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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531218/caloric-restriction-selectively-reduces-the-gabaergic-phenotype-of-mouse-hypothalamic-proopiomelanocortin-neurons
#1
Brooke C Jarvie, Connie M King, Alexander R Hughes, Matthew S Dicken, Christina S Dennison, Shane T Hentges
KEY POINTS: Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons release peptide products that potently inhibit food intake and reduce body weight. These neurons also release the amino acid transmitter GABA, which can inhibit downstream neurons. Although the release of peptide transmitters from POMC neurons is regulated by energy state, whether similar regulation of GABA release might occur had not been examined. The present results show that the GABAergic phenotype of POMC neurons is decreased selectively by caloric deficit and not altered by high-fat diet or stress...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507772/localization-of-glutamatergic-gabaergic-and-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-african-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#2
Karen P Maruska, Julie M Butler, Karen E Field, Danielle T Porter
Neural communication depends on release and reception of different neurotransmitters within complex circuits that ultimately mediate basic biological functions. We mapped the distribution of glutamatergic, GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the brain of the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni using in situ hybridization to label vesicular glutamate transporters (vglut1, vglut2.1, vglut3), glutamate decarboxylases (gad1, gad2), and choline acetyltransferase (chat). Cells expressing the glutamatergic markers vgluts 1-3 show primarily non-overlapping distribution patterns, with the most widespread expression observed for vglut2...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461130/three-distinct-glutamate-decarboxylase-genes-in-vertebrates
#3
Brian P Grone, Karen P Maruska
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a widely conserved signaling molecule that in animals has been adapted as a neurotransmitter. GABA is synthesized from the amino acid glutamate by the action of glutamate decarboxylases (GADs). Two vertebrate genes, GAD1 and GAD2, encode distinct GAD proteins: GAD67 and GAD65, respectively. We have identified a third vertebrate GAD gene, GAD3. This gene is conserved in fishes as well as tetrapods. We analyzed protein sequence, gene structure, synteny, and phylogenetics to identify GAD3 as a homolog of GAD1 and GAD2...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252915/association-of-the-243a-g-61450c-a-polymorphisms-of-the-glutamate-decarboxylase-2-gad2-gene-with-obesity-and-insulin-level-in-north-indian-population
#4
Jai Prakash, Balraj Mittal, Shally Awasthi, Neena Srivastava
BACKGROUND: Obesity associated with type 2 diabetes, and hypertension increased mortality and morbidity. Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2) gene is associated with obesity and it regulate food intake and insulin level. We investigated the association of GAD-2gene -243A>G (rs2236418) and +61450C>A (rs992990) polymorphisms with obesity and related phenotypes. METHODS: Insulin, glucose and lipid levels were estimated using standard protocols. All subjects were genotyped (PCR-RFLP) method...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057733/atp13a2-expression-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-is-decreased-in-the-pink1-rat-model-of-parkinson-disease
#5
Cynthia A Kelm-Nelson, Sharon A Stevenson, Michelle R Ciucci
Vocal communication deficits are common in Parkinson disease (PD). Widespread alpha-synuclein pathology is a common link between familial and sporadic PD, and recent genetic rat models based on familial genetic links increase the opportunity to explore vocalization deficits and their associated neuropathologies. Specifically, the Pink1 knockout (-/-) rat presents with early, progressive motor deficits, including significant vocal deficits, at 8 months of age. Moreover, this rat model exhibits alpha-synuclein pathology compared to age-matched non-affected wildtype (WT) controls...
May 16, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990801/muscarinic-control-of-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-gaba-neurons-and-morphine-induced-locomotion
#6
David I Wasserman, Joel M J Tan, Jun Chul Kim, John S Yeomans
Opioids induce rewarding and locomotor effects by inhibiting rostromedial tegmental GABA neurons that express μ-opioid and nociceptin receptors. These GABA neurons then strongly inhibit dopamine neurons. Opioid-induced reward, locomotion and dopamine release also depend on pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental cholinergic and glutamate neurons, many of which project to and activate ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Here we show that laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine cholinergic neurons project to both rostromedial tegmental nucleus and ventral tegmental area, and that M4 muscarinic receptors are co-localized with μ-opioid receptors associated with rostromedial tegmental GABA neurons...
July 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940489/gamma-aminobutyric-acid-depletion-affects-stomata-closure-and-drought-tolerance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Dereje Worku Mekonnen, Ulf-Ingo Flügge, Frank Ludewig
A rapid accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during biotic and abiotic stresses is well documented. However, the specificity of the response and the primary role of GABA under such stress conditions are hardly understood. To address these questions, we investigated the response of the GABA-depleted gad1/2 mutant to drought stress. GABA is primarily synthesized from the decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) which exists in five copies in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, only GAD1 and GAD2 are abundantly expressed, and knockout of these two copies dramatically reduced the GABA content...
