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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331609/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-pathway-enzyme-dtdp-%C3%AE-d-glucose-4-6-dehydratase-rfbb
#1
Trevor Gokey, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
Many bacteria require L-rhamnose as a key cell wall component. This sugar is transferred to the cell wall using an activated donor dTDP-L-rhamnose, which is produced by the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway. We determined the crystal structure of the second enzyme of this pathway dTDP-α-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RfbB) from Bacillus anthracis. Interestingly, RfbB only crystallized in the presence of the third enzyme of the pathway RfbC; however, RfbC was not present in the crystal. Our work represents the first complete structural characterization of the four proteins of this pathway in a single Gram-positive bacterium...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330648/cloning-expression-and-characterization-of-the-esterase-estut1-from-ureibacillus-thermosphaericus-which-belongs-to-a-new-lipase-family-xviii
#2
Yuliya V Samoylova, Ksenia N Sorokina, Margarita V Romanenko, Valentin N Parmon
A new esterase gene from thermophilic bacteria Ureibacillus thermosphaericus was cloned into the pET32b vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Alignment of the estUT1 amino acid sequence revealed the presence of a novel canonical pentapeptide (GVSLG) and 41-47% identity to the closest family of the bacterial lipases XIII. Thus the esterase estUT1 from U. thermosphaericus was assigned as a member of the novel family XVIII. It also showed a strong activity toward short-chain esters (C2-C8), with the highest activity for C2...
January 12, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330591/changes-in-the-lipopolysaccharide-of-proteus-mirabilis-9b-m-o11a-clinical-strain-in-response-to-planktonic-or-biofilm-type-of-growth
#3
Agnieszka Zabłotni, Dominik Matusiak, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Magdalena Moryl, Anna Maciejewska, Anna N Kondakova, Alexander S Shashkov, Czesław Ługowski, Yuriy A Knirel, Antoni Różalski
The impact of planktonic and biofilm lifestyles of the clinical isolate Proteus mirabilis 9B-m on its lipopolysaccharide (O-polysaccharide, core region, and lipid A) was evaluated. Proteus mirabilis bacteria are able to form biofilm and lipopolysaccharide is one of the factors involved in the biofilm formation. Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from planktonic and biofilm cells of the investigated strain and analyzed by SDS-PAGE with silver staining, Western blotting and ELISA, as well as NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques...
January 12, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330190/influence-of-pig-farming-on-the-human-s-nasal-microbiota-the-key-role-of-the-airborne-microbial-communities
#4
Julia G Kraemer, Alban Ramette, Suzanne Aebi, Anne Oppliger, Markus Hilty
It has been hypothesized that the environment can influence the composition of the nasal microbiota. However, the direct influence of pig farming on the anterior and posterior nasal microbiota is unknown. Using a cross-sectional design, pig farms (n=28) were visited in 2014-2015 and nasal swabs from 43 pig farmers and 56 pigs as well as 27 air samples taken in the vicinity of pig enclosure were collected. As controls, nasal swabs from 17 cow farmers and 26 non-animal exposed individuals were also included. Analyses of the microbiota were performed based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and the DADA2 pipeline to define sequence variants (SVs)...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330189/targeted-synthesis-and-characterization-of-a-gene-cluster-encoding-nad-p-h-dependent-3%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-and-12%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-from-eggerthella-cag-298-a-gut-metagenomic-sequence
#5
Sean M Mythen, Saravanan Devendran, Celia Méndez-García, Isaac Cann, Jason M Ridlon
Gut metagenomic sequences provide a rich source of microbial genes, the majority of which are annotated by homology or unknown. Genes and gene pathways that encode enzymes catalyzing biotransformation of host bile acids are important to identify in gut metagenomic sequences due to the importance of bile acids on gut microbiome structure and host physiology. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH) are pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes with stereo-specificity and regio-specificity for bile acid and steroid hydroxyl groups...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330184/microbiomes-in-dishwashers-analysis-of-the-microbial-diversity-and-putative-opportunistic-pathogens-in-dishwasher-biofilm-communities
#6
