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bacteria structure

Wei-Wei Tao, Jin-Gao Yu, Yan-Yan Chen, Dong Xiao, Jian-Ming Guo, Pei Liu, Jin-Ao Duan
The study was based on the toxic characteristics of the compatibility between "Zaojisuiyuan" and Gancao, with intestinal tract and intestinal bacteria as subject. From the angle of intestinal barrier function, motor function, steady state of intestinal flora and metabolism genes, the toxic and side effects of the compatibility between Qianjinzi and Gancao with similar properties, bases and chemical composition and types were further explored. The results showed that the combined application of Qianjinzi and Gancao enhanced intestinal mucosa damage, and led to abnormal changes in intestinal bacteria structure and metabolic function...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Arieh Zaritsky, Avinoam Rabinovitch, Chenli Liu, Conrad L Woldringh
Cell size of bacteria M is related to 3 temporal parameters: chromosome replication time C , period from replication-termination to subsequent division D , and doubling time τ . Steady-state, bacillary cells grow exponentially by extending length L only, but their constant width W is larger at shorter τ 's or longer C 's, in proportion to the number of chromosome replication positions n (= C / τ ), at least in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium . Extending C by thymine limitation of fast-growing thyA mutants result in continuous increase of M , associated with rising W , up to a limit before branching...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Sandra C Vega, Diana A Martínez, María Del S Chalá, Hernán A Vargas, Jaiver E Rosas
Multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria has become a public health crisis that requires the urgent design of new antibacterial drugs such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Seeking to obtain new, lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-based synthetic peptides as viable early-stage candidates for future development as AMPs against clinically relevant bacteria, we designed, synthesized and screened three new cationic peptides derived from bovine LfcinB. These peptides contain at least one RRWQWR motif and differ by the copy number (monomeric, dimeric or tetrameric) and structure (linear or branched) of this motif...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cássia Oliveira, Lauren Gunderman, Cathryn A Coles, Jason Lochmann, Megan Parks, Ethan Ballard, Galina Glazko, Yasir Rahmatallah, Alan J Tackett, David J Thomas
The microbial diversity within cave ecosystems is largely unknown. Ozark caves maintain a year-round stable temperature (12-14 °C), but most parts of the caves experience complete darkness. The lack of sunlight and geological isolation from surface-energy inputs generate nutrient-poor conditions that may limit species diversity in such environments. Although microorganisms play a crucial role in sustaining life on Earth and impacting human health, little is known about their diversity, ecology, and evolution in community structures...
September 2017: Diversity
Siyue Gao, Brooke Pearson, Lili He
The existence of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water has been a threat to the safety of human well-being. Traditional methods to detect bacteria are standard plate counts or rapid methods such as ELISA and PCR. However, those methods can be time-consuming or require pre-enrichment when detecting low concentrations of bacteria. Filter membrane has been used for bacteria collection and culturing when monitoring environmental water samples. In this study, we applied surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to rapidly screen bacteria cells on a filter membrane based on the unique signal from an indicator molecule, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-mpba), that can specifically bind to the surface of bacteria through diol group in its structure and give off consistent SERS signal...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Yu Xia, Xianghua Wen, Bing Zhang, Yunfeng Yang
Understanding diversity and assembly patterns of microbial communities in activated sludge (AS) is pivotal for addressing fundamental ecological questions and wastewater treatment engineering. Recent applications of molecular methods especially next generation sequencing (NGS) have led to the explosion of information about AS community diversity, including the identification of uncultured taxa, and characterization of low-abundance but environmentally important populations such as antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens...
March 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Mona Jasmine R Ahonen, Dakota J Suchyta, Huanyu Zhu, Mark H Schoenfisch
Low and high molecular weight alginate biopolymers were chemically modified to store and release potentially therapeutic levels of nitric oxide (NO). Carbodiimide chemistry was first used to modify carboxylic acid functional groups with a series of small molecule alkyl amines. The resulting secondary amines were subsequently converted to N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors via reaction with NO gas under basic conditions. NO donor-modified alginates stored between 0.4-0.6 µmol NO•mg-1. In aqueous solution, the NO-release kinetics was diverse (0...
March 19, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Patrick O Asekunowo, Rosenani A Haque, Mohd R Razali, Silas W Avicor, Mustafa F F Wajidi
A series of four benzimidazolium based nitrile-functionalized mononuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene and binuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (Ag(I)-NHC) hexafluorophosphate complexes (5b-8b) were synthesized by reacting the corresponding hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) with Ag2 O in acetonitrile, respectively. These compounds were characterized by1 H NMR,13 C NMR, IR, UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, elemental analyses and molar conductivity. Additionally, 8b was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Kavita Kadian, Sonam Vijay, Yash Gupta, Ritu Rawal, Jagbir Singh, Anup Anvikar, Veena Pande, Arun Sharma
Malaria parasites utilize Methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for synthesis of isoprenoid precursors which are essential for maturation and survival of parasites during erythrocytic and gametocytic stages. The absence of MEP pathway in the human host establishes MEP pathway enzymes as a repertoire of essential drug targets. The fourth enzyme, 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-d-erythritol kinase (IspE) has been proved essential in pathogenic bacteria, however; it has not yet been studied in any Plasmodium species...