April 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848839/gad2-alternative-transcripts-in-the-human-prefrontal-cortex-and-in-schizophrenia-and-affective-disorders
#8
Kasey N Davis, Ran Tao, Chao Li, Yuan Gao, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis, Barbara K Lipska, Joo Heon Shin, Bin Xie, Tianzhang Ye, Daniel R Weinberger, Joel E Kleinman, Thomas M Hyde
Genetic variation and early adverse environmental events work together to increase risk for schizophrenia. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian brain, plays a major role in normal brain development, and has been strongly implicated in the pathobiology of schizophrenia. GABA synthesis is controlled by two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, GAD1 and GAD2, both of which produce a number of alternative transcripts. Genetic variants in the GAD1 gene are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, and reduced expression of its major transcript in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26785258/identification-of-a-group-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-dorsomedial-area-of-the-locus-coeruleus
#9
Xin Jin, Shanshan Li, Brian Bondy, Weiwei Zhong, Max F Oginsky, Yang Wu, Christopher M Johnson, Shuang Zhang, Ningren Cui, Chun Jiang
The locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system in the brainstem plays a critical role in a variety of behaviors is an important target of pharmacological intervention to several neurological disorders. Although GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of LC neurons, the modulation of LC neuronal firing activity by local GABAergic interneurons remains poorly understood with respect to their precise location, intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic modulation. Here, we took an optogenetic approach to address these questions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26609160/resonant-interneurons-can-increase-robustness-of-gamma-oscillations
#10
Ruben A Tikidji-Hamburyan, Joan José Martínez, John A White, Carmen C Canavier
UNLABELLED: Gamma oscillations are believed to play a critical role in in information processing, encoding, and retrieval. Inhibitory interneuronal network gamma (ING) oscillations may arise from a coupled oscillator mechanism in which individual neurons oscillate or from a population oscillator in which individual neurons fire sparsely and stochastically. All ING mechanisms, including the one proposed herein, rely on alternating waves of inhibition and windows of opportunity for spiking...
November 25, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26539026/kcc2-expression-supersedes-nkcc1-in-mature-fiber-cells-in-mouse-and-rabbit-lenses
#11
Peter H Frederikse, Chinnaswamy Kasinathan
PURPOSE: Na-K-Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and K-Cl cotransporter 2 (KCC2) have fundamental roles in neuron differentiation that are integrated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate receptors, GABA synthesized by GAD25/65/67 encoded by GAD1/GAD2 genes, and GABA transporters (GATs). Cells in the eye lens express at least 13 GABA receptor subunits, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, GAD1/GAD2, GAT1-4 and vGAT, and NKCC1...
2015: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26426748/quantitative-profiling-of-neurotransmitter-abnormalities-in-the-disease-progression-of-experimental-diabetic-encephalopathy-rat
#12
Xueyan Zhou, Qiuxiang Zhu, Xiaowen Han, Renguo Chen, Yaowu Liu, Hongbin Fan, Xiaoxing Yin
Diabetic encephalopathy (DE) is one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), with neither effective prevention nor proven therapeutic regimen. This study aims to uncover the potential dysregulation pattern of the neurotransmitters in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental DE. For that purpose, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Cognitive performance was detected with the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissues were collected to measure the levels of neurotransmitters...
November 2015: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26388520/genes-in-the-gaba-pathway-increase-in-the-lateral-thalamus-of-sprague-dawley-rats-during-the-proestrus-estrus-phase
#13
Mikhail Umorin, Crystal Stinson, Larry L Bellinger, Phillip R Kramer
Pain can vary over the estrous cycle as a result of changes in estradiol concentration but the mechanism causing this variation is unclear. Because the thalamus is important in pain control, gene expression in the lateral thalamus (ventral posteromedial, ventral posterolateral, reticular thalamic nuclei) was screened at different phases of the estrous cycle. Gene expression changes in Sprague-Dawley rats were further analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA and plasma estradiol levels were measured by RIAs at different phases of the estrous cycle...