Prem Krishnan Raghupathi, Jerneja Zupančič, Asker Daniel Brejnrod, Samuel Jacquiod, Kurt Houf, Mette Burmølle, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Søren J Sørensen
Extreme habitats are not only limited to natural environments, but also apply to man-made systems, for instance household appliances such as dishwashers. Limiting factors, such as high temperatures, high and low pH, high NaCl concentrations, presence of detergents and shear force from water during washing cycles define the microbial survival in this extreme system. Fungal and bacterial diversity in biofilms isolated from rubber seals of 24 different household dishwashers were investigated using next generation sequencing...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330179/influence-of-type-i-fimbriae-and-fluid-shear-stress-on-bacterial-behavior-and-multicellular-architecture-of-early-escherichia-coli-biofilms-at-single-cell-resolution
#7
Liyun Wang, Robert Keatch, Qi Zhao, John A Wright, Clare E Bryant, Anna L Redmann, Eugene M Terentjev
Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in food and medical industry can cause severe contamination and infection, yet how biological and physical factors determine cellular architecture of early biofilms and bacterial behavior of the constituent cells remains largely unknown. In this study we examine the specific role of type-I fimbriae in nascent stages of biofilm formation and the response of micro-colonies to environmental flow shear at single-cell resolution. The results show that type-I fimbriae are not required for reversible adhesion from plankton, but critical for irreversible adhesion of Escherichia coli (E...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330023/unraveling-the-differential-structural-stability-and-dynamics-features-of-t7-endolysin-partially-folded-conformations
#8
Meenakshi Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Krishna Mohan Poluri
BACKGROUND: Characterization of partially collapsed protein conformations at atomic level is a daunting task due to their inherent flexibility and conformational heterogeneity. T7 bacteriophage endolysin (T7L) is a single-domain amidase that facilitates the lysis of Gram-negative bacteria. T7L exhibits a pH-dependent structural transition from native state to partially folded (PF) conformation. In the pH range 5-3, T7L PF states display differential ANS binding characteristics. METHODS: CD, fluorescence, NMR spectroscopy and lysis assays were used to investigate the structure-stability- dynamics relationships of T7L PF conformations...
January 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329599/gallbladder-ascariasis-in-kosovo-focus-on-ultrasound-and-conservative-therapy-a-case-series
#9
Vlora Ismaili-Jaha, Halim Toro, Lidvana Spahiu, Mehmedali Azemi, Teuta Hoxha-Kamberi, Muharrem Avdiu, Shqipe Spahiu-Konjusha, Luan Jaha
BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common intestinal infections in developing countries, including Kosovo. In contrast to migration to the bile duct, migration of the worm to the gallbladder, due to the narrow and tortuous nature of the cystic duct, is rare. When it does occur, it incites acalculous cholecystitis. CASE PRESENTATIONS: This case series describes a 16-month-old Albanian girl, a 22-month-old Albanian girl, a 4-year-old Albanian girl, and a 10-year-old Albanian boy...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328957/sphingolipids-in-host-microbial-interactions
#10
REVIEW
Stacey L Heaver, Elizabeth L Johnson, Ruth E Ley
Sphingolipids, a lipid class characterized by a long-chain amino alcohol backbone, serve vital structural and signaling roles in eukaryotes. Though eukaryotes produce sphingolipids, this capacity is phylogenetically highly restricted in Bacteria. Intriguingly, bacterial species commonly associated in high abundance with eukaryotic hosts include sphingolipid producers, such as the Bacteroidetes in the mammalian gut. To date, a role for bacterial sphingolipids in immune system maturation has been described, but their fate and impact in host physiology and metabolism remain to be elucidated...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328653/extending-half-life-of-h-ferritin-nanoparticle-by-fusing-albumin-binding-domain-for-doxorubicin-encapsulation
#11
Chunyue Wang, Chun Zhang, Zenglan Li, Shuang Yin, Qi Wang, Fangxia Guo, Yao Zhang, Rong Yu, Yongdong Liu, Zhiguo Su
Nanoparticles based on the heavy chain of the human ferritin (HFn) are arousing growing interest in the field of drug-delivery due to their exceptional characteristics. However, the unsatisfied plasma half-life of HFn substantially limits its application as a delivery platform for anti-tumor agents. Herein, we fused an albumin binding domain (ABD) variant which basically derives from the streptococcal protein G and possesses a long-acting characteristic in serum albumin to the N-terminus of the HFn for the aim of half-life extension...
