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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921010/structural-insights-into-substrate-recognition-by-clostridium-difficile-sortase
#1
Jui-Chieh Yin, Chun-Hsien Fei, Yen-Chen Lo, Yu-Yuan Hsiao, Jyun-Cyuan Chang, Jay C Nix, Yuan-Yu Chang, Lee-Wei Yang, I-Hsiu Huang, Shuying Wang
Sortases function as cysteine transpeptidases that catalyze the covalent attachment of virulence-associated surface proteins into the cell wall peptidoglycan in Gram-positive bacteria. The substrate proteins targeted by sortase enzymes have a cell wall sorting signal (CWSS) located at the C-terminus. Up to date, it is still not well understood how sortases with structural resemblance among different classes and diverse species of bacteria achieve substrate specificity. In this study, we focus on elucidating the molecular basis for specific recognition of peptide substrate PPKTG by Clostridium difficile sortase B (Cd-SrtB)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920543/intestinal-permeability-in-a-patient-with-liver-cirrhosis
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan Manuel Aguirre Valadez, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Osvely Méndez-Guerrero, Juan Luis Chávez-Pacheco, Ignacio García Juárez, Aldo Torre
Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide public health problem, and patients with this disease are at high risk of developing complications, bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric nodes, and systemic circulation, resulting in the development of severe complications related to high mortality rate. The intestinal barrier is a structure with a physical and biochemical activity to maintain balance between the external environment, including bacteria and their products, and the internal environment...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920201/the-streptococcus-gordonii-adhesin-csha-binds-host-fibronectin-via-a-catch-clamp-mechanism
#3
Catherine R Back, Maryta N Sztukowska, Marisa Till, Richard J Lamont, Howard F Jenkinson, Angela H Nobbs, Paul R Race
Adherence of bacteria to biotic or abiotic surfaces is a prerequisite for host colonization and represents an important step in microbial pathogenicity. This attachment is facilitated by bacterial adhesins at the cell surface. Due to their size and often elaborate multi-domain architectures, these polypeptides represent challenging targets for detailed structural and functional characterization. The multifunctional fibrillar adhesin CshA, which mediates binding to both host molecules and other microorganisms, is an important determinant of colonisation by Streptococcus gordonii, an oral commensal and opportunistic pathogen of animals and humans...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919648/antiviral-action-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-alfpm3-from-penaeus-monodon-against-white-spot-syndrome-virus
#4
Thanachai Methatham, Pakpoom Boonchuen, Phattarunda Jaree, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Kunlaya Somboonwiwat
The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALFPm3), the antimicrobial peptide from Penaeus monodon, possesses antibacterial and antiviral activities. Although the mechanism of action of ALFPm3 against bacteria has been revealed but its antiviral mechanism is still unclear. To further study how the ALFPm3 exhibits antiviral activity against the enveloped virus, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the ALFPm3-interacting proteins from WSSV were sought and identified five ALFPm3-interacting proteins, WSSV186, WSSV189, WSSV395, WSSV458, and WSSV471...
December 2, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917837/purification-crystallization-and-characterization-of-the-pseudomonas-outer-membrane-protein-fapf-a-functional-amyloid-transporter
#5
Sarah L Rouse, Wlliam J Hawthorne, Sebastian Lambert, Marc L Morgan, Stephen A Hare, Stephen Matthews
Bacteria often produce extracellular amyloid fibres via a multi-component secretion system. Aggregation-prone, unstructured subunits cross the periplasm and are secreted through the outer membrane, after which they self-assemble. Here, significant progress is presented towards solving the high-resolution crystal structure of the novel amyloid transporter FapF from Pseudomonas, which facilitates the secretion of the amyloid-forming polypeptide FapC across the bacterial outer membrane. This represents the first step towards obtaining structural insight into the products of the Pseudomonas fap operon...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917836/the-crystal-structure-of-dihydrodipicolinate-reductase-from-the-human-pathogenic-bacterium-bartonella-henselae-strain-houston-1-at-2-3%C3%A2-%C3%A3-resolution
#6
Ali R Cala, Maria T Nadeau, Jan Abendroth, Bart L Staker, Alexandra R Reers, Anthony W Weatherhead, Renwick C J Dobson, Peter J Myler, André O Hudson
In bacteria, the second committed step in the diaminopimelate/lysine anabolic pathways is catalyzed by the enzyme dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DapB). DapB catalyzes the reduction of dihydrodipicolinate to yield tetrahydrodipicolinate. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of DapB from the human-pathogenic bacterium Bartonella henselae, the causative bacterium of cat-scratch disease, are reported. Protein crystals were grown in conditions consisting of 5%(w/v) PEG 4000, 200 mM sodium acetate, 100 mM sodium citrate tribasic pH 5...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917781/visualizing-a-natural-antibiotic-nanofactory
#7
T Martin Schmeing
Environmental samples are excellent sources of natural products that possess numerous kinds of therapeutic activities. One important family of natural products is the nonribosomal peptides, which includes penicillin, cyclosporin, viomycin and daptomycin (Cubicin). These peptides are made in bacteria or fungi by large enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). NRPSs are true macromolecular machines or nanofactories, with modular assembly-line logic, a complex catalytic cycle, moving parts and many active sites...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917584/primary-productivity-of-snow-algae-communities-on-stratovolcanoes-of-the-pacific-northwest
#8
T L Hamilton, J Havig
The majority of geomicrobiological research conducted on glacial systems to date has focused on glaciers that override primarily carbonate or granitic bedrock types, with little known of the processes that support microbial life in glacial systems overriding volcanic terrains (e.g., basalt or andesite). To better constrain the role of the supraglacial ecosystems in the carbon and nitrogen cycles, to gain insight into microbiome composition and function in alpine glacial systems overriding volcanic terrains, and to constrain potential elemental sequestration or release through weathering processes associated with snow algae communities, we examined the microbial community structure and primary productivity of snow algae communities on stratovolcanoes in the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest...
