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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778048/pathogens-constancy-harbinger-of-nosocomial-infection-cum-identification-of-resistant-genes-and-drug-designing
#1
Sana Farooq Ahmad, Ibrar Khan, Abdul Wadood, Sadiq Azam, Noor Rehman, Muhammad Waqas, Kashif Bashir, Asaf Ali Khan
Hospitals are the most prominent places for the growth and spread of bacteria which are resistant to the available antibiotics. This antibiotic resistance is due to the over and misuse of antibiotic dosages of a high-density of patient population which are in frequent interaction with inanimate items of the hospitals and the consequent risk of cross infection. Out of 1010 samples of the current study, 510 (50.49%) were culture positive of which 329 (64.5%) were Gram-positive while 181 (35.49%) Gram negative...
April 22, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777686/molecular-interactions-between-geobacter-sulfurreducens-triheme-cytochromes-and-the-redox-active-analogue-for-humic-substances
#2
Joana M Dantas, Marisa R Ferreira, Teresa Catarino, Oleksandr Kokhan, P Raj Pokkuluri, Carlos A Salgueiro
The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens can transfer electrons to the quinone moieties of humic substances or to anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), a model for the humic acids. The reduced form of AQDS (AH2 QDS) can also be used as energy source G. sulfurreducens. Such bi-directional utilization of humic substances confers competitive advantages to these bacteria in Fe(III) enriched environments. Previous studies have shown that the triheme cytochrome PpcA from G. sulfurreducens has a bi-functional behavior toward the humic substance analogue...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777596/morphological-analysis-of-pore-size-and-connectivity-in-a-thick-mixed-culture-biofilm
#3
Alex F Rosenthal, James S Griffin, Michael Wagner, Aaron I Packman, Oluwaseyi Balogun, George F Wells
Morphological parameters are commonly used to predict transport and metabolic kinetics in biofilms. Yet, quantification of biofilm morphology remains challenging due to imaging technology limitations and lack of robust analytical approaches. We present a novel set of imaging and image analysis techniques to estimate internal porosity, pore size distributions, and pore network connectivity to a depth of 1 mm at a resolution of 10 µm in a biofilm exhibiting both heterotrophic and nitrifying activity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans revealed an extensive pore network with diameters as large as 110 µm directly connected to the biofilm surface and surrounding fluid...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777363/high-level-production-of-single-chain-monellin-mutants-with-enhanced-sweetness-and-stability-in-tobacco-chloroplasts
#4
Daniela Castiglia, Serena Leone, Rachele Tamburino, Lorenza Sannino, Jole Fonderico, Chiara Melchiorre, Andrea Carpentieri, Stefania Grillo, Delia Picone, Nunzia Scotti
Plastid-based MNEI protein mutants retain the structure, stability and sweetness of their bacterial counterparts, confirming the attractiveness of the plastid transformation technology for high-yield production of recombinant proteins. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes has dramatically increased the industrial demand for the development and use of alternatives to sugar and traditional sweeteners. Sweet proteins, such as MNEI, a single chain derivative of monellin, are the most promising candidates for industrial applications...
May 18, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777359/regulatory-mechanisms-of-thiol-based-redox-sensors-lessons-learned-from-structural-studies-on-prokaryotic-redox-sensors
#5
REVIEW
Sang Jae Lee, Dong-Gyun Kim, Kyu-Yeon Lee, Ji Sung Koo, Bong-Jin Lee
Oxidative stresses, such as reactive oxygen species, reactive electrophilic species, reactive nitrogen species, and reactive chlorine species, can damage cellular components, leading to cellular malfunction and death. In response to oxidative stress, bacteria have evolved redox-responsive sensors that enable them to simultaneously monitor and eradicate potential oxidative stress. Specifically, redox-sensing transcription regulators react to oxidative stress by means of modifying the thiol groups of cysteine residues, functioning as part of an efficient survival mechanism for many bacteria...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777131/activity-of-acetyltransferase-toxins-involved-in-salmonella-persister-formation-during-macrophage-infection
#6
Julian A Rycroft, Bridget Gollan, Grzegorz J Grabe, Alexander Hall, Angela M Cheverton, Gerald Larrouy-Maumus, Stephen A Hare, Sophie Helaine
Non-typhoidal Salmonella strains are responsible for invasive infections associated with high mortality and recurrence in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is strong evidence for clonal relapse following antibiotic treatment. Persisters are non-growing bacteria that are thought to be responsible for the recalcitrance of many infections to antibiotics. Toxin-antitoxin systems are stress-responsive elements that are important for Salmonella persister formation, specifically during infection. Here, we report the analysis of persister formation of clinical invasive strains of Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis in human primary macrophages...