January 12, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327963/antemortem-diagnosis-of-coxiellosis-in-a-blue-and-gold-macaw-ara-ararauna
#12
Alison J Flanders, Justin F Rosenberg, Marjorie Bercier, Mary K Leissinger, Laura J Black, Robson F Giglio, Serena L M Craft, Whitney M Zoll, April L Childress, James F X Wellehan
A 15-year-old female blue and gold macaw ( Ara ararauna) was presented for evaluation after being found laterally recumbent, reluctant to move, and lethargic. Results of a complete blood count showed an increased number of immature heterophils with increased cytoplasmic basophilia and degranulation and the presence of a left shift. Radiographs and a computed tomography scan were performed and revealed a markedly enlarged spleen. An ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate of the spleen was submitted for cytologic examination and aerobic bacterial culture...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327941/infection-is-not-required-for-mucoinflammatory-lung-disease-in-cftr-knockout-ferrets
#13
Bradley H Rosen, T Idil Apak Evans, Shashanna R Moll, Jaimie S Gray, Bo Liang, Xingshen Sun, Yulong Zhang, Chandler W Jensen-Cody, Anthony M Swatek, Weihong Zhou, Nan He, Pavana G Rotti, Scott R Tyler, Nicholas W Keiser, Preston J Anderson, Leonard Brooks, Yalan Li, R Marshall Pope, Maheen Rajput, Eric A Hoffman, Kai Wang, J Kirk Harris, Kalpaj R Parekh, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, John F Engelhardt
RATIONALE: Classical interpretation of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease pathogenesis suggests that infection initiates disease progression, leading to an exuberant inflammatory response, excessive mucus, and ultimately bronchiectasis. While symptomatic antibiotic treatment controls lung infections early in disease, life-long bacterial residence typically ensues. Processes that control the establishment of persistent bacteria in the CF lung, and the contribution of non-infectious components to disease pathogenesis, are poorly understood...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327482/streptococcus-oralis-maintains-homeostasis-in-supragingival-biofilms-by-antagonizing-cariogenic-pathogen-streptococcus-mutans
#14
Thomas Thurnheer, Georgios N Belibasakis
Bacteria residing in oral biofilms live in a state of dynamic equilibrium with one another. The intricate synergistic or antagonistic interactions between them are crucial for determining this balance. Using the 6-species Zürich "supragingival" biofilm model, this study aimed to investigate interactions regarding growth and localization of the constituent species. As control, an inoculum containing all six strains was used, whereas in each of the further five inocula one of the bacterial species was absent, and in the last both streptococci were absent...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327480/membrane-active-peptide-pv3-efficiently-eradicates-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-mouse-model-of-burn-infection
#15
Hamed Memariani, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
The aim of this study was to evaluate the topical bactericidal activity of peptide PV3 against a MDR isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a mouse model of burn infection. The structural analysis of PV3 by circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated a low peptide helical content in water, whereas a high helical content was observed in the presence of the more hydrophobic 50% (v/v) trifluoroethanol/water buffer. A confocal microscopy analysis indicated that the main action of PV3 occurred at the membrane of bacteria...
