#8
Yangsheng Chen, Li Xu, Heidi Q H Xie, Tuan Xu, Hualing Fu, Songyan Zhang, Rui Sha, Yingjie Xia, Bin Zhao
Several cohort studies have reported that dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls might impair the nervous system and lead to neurological or neurodegenerative diseases in the elder people, but there is limited research on the involved mechanism. By using microarray analysis, we figured out the differentially expressed genes between brain samples from SD rats after low-dose (0.1μg/(kg▪bw)) dioxin exposure for six months and controls. To investigate the function changes in the course of dioxin exposure, Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed on the differentially expressed genes...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259026/early-vglut1-specific-parallel-fiber-synaptic-deficits-and-dysregulated-cerebellar-circuit-in-the-kiko-mouse-model-of-friedreich-ataxia
#9
Hong Lin, Jordi Magrane, Elisia M Clark, Sarah M Halawani, Nathan Warren, Amy Rattelle, David R Lynch
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with progressive ataxia that affects both the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS). While later CNS neuropathology involves loss of large principal neurons and glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic terminals in the cerebellar dentate nucleus, early pathological changes in FRDA cerebellum remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report early cerebellar VGLUT1 (SLC17A7)-specific parallel fiber (PF) synaptic deficits and dysregulated cerebellar circuit in the frataxin knock-in/knockout (KIKO) FRDA mouse model...
December 19, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146880/optogenetic-inhibition-of-striatal-gabaergic-neuronal-activity-improves-outcomes-after-ischemic-brain-injury
#10
Lu Jiang, Wanlu Li, Muyassar Mamtilahun, Yaying Song, Yuanyuan Ma, Meijie Qu, Yifan Lu, Xiaosong He, Jieyu Zheng, Zongjie Fu, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Striatal GABAergic neuron is known as a key regulator in adult neurogenesis. However, the specific role of striatal GABAergic neuronal activity in the promotion of neurological recovery after ischemic stroke remains unknown. Here, we used optogenetic approach to investigate these effects and mechanism. METHODS: Laser stimulation was delivered via an implanted optical fiber to inhibit or activate the striatal GABAergic neurons in Gad2-Arch-GFP or Gad2-ChR2-tdTomato mice (n=80) 1 week after 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
December 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028947/dlx1-and-dlx2-promote-interneuron-gaba-synthesis-synaptogenesis-and-dendritogenesis
#11
Ramon Pla, Amelia Stanco, MacKenzie A Howard, Anna N Rubin, Daniel Vogt, Niall Mortimer, Inma Cobos, Gregory Brian Potter, Susan Lindtner, James D Price, Alex S Nord, Axel Visel, Christoph E Schreiner, Scott C Baraban, David H Rowitch, John L R Rubenstein
The postnatal functions of the Dlx1&2 transcription factors in cortical interneurons (CINs) are unknown. Here, using conditional Dlx1, Dlx2, and Dlx1&2 knockouts (CKOs), we defined their roles in specific CINs. The CKOs had dendritic, synaptic, and survival defects, affecting even PV+ CINs. We provide evidence that DLX2 directly drives Gad1, Gad2, and Vgat expression, and show that mutants had reduced mIPSC amplitude. In addition, the mutants formed fewer GABAergic synapses on excitatory neurons and had reduced mIPSC frequency...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986280/recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-induces-long-term-anxiety-like-behaviors-via-the-erk1-2-gad1-gaba-cascade-in-the-hippocampus-of-a-rat-model
#12
Mei-Xue Dong, Chen-Meng Li, Peng Shen, Qing-Chuan Hu, You-Dong Wei, Yi-Fei Ren, Jia Yu, Si-Wen Gui, Yi-Yun Liu, Jun-Xi Pan, Peng Xie
OBJECTIVES: Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is widely used for patients with thromboembolic disease, and increasing evidence indicates that it can directly induce neurotoxicity independent of its thrombolysis property. Here, we aimed to confirm the long-term effect of rtPA on animal's behavior, and investigate the underlying pathogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly received a dose of rtPA (10 mg/kg) or sterile saline...
