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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911388/high-throughput-real-time-dual-readout-testing-of-intracellular-antimicrobial-activity-and-eukaryotic-cell-cytotoxicity
#1
Lucius Chiaraviglio, Yoon-Suk Kang, James E Kirby
Traditional measures of intracellular antimicrobial activity and eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity rely on endpoint assays. Such endpoint assays require several additional experimental steps prior to readout, such as cell lysis, colony forming unit determination, or reagent addition. When performing thousands of assays, for example, during high-throughput screening, the downstream effort required for these types of assays is considerable. Therefore, to facilitate high-throughput antimicrobial discovery, we developed a real-time assay to simultaneously identify inhibitors of intracellular bacterial growth and assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911359/directed-protein-packaging-within-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-escherichia-coli-design-production-and-purification
#2
Nathan J Alves, Kendrick B Turner, Scott A Walper
An increasing interest in applying synthetic biology techniques to program outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are leading to some very interesting and unique applications for OMV where traditional nanoparticles are proving too difficult to synthesize. To date, all Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to produce OMV demonstrating packaging of a variety of cargo that includes small molecules, peptides, proteins and genetic material. Based on their diverse cargo, OMV are implicated in many biological processes ranging from cell-cell communication to gene transfer and delivery of virulence factors depending upon which bacteria are producing the OMV...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911010/screening-of-mercury-resistant-and-indole-3-acetic-acid-producing-bacterial-consortium-for-growth-promotion-of-cicer-arietinum-l
#3
Aatif Amin, Zakia Latif
Mercury resistant (Hg(R) ) bacteria were screened from industrial effluents and effluents-polluted rhizosphere soils near to districts Kasur and Sheikhupura, Pakistan. Out of 60 isolates, three bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. AZ-1, Bacillus cereus AZ-2, and Enterobacter cloacae AZ-3 showed Hg-resistance as 20 μg ml(-1) of HgCl2 and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production as 8-38 μg ml(-1) . Biochemical and molecular characterization of selected bacteria was confirmed by 16S ribotyping. Mercury resistant genes merA, merB, and merE of mer operon in Bacillus spp...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907104/a-new-member-of-the-growing-family-of-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-systems-in-xenorhabdus-doucetiae
#4
Jean-Claude Ogier, Bernard Duvic, Anne Lanois, Alain Givaudan, Sophie Gaudriault
Xenorhabdus is a bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes and is pathogenic for insects. Its life cycle involves a stage inside the insect cadaver, in which it competes for environmental resources with microorganisms from soil and the insect gut. Xenorhabdus is, thus, a useful model for identifying new interbacterial competition systems. For the first time, in an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus doucetiae strain FRM16, we identified a cdi-like locus. The cdi loci encode contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) systems composed of proteins from the two-partner secretion (TPS) family...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906142/electrospun-cellulose-acetate-membrane-for-size-separating-and-antibacterial-screening-of-crude-polysaccharides
#5
Jiraporn Chumpol, Sineenat Siri
This study aims to produce electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) membrane as the alternative supporting medium for a separation of crude polysaccharides by electrophoresis and a screening of their antibacterial activity. Among the tested conditions of fabrication, electrospun CA membrane at 57% porosity showed the best separation of each polysaccharide from the standard mixture and the crude extract of Aloe vera via electrophoresis. As compared with the commercial CA membrane, the produced electrospun CA membrane demonstrated more separated spots of polysaccharides...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905935/development-of-a-filter-to-prevent-infections-with-spore-forming-bacteria-in-injecting-drug-users
#6
Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Albert Bolhuis
BACKGROUND: In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated heroin, and our aim was to develop a filter that efficiently removes these bacteria and is also likely to be acceptable for use by people who inject drugs (i.e. quick, simple and not spoil the hit). METHODS: A prototype filter was designed and different filter membranes were tested to assess the volume of liquid retained, filtration time and efficiency of the filter at removing bacterial spores...