May 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776922/core-vs-diet-associated-and-postprandial-bacterial-communities-of-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-midgut-and-feaces
#7
Eleni Mente, Eleni Nikouli, Efthimia Antonopoulou, Samuel A M Martin, Konstantinos Ar Kormas
This study investigated the impact of different dietary ingredients with different protein/lipid sources on the midgut and feaces bacteria communities structure just before feeding and 3h after feeding a single meal on rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) individuals. Fish were kept in experimental rearing facilities and fed ad libitum two times daily for five weeks. Fish were fed three different commercial diets containing a higher marine fishmeal/fish oil and a lower marine fishmeal/fish oil content. DNA was extracted from midgut and faeces samples for the analysis of their bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity by targeting the V3-V4 region with 454 pyrosequencing...
May 18, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775727/isolation-structure-elucidation-and-antibacterial-activity-of-methyl-4-8-dimethylundecanate-from-the-marine-actinobacterium-streptomyces-albogriseolus-ecr64
#8
Durairaj Thirumurugan, Ramasamy Vijayakumar, Chithravel Vadivalagan, Pushparaj Karthika, Md Khurshid Alam Khan
Around 120 actinobacterial colonies were isolated from various regions of marine East coast region of Tamil Nadu, India. Among them, 33 were morphologically distinct and they were preliminarily screened for their antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and Aeromonas hydrophila by cross-streak plate technique. Among the isolated, the isolate ECR64 exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against fish pathogenic bacteria. The crude bioactive compounds were extracted from the isolate ECR64 using different organic solvents which exhibited maximum antibacterial activity...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774508/the-bacterial-and-archaeal-community-structures-and-methanogenic-potential-of-the-cecal-microbiota-of-goats-fed-with-hay-and-high-grain-diets
#9
Wei Jin, Yin Li, Yanfen Cheng, Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu
The cecum plays an important role in the feed fermentation of ruminants. However, information is very limited regarding the cecal microbiota and their methane production. In the present study, the cecal content from twelve local Chinese goats, fed with either a hay diet (0% grain) or a high-grain diet (71.5% grain), were used to investigate the bacterial and archaeal community and their methanogenic potential. Microbial community analysis was determined using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and real-time PCR, and the methanogenesis potential was assessed by in vitro fermentation with ground corn or hay as substrates...
May 17, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774203/small-rho-gtpases-and-the-effector-vipa-mediate-the-invasion-of-epithelial-cells-by-filamentous-legionella-pneumophila
#10
Akriti Prashar, María Eugenia Ortiz, Stefanie Lucarelli, Elizabeth Barker, Zohreh Tabatabeiyazdi, Feras Shamoun, Deepa Raju, Costin Antonescu, Cyril Guyard, Mauricio R Terebiznik
Legionella pneumophila (Lp) exhibits different morphologies with varying degrees of virulence. Despite their detection in environmental sources of outbreaks and in respiratory tract secretions and lung autopsies from patients, the filamentous morphotype of Lp remains poorly studied. We previously demonstrated that filamentous Lp invades lung epithelial cells (LECs) and replicates intracellularly in a Legionella containing vacuole. Filamentous Lp activates β1integrin and E-cadherin receptors at the surface of LECs leading to the formation of actin-rich cell membrane structures we termed hooks and membrane wraps...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774018/the-invasive-brazilian-pepper-tree-schinus-terebinthifolius-is-colonized-by-a-root-microbiome-enriched-with-alphaproteobacteria-and-unclassified-spartobacteria
#11
Karim Dawkins, Nwadiuto Esiobu