March 14, 2018: Parasitology International
Juliana S Novais, Caroline S Moreira, Ana Carolina J A Silva, Raquel S Loureiro, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Vitor F Ferreira, Helena C Castro, David R da Rocha
The aims of this study were the planning, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, searching for potential lead compounds against bacterial biofilm formation. A series of 12 new analogs of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones were synthesized by adding a thiol and different substituents to a ο-quinone methide using microwave irradiation. The compounds were tested against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Cristian Alfredo Segura-Cerda, Michel de Jesús Aceves-Sánchez, Brenda Marquina-Castillo, Dulce Mata-Espinoza, Jorge Barrios-Payán, Perla Jazmín Vega-Domínguez, César Pedroza-Roldán, Jorge Bravo-Madrigal, Alba Adriana Vallejo-Cardona, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez
Pellicles, a type of biofilm, have gathered a renewed interest in the field of tuberculosis as a structure that mimics some characteristics occurring during M. tuberculosis infection, such as antibiotic recalcitrance and chronicity of infection, and as a source of antigens for humoral response in infected guinea pigs. In other bacteria, it has been well documented that the second messenger c-di-GMP modulates the transition from planktonic cells to biofilm formation. In this work, we used the live vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG to determine whether deletion of genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism would affect interaction with macrophages, capacity to induce immune response in a murine cell line and mice, and how the protein profile was modified when grown as surface pellicles...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Mikk Espenberg, Marika Truu, Ülo Mander, Kuno Kasak, Hiie Nõlvak, Teele Ligi, Kristjan Oopkaup, Martin Maddison, Jaak Truu
Tropical peatlands, which play a crucial role in the maintenance of different ecosystem services, are increasingly drained for agriculture, forestry, peat extraction and human settlement purposes. The present study investigated the differences between natural and drained sites of a tropical peatland in the community structure of soil bacteria and archaea and their potential to perform nitrogen transformation processes. The results indicate significant dissimilarities in the structure of soil bacterial and archaeal communities as well as nirK, nirS, nosZ, nifH and archaeal amoA gene-possessing microbial communities...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dong Yan, Tao Zhang, Jing Su, Li-Li Zhao, Hao Wang, Xiao-Mei Fang, Yu-Qin Zhang, Hong-Yu Liu, Li-Yan Yu
The structural variation of the bacterial community associated with particulate matter (PM) was assessed in an urban area of Beijing during haze and non-haze days. Sampling for different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particulate) was conducted using three portable air samplers from September 2014 to February 2015. The airborne bacterial community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq platform with bacteria-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 1,707,072 reads belonging to 6009 operational taxonomic units were observed...
March 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Christian Greunke, Elke Regina Duell, Paul Michael D'Agostino, Anna Glöckle, Katharina Lamm, Tobias Alexander Marius Gulder
Specialized metabolites from bacteria are an important source of inspiration for drug development. The genes required for the biosynthesis of such metabolites in bacteria are usually organized in so-called biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Using modern bioinformatic tools, the wealth of genomic data can be scanned for such BGCs and the expected products can often structurally be predicted in silico. This facilitates the directed discovery of putatively novel bacterial metabolites. However, the production of these molecules often requires genetic manipulation of the BGC for activation or the expression of the pathway in a heterologous host...
March 13, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Mikhail A Moldovan, Svetlana A Petrova, Mikhail S Gelfand
Riboswitches are conserved RNA structures located in non-coding regions of mRNA and able to bind small molecules (e.g. metabolites) changing conformation upon binding. This feature enables them to function as regulators of gene expression. The thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitch is the only type of riboswitches found not only in bacteria, but also in eukaryotes - in plants, green algae, protists, and fungi. Two main mechanisms of fungal TPP riboswitch action, involving alternative splicing, have been established so far...
March 13, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Sai Xu, Wenjing Lu, Farooq Mustafa Muhammad, Yanting Liu, Hanwen Guo, Ruihong Meng, Hongtao Wang
The denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation is an ecologically important process for reducing the potential methane emission into the atmosphere. The responsible bacterium for this process was Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera belonging to the bacterial phylum of NC10. In this study, a new pair of primers targeting all the five groups of NC10 bacteria was designed to amplify NC10 bacteria from different environmental niches. The results showed that the group A was the dominant NC10 phylum bacteria from the sludges and food waste digestate while in paddy soil samples, group A and group B had nearly the same proportion...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Juan Xiong, Meihua Hu, Xiaoping Li, Hongying Li, Xin Li, Xiang Liu, Guozhong Cao, Weishan Li
A porous graphite (PG) is proposed as anode electrocatalyst of microbial fuel cell (MFC), which is synthesized by thermally decomposing ferrous gluconate followed by leaching iron. The physical characterizations from scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicate that the resulting PG is mesopore-rich and exhibits high graphitization with oxygen-containing functional groups...
March 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Mitchell R White, Ruth Kandel, I-Ni Hsieh, Xavier De Luna, Kevan L Hartshorn
Recent studies have shown that the Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein (βA) can inhibit growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses. We reported that the 42 amino acid βA protein inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro and modulates activation of neutrophils and monocytes exposed IAV. We here show that fragments composed of the N and C terminal domain of βA42, including βA22-42 and the 8 amino acid βA35-42, retain viral neutralizing and viral aggregating activity, whereas fragments lacking the C-terminal amino acids 41 and 42 (e...
2018: PloS One
Michelle M Meyer
The rRNA is the largest and most abundant RNA in bacterial and archaeal cells. It is also one of the best-characterized RNAs in terms of its structural motifs and sequence variation. Production of ribosome components including >50 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) consumes significant cellular resources. Thus, RNA cis -regulatory structures that interact with r-proteins to repress further r-protein synthesis play an important role in maintaining appropriate stoichiometry between r-proteins and rRNA. Classically, such mRNA structures were thought to directly mimic the rRNA...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
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