December 1, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905535/bordetella-pertussis-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-confers-equal-efficacy-in-mice-with-milder-inflammatory-responses-compared-to-a-whole-cell-vaccine
#7
René H M Raeven, Jolanda Brummelman, Jeroen L A Pennings, Larissa van der Maas, Wichard Tilstra, Kina Helm, Elly van Riet, Wim Jiskoot, Cécile A C M van Els, Wanda G H Han, Gideon F A Kersten, Bernard Metz
The demand for improved pertussis vaccines is urgent due to the resurgence of whooping cough. A deeper understanding of the mode of action of pertussis vaccines is required to achieve this improvement. The vaccine-induced effects of a candidate outer membrane vesicle vaccine (omvPV) and a classical protective but reactogenic whole cell vaccine (wPV) were comprehensively compared in mice. The comparison revealed essential qualitative and quantitative differences with respect to immunogenicity and adverse effects for these vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902901/virulence-of-serovar-c-1-strains-of-avibacterium-paragallinarum
#8
H H Trujillo-Ruíz, H L Shivaprasad, V Morales-Erasto, M Talavera-Rojas, C Salgado-Miranda, F Salazar-García, P J Blackall, E Soriano-Vargas
The bacterium Avibacterium paragallinarum is the etiologic agent of infectious coryza of chickens. There are nine serovars of A. paragallinarum , and serovar C-1 has emerged in outbreaks of infectious coryza in layer hens in the Americas, with all isolates having been obtained from infectious coryza-vaccinated chickens. In the current study, the clinical and histopathologic outcomes of experimental infections in chickens with A. paragallinarum of serovar C-1 were investigated. The Japanese serovar reference strain, H-18, and a Mexican isolate, ESV-135, were included in the study...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901137/energy-transduction-and-signal-averaging-of-fluctuating-electric-fields-by-a-single-protein-ion-channel
#9
C Verdia-Baguena, V Gomez, J Cervera, P Ramirez, S Mafe
We demonstrate the electrical rectification and signal averaging of fluctuating signals using a biological nanostructure in aqueous solution: a single protein ion channel inserted in the lipid bilayer characteristic of cell membranes. The conversion of oscillating, zero time-average potentials into directional currents permits charging of a load capacitor to significant steady-state voltages within a few minutes in the case of the outer membrane porin F (OmpF) protein, a bacterial channel of Escherichia coli...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901075/membrane-core-specific-antimicrobial-action-of-cathelicidin-ll-37-peptide-switches-between-pore-and-nanofibre-formation
#10
Mahdi Shahmiri, Marta Enciso, Christopher G Adda, Brian J Smith, Matthew A Perugini, Adam Mechler
Membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides provide broad-spectrum defence against localized bacterial invasion in a range of hosts including humans. The most generally held consensus is that targeting to pathogens is based on interactions with the head groups of membrane lipids. Here we show that the action of LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide switches the mode of action based on the structure of the alkyl chains, and not the head groups of the membrane forming lipids. We demonstrate that LL-37 exhibits two distinct interaction pathways: pore formation in bilayers of unsaturated phospholipids and membrane modulation with saturated phospholipids...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900434/combination-of-microbiological-spectroscopic-and-molecular-docking-techniques-to-study-the-antibacterial-mechanism-of-thymol-against-staphylococcus-aureus-membrane-damage-and-genomic-dna-binding
#11
Lang-Hong Wang, Zhi-Hong Zhang, Xin-An Zeng, De-Ming Gong, Man-Sheng Wang
Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is a natural ingredient used as flavor or preservative agent in food products. The antibacterial mechanism of thymol against Gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in this work. A total of 15 membrane fatty acids were identified in S. aureus cells by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Exposure to thymol at low concentrations induced obvious alterations in membrane fatty acid composition, such as decreasing the proportion of branched 12-methyltetradecanoic acid and 14-methylhexadecanoic acid (from 22...
November 29, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900285/a-t4ss-effector-targets-host-cell-alpha-enolase-contributing-to-brucella-abortus-intracellular-lifestyle
#12
María I Marchesini, Susana M Morrone Seijo, Francisco F Guaimas, Diego J Comerci
Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, invades and replicates within cells inside a membrane-bound compartment known as the Brucella containing vacuole (BCV). After trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways, BCVs mature into endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartments permissive for bacterial replication. Brucella Type IV Secretion System (VirB) is a major virulence factor essential for the biogenesis of the replicative organelle. Upon infection, Brucella uses the VirB system to translocate effector proteins from the BCV into the host cell cytoplasm...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899503/postreplication-roles-of-the-brucella-virb-type-iv-secretion-system-uncovered-via-conditional-expression-of-the-virb11-atpase
#13
Erin P Smith, Cheryl N Miller, Robert Child, Jennifer A Cundiff, Jean Celli
: Brucella abortus, the bacterial agent of the worldwide zoonosis brucellosis, primarily infects host phagocytes, where it undergoes an intracellular cycle within a dedicated membrane-bound vacuole, the Brucella-containing vacuole (BCV). Initially of endosomal origin (eBCV), BCVs are remodeled into replication-permissive organelles (rBCV) derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum, a process that requires modulation of host secretory functions via delivery of effector proteins by the Brucella VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS)...
November 29, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899231/carvedilol-exacerbate-gentamicin-induced-kidney-mitochondrial-alterations-in-adult-rat
#14
Luís Félix, M M Oliveira, Romeu Videira, Elisabete Maciel, Nuno D Alves, Fernando M Nunes, Anabela Alves, José M Almeida, M Rosário M Domingues, Francisco P Peixoto
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used to treat many types of bacterial infections. Although its properties, his clinical use is limited due to the occurrence of nephrotoxicity, which has been related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Carvedilol, an antihypertensive drug with strong antioxidant properties, has been tested in order to prevent gentamicin nephrotoxicity. This study aimed to test this hypothesis using a rat model of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Animals were treated subcutaneously with DMSO (control) (0...