January 12, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327330/microbiome-analysis-and-omics-studies-of-microbial-denitrification-processes-in-wastewater-treatment-recent-advances
#16
REVIEW
Lili Miao, Zhipei Liu
Nitrogen pollution is an increasingly severe worldwide problem because of drainage of nitrogen-containing wastewater and intensive application of nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Denitrification, a key process in nitrogen cycles, is commonly employed for nitrogen removal in engineered wastewater treatment systems. Biological denitrification is performed by denitrifying microbes (bacteria) that use nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. Better understanding the functions of diverse microbial populations in denitrification-based wastewater treatment systems, and the interactions of these populations with operating environments, is essential for improving both treatment performance and system stability...
January 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327235/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-phage-hyperparasite-of-candidatus-xenohaliotis-californiensis-rickettsiales-a-pathogen-of-haliotis-spp-gasteropoda
#17
Roberto Flores, Jorge Cáceres-Martínez, Miguel Ángel Del Río-Portilla, Alexei F Licea-Navarro, Ricardo Gonzales-Sánchez, Abraham Guerrero
Bacteriophages are recognized as major mortality agents of microbes, among them intracellular marine rickettsiales-like bacteria. Recently, a phage hyperparasite of Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) has been described. This bacterium is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS) which is a chronic and potentially lethal disease of abalone species from California, USA and the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. This hyperparasite which infects CXc could be used as a biocontrol agent for WS...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327006/spectrochemical-analyses-of-growth-phase-related-bacterial-responses-to-low-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-tetracycline-and-nanoparticulate-silver
#18
Naifu Jin, Kirk T Semple, Longfei Jiang, Chunling Luo, Dayi Zhang, Francis L Martin
Exposure to environmental insults generally occurs at low levels, making it challenging to measure bacterial responses to such interactions. Additionally, microbial behaviour and phenotype varies in differing bacterial types or growth phases, likely giving rise to growth- or species-specific responses to environmental stimuli. The present study applied a spectrochemical tool, infrared (IR) spectral interrogation coupled with multivariate analysis, to investigate the growth- and species-specific responses of two bacterial strains, Gram-negative Pseudomonas fluorescens and Gram-positive Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, to low concentrations of tetracycline, nanoparticulate silver (AgNP) or mixtures thereof...
January 12, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326162/structural-basis-for-p-ppgpp-synthesis-by-the-staphylococcus-aureus-small-alarmone-synthetase-relp
#19
Melek Cemre Manav, Jelena Beljantseva, Martin Saxtorph Bojer, Tanel Tenson, Hanne Ingmer, Vasili Hauryliuk, Ditlev Egeskov Brodersen
The stringent response is a global reprogramming of bacterial physiology that renders cells more tolerant to antibiotics and induces virulence gene expression in pathogens in response to stress. This process is driven by accumulation of the intracellular alarmone guanosine-5'-di(tri)phosphate-3'-diphosphate ([p]ppGpp), which is produced by enzymes of the RelA SpoT homologue (RSH) family. The Gram-positive Firmicute pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, encodes three RSH enzymes: a multi-domain RSH (Rel) that senses amino acid starvation on the ribosome and two small alarmone synthetase (SAS) enzymes, RelQ (SAS1) and RelP (SAS2)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325872/structure-and-function-of-a-highly-active-bile-salt-hydrolase-bsh-from-enterococcus-faecalis-and-post-translational-processing-of-bsh-enzymes
#20
Deepak Chand, Priyabrata Panigrahi, Nishant Kumar Varshney, Sureshkumar Ramasamy, C G Suresh
Bile Salt Hydrolase (BSH), a member of Cholylglycine hydrolase family, catalyses the de-conjugation of bile acids and is evolutionarily related to penicillin V acylase (PVA) that hydrolyses a different substrate such as penicillin V. We report the three-dimensional structure of a BSH enzyme from the Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (EfBSH) which has manifold higher hydrolase activity compared to other known BSHs and displays unique allosteric catalytic property. The structural analysis revealed reduced secondary structure content compared to other known BSH structures, particularly devoid of an anti-parallel β-sheet in the assembly loop and part of a β-strand is converted to increase the length of a substrate binding loop 2...
January 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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