May 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26076353/a-transgenic-mouse-line-expressing-the-red-fluorescent-protein-tdtomato-in-gabaergic-neurons
#14
Stefanie Besser, Marit Sicker, Grit Marx, Ulrike Winkler, Volker Eulenburg, Swen Hülsmann, Johannes Hirrlinger
GABAergic inhibitory neurons are a large population of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals and crucially contribute to the function of the circuitry of the brain. To identify specific cell types and investigate their functions labelling of cell populations by transgenic expression of fluorescent proteins is a powerful approach. While a number of mouse lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in different subpopulations of GABAergic cells are available, GFP expressing mouse lines are not suitable for either crossbreeding to other mouse lines expressing GFP in other cell types or for Ca2+-imaging using the superior green Ca2+-indicator dyes...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26068050/chronic-mdma-induces-neurochemical-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-rats-down-regulation-of-apoptotic-markers
#15
Rubén García-Cabrerizo, M Julia García-Fuster
While hippocampus is a brain region particularly susceptible to the effects of MDMA, the cellular and molecular changes induced by MDMA are still to be fully elucidated, being the dosage regimen, the species and the developmental stage under study great variables. This study compared the effects of one and four days of MDMA administration following a binge paradigm (3×5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) on inducing hippocampal neurochemical changes in adolescent (PND 37) and young adult (PND 58) rats. The results showed that chronic MDMA caused hippocampal protein deficits in adolescent and young adult rats at different levels: (1) impaired serotonergic (5-HT2A and 5-HT2C post-synaptic receptors) and GABAergic (GAD2 enzyme) signaling, and (2) decreased structural cytoskeletal neurofilament proteins (NF-H, NF-M and NF-L)...
July 2015: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26041923/functional-upregulation-of-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-vta-gabaergic-neurons-increases-sensitivity-to-nicotine-reward
#16
Jennifer Ngolab, Liwang Liu, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Guangping Gao, Paul D Gardner, Andrew R Tapper
Chronic nicotine exposure increases sensitivity to nicotine reward during a withdrawal period, which may facilitate relapse in abstinent smokers, yet the molecular neuroadaptation(s) that contribute to this phenomenon are unknown. Interestingly, chronic nicotine use induces functional upregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway potentially linking upregulation to increased drug sensitivity. In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), functional upregulation of nAChRs containing the α4 subunit (α4* nAChRs) is restricted to GABAergic neurons...
June 3, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25966064/relationship-between-serum-gad-ab-and-the-genetic-polymorphisms-of-gad2-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Q Li, Z R Qiao, D B Liu, J T Zeng, J Zhang, Y Bo, H Y Zu, Q Hu, X Wu, S S Dong
In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibody (Ab) levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the glutamic acid de-carboxylase 2 (GAD2) 5'-untranslated region and the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Han population. The distributions of patients with SNPs in the GAD2 5'-untranslated region (rs2236418, rs185649317, and rs8190590) and type 2 diabetes and that of the healthy group were genotyped and analyzed using Sequenom MassArray SNP genotyp-ing...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25950486/neuronal-developmental-gene-and-mirna-signatures-induced-by-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
K Meganathan, S Jagtap, S P Srinivasan, V Wagh, J Hescheler, J Hengstler, M Leist, A Sachinidis
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may be applied to develop human-relevant sensitive in vitro test systems for monitoring developmental toxicants. The aim of this study was to identify potential developmental toxicity mechanisms of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC) valproic acid (VPA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin A (TSA) relevant to the in vivo condition using a hESC model in combination with specific differentiation protocols and genome-wide gene expression and microRNA profiling...
2015: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25852071/brainstem-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-is-required-for-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-induced-pain-relief
#19
Wenjuan Tao, Quan Chen, Lu Wang, Wenjie Zhou, Yunping Wang, Zhi Zhang
Our previous study demonstrated that persistent pain can epigenetically suppress the transcription of Gad2 [encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65)] and consequently impair the inhibitory function of GABAergic synapses in central pain-modulating neurons. This contributes to the development of persistent pain sensitization. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increased GAD65 activity considerably, restored GABA synaptic function, and rendered sensitized pain behavior less pronounced. However, the molecular mechanisms by which HDAC regulates GABAergic transmission through GAD65 under pain conditions are unknown...
June 2015: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25723967/corelease-of-acetylcholine-and-gaba-from-cholinergic-forebrain-neurons
#20
Arpiar Saunders, Adam J Granger, Bernardo L Sabatini
Neurotransmitter corelease is emerging as a common theme of central neuromodulatory systems. Though corelease of glutamate or GABA with acetylcholine has been reported within the cholinergic system, the full extent is unknown. To explore synaptic signaling of cholinergic forebrain neurons, we activated choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons using channelrhodopsin while recording post-synaptic currents (PSCs) in layer 1 interneurons. Surprisingly, we observed PSCs mediated by GABAA receptors in addition to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
February 27, 2015: ELife
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