December 5, 2016: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917172/immunization-strategies-against-piscirickettsia-salmonis-infections-review-of-vaccination-approaches-and-modalities-and-their-associated-immune-response-profiles
#9
REVIEW
Øystein Evensen
Salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS) is a serious, infectious disease in Chilean salmon farming caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis, causing heavy losses to the salmonid industry. P. salmonis belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria, order Thiotrichales. SRS was first described in Chile in 1989, and infection with P. salmonis has since been described from a high number of fish species and in several geographic regions globally. P. salmonis infection of salmonids causes multifocal, necrotic areas of internal organs such as liver, kidney, and spleen...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916692/the-effects-of-bacteria-nanoparticles-interface-on-the-antibacterial-activity-of-green-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles
#10
Aftab Ahmad, Yun Wei, Fatima Syed, Kamran Tahir, Aziz Ur Rehman, Arifullah Khan, Sadeeq Ullah, Qipeng Yuan
Neutralization of bacterial cell surface potential using nanoscale materials is an effective strategy to alter membrane permeability, cytoplasmic leakage, and ultimate cell death. In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare biogenic silver nanoparticles using biomolecules from the aqueous rhizome extract of Coptis Chinensis. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were surface modified with chitosan biopolymer. The prepared silver nanoparticles and chitosan modified silver nanoparticles were cubic crystalline structures (XRD) with an average particle size of 15 and 20 nm respectively (TEM, DLS)...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916300/seasonal-induced-changes-in-spinach-rhizosphere-microbial-community-structure-with-varying-salinity-and-drought
#11
A Mark Ibekwe, Selda Ors, Jorge F S Ferreira, Xuan Liu, Donald L Suarez
Salinity is a common problem under irrigated agriculture, especially in low rainfall and high evaporative demand areas of southwestern United States and other semi-arid regions around the world. However, studies on salinity effects on soil microbial communities are relatively few while the effects of irrigation-induced salinity on soil chemical and physical properties and plant growth are well documented. In this study, we examined the effects of salinity, temperature, and temporal variability on soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in sand tanks irrigated with prepared solutions designed to simulate saline wastewater...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915028/catalytic-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-amino-chromone-phosphonates-and-their-antimicrobial-toxicity-and-potential-hiv-1-rt-inhibitors-based-on-silico-screening
#12
Abosede Oluwabukola Jaiyeola, K Anand, K Kasumbwe, M Ramesh, R M Gengan
The α-amino phosphonates exhibit a wide range of biological properties which create demand for simple and efficient synthetic routes of new molecules. In this study synthesis of a new series of derivatives of α-amino chromone phosphonates (ACPs) was reported using RhBT catalyst. The RhBT was first prepared by simply mixing boron nitride in a solution of rhodium acetate, under inert atmosphere for a week followed by filtration (yield: 92%). The catalyst can be re-used for up to four times and showed minimal loss of activity...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914325/fabrication-of-metronidazole-loaded-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-zein-core-shell-nanofiber-membranes-via-coaxial-electrospinning-for-guided-tissue-regeneration
#13
Min He, Huiyi Jiang, Rui Wang, Yi Xie, Changsheng Zhao
To develop a biologically mimetic guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane with localized sustained drug release function to prevent infection, coaxial electrospinning technique was conducted to fabricate metronidazole (MNA)-loaded poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/zein core/shell nanofibers. The nanofibers displayed a uniform bead-free round morphology as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a core/shell structure as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) characterizations demonstrated that the MNA was well dispersed in the nanofibers matrix...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914081/negative-staining-and-transmission-electron-microscopy-of-bacterial-surface-structures
#14
Matthias Mörgelin
Negative staining is an essential and versatile staining technique in transmission electron microscopy that can be employed for visualizing bacterial cell morphology, size, and surface architecture at high resolution. Bacteria are usually transferred by passive electrostatic adsorption from suspensions in physiological saline onto suitable hydrophilic support films on electron microscopic grids. There they are contrasted, or "stained," by heavy metal ions in solution such as tungsten, uranyl, molybdate, or vanadate compounds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914080/immobilization-techniques-of-bacteria-for-live-super-resolution-imaging-using-structured-illumination-microscopy