Little is known about the rhizosphere microbiome of the Brazilian pepper tree (BP) - a noxious category 1 invasive plant inducing an enormous economic and ecological toll in Florida. Some invasive plants have been shown to drastically change the soil microbiome compared to other native plants. The rhizobacteria community structure of BP, two Florida native plants ( Hamelia patens and Bidens alba ) and bulk soils were characterized across six geographical sites. Although all 19 well-known and 10 poorly described phyla were observed in all plant rhizospheres, BP contained the least total bacterial abundance (OTUs) with a distinct bacteria community structure and clustering patterns differing significantly (pCOA and PERMANOVA) from the natives and bulk soil...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774013/dynamics-of-aspen-roots-colonization-by-pseudomonads-reveals-strain-specific-and-mycorrhizal-specific-patterns-of-biofilm-formation
#12
Marie-Francoise Noirot-Gros, Shalaka Shinde, Peter E Larsen, Sarah Zerbs, Peter J Korajczyk, Kenneth M Kemner, Philippe H Noirot
Rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens are known plant growth promoting (PGP) and mycorrhizal helper bacteria (MHB) of many plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of colonization of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Aspen seedlings roots by the P. fluorescens strains SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1, and the P. protegens strain Pf-5. Seedlings were grown in laboratory vertical plates systems, inoculated with a fluorescently labeled Pseudomonas strain, and root colonization was monitored over a period of 5 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773371/modification-of-native-fucoidan-from-fucus-evanescens-by-recombinant-fucoidanase-from-marine-bacteria-formosa-algae
#13
Artem S Silchenko, Anton B Rasin, Mikhail I Kusaykin, Olesya S Malyarenko, Natalie M Shevchenko, Anastasya O Zueva, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Tatyana N Zvyagintseva, Svetlana P Ermakova
Enzymatic depolymerization of fucoidans attracts many researchers due to the opportunity of obtaining standardized fucoidan fragments. Fucoidanase catalyzes the cleavage of fucoidan from Fucus evanescens (FeF) to form low molecular weight products (LMP) and a polymeric fraction (HMP) with 50.8 kDa molecular weight and more than 50% yield. NMR spectroscopy shows that the HMP fraction has regular structure and consists of a repeating fragment [→3)-α-l-Fucp2,4OSO3 - -(1 → 4)-α-l-Fucp2,4OSO3 - -(1 → 4)-α-l-Fucp2OSO3 - -(1→]n ...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773172/seleno-l-methionine-and-l-ascorbic-acid-differentiate-the-biological-activity-of-doxorubicin-and-its-metal-complexes-as-a-new-anticancer-drugs-candidate
#14
Marzena Matejczyk, Grzegorz Świderski, Renata Świsłocka, Stanisław Józef Rosochacki, Włodzimierz Lewandowski
The most important problems of anti-cancer therapy include the toxicity of the drugs applied to healthy cells and the multi-drug cells resistance to chemotherapeutics. One of the most commonly used anticancer drugs is doxorubicin (DOX) used to treat certain leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, as well as bladder, breast, stomach, lung, ovarian, thyroid, multiple myeloma and other cancers. Preliminary studies showed that metal complex with DOX improve its cytostatic activity with changes in their molecular structure and distribution of electrons, resulting in a substantial change of its biological activity (including antitumor activity)...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772753/dietary-polysaccharide-from-enteromorpha-clathrata-modulates-gut-microbiota-and-promotes-the-growth-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-bifidobacterium-spp-and-lactobacillus-spp
#15
Qingsen Shang, Ya Wang, Lin Pan, Qingfeng Niu, Chao Li, Hao Jiang, Chao Cai, Jiejie Hao, Guoyun Li, Guangli Yu
Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that Enteromorpha clathrata polysaccharide (ECP) could contribute to the treatment of diseases. However, as a promising candidate for marine drug development, although ECP has been extensively studied, less consideration has been given to exploring its effect on gut microbiota. In this light, given the critical role of gut microbiota in health and disease, we investigated here the effect of ECP on gut microbiota using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. As revealed by bioinformatic analyses, ECP considerably changed the structure of the gut microbiota and significantly promoted the growth of probiotic bacteria in C57BL/6J mice...