November 26, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898345/quercetin-loading-cdse-zns-nanoparticles-as-efficient-antibacterial-and-anticancer-materials
#15
Xiaofang Yang, Weiwei Zhang, Zhiwei Zhao, Nuan Li, Zhipeng Mou, Dongdong Sun, Yongping Cai, Weiyun Wang, Yi Lin
Quercetin (Qe) plays an important role in inflammation, antibacterial, anticancer, and aging. However, Qe has extremely low water solubility, which is a major challenge in drug absorption. In this study, we described a simple method for synthesis of Qe/CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles (QCZ NPs). The QCZ NPs had an average diameter of 10nm and prominent yellow emission under UV irradiation. We investigated the antibacterial activity of QCZ NPs against drug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897200/lipid-ii-independent-antimicrobial-mechanism-of-nisin-depends-on-its-crowding-and-degree-of-oligomerization
#16
Ashutosh Prince, Padmani Sandhu, Pankaj Kumar, Eva Dash, Shingarika Sharma, Manoranjan Arakha, Suman Jha, Yusuf Akhter, Mohammed Saleem
Nisin inhibits bacterial growth by generating pores in cell membrane and interrupting cell-wall biosynthesis through specific lipid II interaction. However, the role of the hinge region and C-terminus residues of the peptide in antibacterial action of nisin is largely unknown. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and experimental approach, we report that at high concentration regimes of nisin, interaction with phospholipids may equally deform the bacterial cell membranes even under significantly varying amounts of lipid-II...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896346/visible-light-driven-mesoporous-ag-embedded-zno-nanocomposites-reactive-oxygen-species-enhanced-photocatalysis-bacterial-inhibition-and-photodynamic-therapy
#17
Jagriti Gupta, Jeotikanta Mohapatra, D Bahadur
We present here the multitasking capabilities of Ag-embedded ZnO nanocomposites (Ag-ZnO NCs), which include the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes, bacterial inhibition, and cancer therapeutics. Ag-embedded ZnO nanocomposites (Ag-ZnO NCs) of mesoporous spherical morphology (size ∼ 150 ± 50 nm) are successfully synthesized by a facile and single step soft-chemical approach. To understand the effect of Ag loading on multitasking properties, Ag-ZnO NCs are synthesized with different wt% of Ag. It was found that Ag5-ZnO NCs (5 wt% of Ag) showed excellent solar light-induced photocatalytic degradation properties against both cationic as well as anionic dyes...
November 29, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895129/the-predicted-lytic-transglycosylase-hpah-from-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-vesicatoria-associates-with-the-type-iii-secretion-system-and-promotes-effector-protein-translocation
#18
Jens Hausner, Nadine Hartmann, Michael Jordan, Daniela Büttner
Pathogenicity of the Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system, which spans both bacterial membranes and translocates effector proteins into plant cells. The assembly of the T3S system presumably involves the predicted lytic transglycosylase (LT) HpaH, which is encoded adjacent to the T3S gene cluster. Bacterial LTs degrade peptidoglycan and often promote the formation of membrane-spanning macromolecular protein complexes. In the present study, we show that HpaH localizes to the bacterial periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan as well as to components of the T3S system including the predicted periplasmic inner rod proteins HrpB1 and HrpB2 as well as the pilus protein HrpE...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895000/severe-acute-otitis-media-and-acute-mastoiditis-in-adults
#19
Anu Laulajainen Hongisto, Jussi Jero, Antti Markkola, Riste Saat, Antti A Aarnisalo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare clinical and microbiological findings in adults hospitalized for acute otitis media (AOM) or mastoid infections (acute or latent). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adults (≥17 years old) hospitalized (between 2003 and 2012) at a tertiary referral center for acute mastoid infections or AOM not responding to outpatient medical treatment. RESULTS: Of the 160 patients in the study sample, 19% had an infection caused by S...
November 28, 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894646/the-enigmatic-esx-proteins-looking-beyond-mycobacteria
#20
REVIEW
Meera Unnikrishnan, Chrystala Constantinidou, Tracy Palmer, Mark J Pallen
Bacteria export proteins across membranes using a range of transport machineries. Type VII secretion systems (T7SSs), originally described in mycobacteria, are now known to be widespread across diverse bacterial phyla. Recent studies have characterized secretion components and mechanisms of type VII secretion in pathogenic and environmental bacteria. A variety of functions have been attributed to T7SS substrates, including interactions with eukaryotes and with other bacteria. Here, we evaluate the growing body of knowledge on T7SSs, with focus on the nonmycobacterial systems, reviewing their phylogenetic distribution, structure and function in diverse settings...
November 25, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
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