#15
Amy L Bottomley, Lynne Turnbull, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Elizabeth J Harry
Advancements in optical microscopy technology have allowed huge progression in the ability to understand protein structure and dynamics in live bacterial cells using fluorescence microscopy. Paramount to high-quality microscopy is good sample preparation to avoid bacterial cell movement that can result in motion blur during image acquisition. Here, we describe two techniques of sample preparation that reduce unwanted cell movement and are suitable for application to a number of bacterial species and imaging methods...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913884/plasmid-pvax1-nh36-purification-by-membrane-and-bead-perfusion-chromatography
#16
Diana Ivonne Franco-Medrano, Patricia Guerrero-Germán, Rosa María Montesinos-Cisneros, Jaime Ortega-López, Armando Tejeda-Mansir
The demand for plasmid DNA (pDNA) has increased in response to the rapid advances in vaccines applications to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by virus, bacteria or parasites, such as Leishmania species. The immunization protocols require large amounts of supercoiled plasmid DNA (sc-pDNA) challenging the development of efficient and profitable processes for capturing and purified pDNA molecules from large volumes of lysates. A typical bioprocess involves four steps: fermentation, primary recovery, intermediate recovery and final purification...
December 2, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913732/a-hydantoin-isoform-of-cyclic-n6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine-ct6a-is-present-in-trnas
#17
Michal Matuszewski, Jakub Wojciechowski, Kenjyo Miyauchi, Zofia Gdaniec, Wojciech M Wolf, Tsutomu Suzuki, Elzbieta Sochacka
N(6)-Threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) and its derivatives are universally conserved modified nucleosides found at position 37, 3' adjacent to the anticodon in tRNAs responsible for ANN codons. These modifications have pleiotropic functions of tRNAs in decoding and protein synthesis. In certain species of bacteria, fungi, plants and protists, t(6)A is further modified to the cyclic t(6)A (ct(6)A) via dehydration catalyzed by TcdA. This additional modification is involved in efficient decoding of tRNA(Lys) Previous work indicated that the chemical structure of ct(6)A is a cyclic active ester with an oxazolone ring...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913674/immunoglobulins-and-their-receptors-and-subversion-of-their-protective-roles-by-bacterial-pathogens
#18
REVIEW
Jenny M Woof
Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in immune defence against infectious disease. They elicit potent elimination processes such as triggering complement activation and engaging specific Fc receptors present on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis and other killing mechanisms. Many important pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert or evade Ig-mediated defence. One such mechanism used by several pathogenic bacteria features proteins that bind the Ig Fc region and compromise engagement of host effector molecules...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913673/structural-insights-into-functional-amyloid-inhibition-in-gram-ve-bacteria
#19
REVIEW
William Hawthorne, Sarah Rouse, Lee Sewell, Stephen J Matthews
Amyloids are proteinaceous aggregates known for their role in debilitating degenerative diseases involving protein dysfunction. Many forms of functional amyloid are also produced in nature and often these systems require careful control of their assembly to avoid the potentially toxic effects. The best-characterised functional amyloid system is the bacterial curli system. Three natural inhibitors of bacterial curli amyloid have been identified and recently characterised structurally. Here, we compare common structural features of CsgC, CsgE and CsgH and discuss the potential implications for general inhibition of amyloid...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913665/structure-and-function-of-bacterial-h-ns-protein
#20
REVIEW
David C Grainger
The histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein is a major component of the folded chromosome in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. Functions attributed to H-NS include management of genome evolution, DNA condensation, and transcription. The wide-ranging influence of H-NS is remarkable given the simplicity of the protein, a small peptide, possessing rudimentary determinants for self-association, hetero-oligomerisation and DNA binding. In this review, I will discuss our understanding of H-NS with a focus on these structural elements...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
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