May 17, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772647/the-antimicrobial-activity-of-annona-emarginata-schltdl-h-rainer-and-most-active-isolated-compounds-against-clinically-important-bacteria
#16
Juan G Dolab, Beatriz Lima, Ewelina Spaczynska, Jiri Kos, Natividad H Cano, Gabriela Feresin, Alejandro Tapia, Francisco Garibotto, Elisa Petenatti, Monica Olivella, Robert Musiol, Josef Jampilek, Ricardo D Enriz
Annona emarginata (Schltdl.) H. Rainer, commonly known as "arachichú", "araticú", "aratigú", and "yerba mora", is a plant that grows in Argentina. Infusions and decoctions are used in folk medicine as a gargle against throat pain and for calming toothache; another way to use the plant for these purposes is chewing its leaves. Extracts from bark, flowers, leaves, and fruits from A. emarginata were subjected to antibacterial assays against a panel of Gram (+) and Gram (-) pathogenic bacteria according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols...
May 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772211/synthesis-folding-structure-and-activity-of-a-predicted-peptide-from-the-sea-anemone-oulactis-sp-with-an-shkt-fold
#17
Bankala Krishnarjuna, Jessica Villegas-Moreno, Michela L Mitchell, Agota Csoti, Steve Peigneur, Carlos Amero, Michael W Pennington, Jan Tytgat, Gyorgy Panyi, Raymond S Norton
Sea anemone venom is rich in bioactive compounds, including peptides containing multiple disulfide bridges. In a transcriptomic study on Oulactis sp., we identified the putative 36-residue peptide, OspTx2b, which is an isoform of the KV channel blocker OspTx2a (Sunanda P et al. (2018) Identification, chemical synthesis, structure and function of a new KV 1 channel blocking peptide from Oulactis sp. Peptide Science, in press). As OspTx2b contains a ShK/BgK-like cysteine framework, with high amino acid sequence similarity to BgK, we were interested to investigate its structure and function...
May 14, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772087/environmental-change-and-predator-diversity-drive-alpha-and-beta-diversity-in-freshwater-macro-and-microorganisms
#18
Pablo Augusto P Antiqueira, Owen L Petchey, Viviane Piccin Dos Santos, Valéria Maia de Oliveira, Gustavo Quevedo Romero
Global biodiversity is eroding due to anthropogenic causes such as climate change, habitat loss, and trophic simplification of biological communities. Most studies address only isolated causes within a single group of organisms; however, biological groups of different trophic levels may respond in particular ways to different environmental impacts. Our study used natural microcosms to investigate the predicted individual and interactive effects of warming, changes in top predator diversity, and habitat size on the alpha and beta diversity of macrofauna, microfauna and bacteria...
May 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771957/salt-mine-microorganisms-used-for-the-biotransformation-of-chlorolactones
#19
Wanda Mączka, Małgorzata Grabarczyk, Katarzyna Wińska, Elżbieta Gębarowska, Tomasz Strzała, Marek Durajczyk
The aim of the project was to find new catalysts capable of chlorolactone biotransformation. Three bicyclic chlorolactones with structures possessing one or two methyl groups in their cyclohexane ring were subjected to screening biotransformation using seven bacterial strains and one fungal strain from a salt mine. Three strains of bacteria (Micrococcus luteus Pb10, Micrococcus luteus WSP45, Gordonia alkanivorans Pd25) and one fungal strain (Aspergillus sydowii KGJ10) were able to catalyse hydrolytic dehalogenation of one substrate...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771536/selective-removal-of-b800-bacteriochlorophyll-a-from-light-harvesting-complex-2-of-the-purple-photosynthetic-bacterium-phaeospirillum-molischianum
#20
Yoshitaka Saga, Keiya Hirota, Sayaka Matsui, Hitoshi Asakawa, Hiroshi Ishikita, Keisuke Saito
The selective removal of B800 bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a from light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) in purple photosynthetic bacteria is a clue about elucidation of the mechanism for the transfer of energy from these pigments to B850 BChl a and their roles in the LH2 protein structure. We demonstrated that the kinetics of the removal of B800 BChl a from two representative LH2 proteins derived from Phaeospirillum molischianum and Rhodoblastus acidophilus differed significantly, in contrast to the calculated binding enthalpy...
May 17, 2018: Biochemistry
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