January 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821666/gabaergic-interneuron-differentiation-in-the-basal-forebrain-is-mediated-through-direct-regulation-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-isoforms-by-dlx-homeobox-transcription-factors
#13
Trung N Le, Qing-Ping Zhou, Inma Cobos, Shunzhen Zhang, Jamie Zagozewski, Sara Japoni, Jerry Vriend, Tracie Parkinson, Guoyan Du, John L Rubenstein, David D Eisenstat
GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cortex but regulation of its synthesis during forebrain development is poorly understood. In the telencephalon, members of the distal-less (Dlx) homeobox gene family are expressed in, and regulate the development of, the basal ganglia primodia from which many GABAergic neurons originate and migrate to other forebrain regions. The Dlx1/Dlx2 double knock-out mice die at birth with abnormal cortical development, including loss of tangential migration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons to the neocortex (Anderson et al...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751139/identification-of-driver-genes-and-key-pathways-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-and-comparison-of-molecular-pathogenesis-based-on-pathologic-types
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sheng Zhong, Bo Wu, Yujuan Han, Yingshu Cao, Liu Yang, Sean X Luo, Yong Chen, Huimao Zhang, Gang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: This study is to identify pediatric brain tumors (PBT) driver genes and key pathways to detect the expression of the driver genes and also to clarify the relationship between patients' prognosis and expression of driver genes. METHODS: The gene expression profile of GSE50161 was analyzed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between tumor tissue and the normal tissue. Gene ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis, and protein-protein interaction network analysis were conducted to identify the enrichment functions, pathways, and hub genes...
November 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743044/electrophysiological-and-gene-expression-characterization-of-the-ontogeny-of-nestin-expressing-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#15
Anupama Dey, Parisa Farzanehfar, Elena V Gazina, Tim D Aumann
The birth of new neurons, or neurogenesis, in the adult midbrain is important for progressing dopamine cell-replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease. Most studies suggest newborn cells remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia within the adult midbrain. However, some studies suggest nestin+neural precursor cells (NPCs) have a propensity to generate new neurons here. We sought to confirm this by administering tamoxifen to adult NesCreER(T2)/R26eYFP transgenic mice, which permanently labelled adult nestin-expressing cells and their progeny with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP)...
August 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485403/gad1-alternative-transcripts-and-dna-methylation-in-human-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-brain-development-schizophrenia
#16
R Tao, K N Davis, C Li, J H Shin, Y Gao, A E Jaffe, M C Gondré-Lewis, D R Weinberger, J E Kleinman, T M Hyde
Genetic variations and adverse environmental events in utero or shortly after birth can lead to abnormal brain development and increased risk of schizophrenia. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, plays a vital role in normal brain development. GABA synthesis is controlled by enzymes derived from two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, GAD1 and GAD2, both of which produce transcript isoforms. While the full-length GAD1 transcript (GAD67) has been implicated in the neuropathology of schizophrenia, the transcript structure of GAD1 in the human brain has not been fully characterized...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363755/an-investigation-of-gene-expression-in-single-cells-derived-from-nestin-expressing-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain-in-vivo
#17
Parisa Farzanehfar, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Generation of new dopamine (DA) neurons in the adult midbrain is a controversial issue in development of better treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous research suggests Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) have a propensity to differentiate into neurons here, including DA neurons. In the present study we sought confirmation of this by studying gene expression in single Nestin-expressing cells and their progeny/ontogeny within the adult mouse midbrain. Cells were identified by administering a pulse of Tamoxifen to adult Nestin-CreER(T2)×R26eYFP transgenic mice...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245795/in-search-of-druggable-targets-for-gbm-amino-acid-metabolism
#18
Eduard H Panosyan, Henry J Lin, Jan Koster, Joseph L Lasky
BACKGROUND: Amino acid (AA) pathways may contain druggable targets for glioblastoma (GBM). Literature reviews and GBM database ( http://r2.amc.nl ) analyses were carried out to screen for such targets among 95 AA related enzymes. METHODS: First, we identified the genes that were differentially expressed in GBMs (3 datasets) compared to non-GBM brain tissues (5 datasets), or were associated with survival differences. Further, protein expression for these enzymes was also analyzed in high grade gliomas (HGGs) (proteinatlas...
February 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229923/epigenetic-regulation-of-reln-and-gad1-in-the-frontal-cortex-fc-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-subjects
#19
Adrian Zhubi, Ying Chen, Alessandro Guidotti, Dennis R Grayson
Both Reelin (RELN) and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD1) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We have previously shown that both mRNAs are reduced in the cerebella (CB) of ASD subjects through a mechanism that involves increases in the amounts of MECP2 binding to the corresponding promoters. In the current study, we examined the expression of RELN, GAD1, GAD2, and several other mRNAs implicated in this disorder in the frontal cortices (FC) of ASD and CON subjects. We also focused on the role that epigenetic processes play in the regulation of these genes in ASD brain...
November 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122016/gad1-gene-expression-in-blood-of-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#20
Jie Yin Yee, Milawaty Nurjono, Stephanie Ruth Teo, Tih-Shih Lee, Jimmy Lee
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, has often been studied in relation to its role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), derived from two genes, GAD1 and GAD2. GAD1 is expressed as both GAD67 and GAD25 mRNA transcripts with the former reported to have a lower expression level in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls and latter was reported to be predominantly expressed fetally, suggesting a role in developmental process...
2017: PloS One
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