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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050407/layer-chicken-embryo-survival-to-hatch-when-administered-an-in-ovo-vaccination-of-strain-f-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-and-locations-of-bacteria-prevalence-in-the-newly-hatched-chick
#1
K E C Elliott, S L Branton, J D Evans, P D Gerard, E D Peebles
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a bacterial pathogen that causes production losses in layer chickens. To combat MG, multiage layer facilities vaccinate pullets by either spray or eye-drop vaccination. The objective in this study was to evaluate the use of in ovo vaccination as a potential alternative for MG vaccination. Layer embryos at 18 d of incubation were either not-injected (control), or were hand-injected with either commercial Marek's disease vaccine diluent alone or with a high, medium, low, or very low dosage of a live attenuated strain F (FMG) vaccine suspended in the commercial diluent...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049874/balancing-bacteria-osteoblasts-competition-through-selective-physical-puncture-and-biofunctionalization-of-zno-polydopamine-arginine-glycine-aspartic-acid-cysteine-nanorods
#2
Jun Li, Lei Tan, Xiangmei Liu, Zhenduo Cui, Xianjin Yang, Kelvin Wai Kwok Yeung, Paul K Chu, Shuilin Wu
Bacterial infection and lack of bone tissue integration are two major concerns of orthopedic implants. In addition, osteoinductivity often decreases and toxicity may arise when antibacterial agents are introduced to increase the antibacterial ability. Here hybrid ZnO/polydopamine (PDA)/arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-cysteine (RGDC) nanorod (NR) arrays are designed and prepared on titanium (Ti) implants to not only enhance the osteoinductivity but also effectively kill bacteria simultaneously, which are ascribed to the selective physical puncture and the biofunctionalization of ZnO/PDA/RGDC nanorods during the competition between bacteria and osteoblasts, that is, owing to the much larger size of osteoblasts than bacteria, the hybrid NRs can puncture bacteria but not damage osteoblasts...
October 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047451/functionalization-of-bacterial-cellulose-wound-dressings-with-the-antimicrobial-peptide-%C3%AE%C2%B5-poly-l-lysine
#3
Marian Fürsatz, Mårten Skog, Petter Sivlér, Eleonor Palm, Christopher Aronsson, Andreas Skallberg, Grzegorz Greczynski, Hazem Khalaf, Torbjörn Bengtsson, Daniel Aili
Wound dressings based on bacterial cellulose (BC) can form a soft and conformable protective layer that can stimulate wound healing while preventing bacteria from entering the wound. Bacteria already present in the wound can, however, thrive in the moist environment created by the BC dressing which can aggravate the healing process. Possibilities to render the BC antimicrobial without affecting the beneficial structural and mechanical properties of the material would hence be highly attractive. Here we present methods for functionalization of BC with ε-Poly-L-Lysine (ε-PLL), a non-toxic biopolymer with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity...
October 19, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047333/electrochemical-performance-and-microbial-community-profiles-in-microbial-fuel-cells-in-relation-to-electron-transfer-mechanisms
#4
Naroa Uria, Isabel Ferrera, Jordi Mas
BACKGROUND: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with complex microbial communities have been extensively reported in the past, and are commonly used in applications such as wastewater treatment, bioremediation or in-situ powering of environmental sensors. However, our knowledge on how the composition of the microbial community and the different types of electron transfer to the anode affect the performance of these bioelectrochemical systems is far from complete. To fill this gap of knowledge, we designed a set of three MFCs with different constrains limiting direct and mediated electron transfer to the anode...
October 18, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046870/salmonella-populations-inside-host-cells
#5
REVIEW
Sónia Castanheira, Francisco García-Del Portillo
Bacteria of the Salmonella genus cause diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening typhoid fever and are among the most successful intracellular pathogens known. After the invasion of the eukaryotic cell, Salmonella exhibits contrasting lifestyles with different replication rates and subcellular locations. Although Salmonella hyper-replicates in the cytosol of certain host cell types, most invading bacteria remain within vacuoles in which the pathogen proliferates at moderate rates or persists in a dormant-like state...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046869/staphylococcus-aureus-alpha-toxin-induces-the-formation-of-dynamic-tubules-labeled-with-lc3-within-host-cells-in-a-rab7-and-rab1b-dependent-manner
#6
María M López de Armentia, María C Gauron, María I Colombo
Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes severe infectious diseases that eventually lead to septic and toxic shock. S. aureus infection is characterized by the production of virulence factors, including enzymes and toxins. After internalization S. aureus resides in a phagosome labeled with Rab7 protein. Here, we show that S. aureus generates tubular structures marked with the small GTPases Rab1b and Rab7 and by the autophagic protein LC3 at early times post-infection. As shown by live cell imaging these tubular structures are highly dynamic, extend, branch and grow in length...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046671/generation-of-persister-cells-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-aureus-by-chemical-treatment-and-evaluation-of-their-susceptibility-to-membrane-targeting-agents
#7
Lucia Grassi, Mariagrazia Di Luca, Giuseppantonio Maisetta, Andrea C Rinaldi, Semih Esin, Andrej Trampuz, Giovanna Batoni
Persister cells (PCs) are a subset of dormant, phenotypic variants of regular bacteria, highly tolerant to antibiotics. Generation of PCs in vivo may account for the recalcitrance of most chronic infections to antimicrobial treatment and demands for the identification of new antimicrobial agents able to target such cells. The present study explored the possibility to obtain in vitro PCs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus at high efficiency through chemical treatment, and to test their susceptibility to structurally different antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and two clinically used peptide-based antibiotics, colistin and daptomycin...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045877/self-organization-of-ftsz-polymers-in-solution-reveals-spacer-role-of-the-disordered-c-terminal-tail
#8
Sonia Huecas, Erney Ramírez-Aportela, Albert Vergoñós, Rafael Núñez-Ramírez, Oscar Llorca, J Fernando Díaz, David Juan-Rodríguez, María A Oliva, Patricia Castellen, José M Andreu
FtsZ is a self-assembling GTPase that forms, below the inner membrane, the mid-cell Z-ring guiding bacterial division. FtsZ monomers polymerize head to tail forming tubulin-like dynamic protofilaments, whose organization in the Z-ring is an unresolved problem. Rather than forming a well-defined structure, FtsZ protofilaments laterally associate in vitro into polymorphic condensates typically imaged on surfaces. We describe here nanoscale self-organizing properties of FtsZ assemblies in solution that underlie Z-ring assembly, employing time-resolved x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045862/the-two-state-prehensile-tail-of-the-antibacterial-toxin-colicin-n
#9
Christopher L Johnson, Alexandra S Solovyova, Olli Hecht, Colin Macdonald, Helen Waller, J Günter Grossmann, Geoffrey R Moore, Jeremy H Lakey
Intrinsically disordered regions within proteins are critical elements in many biomolecular interactions and signaling pathways. Antibacterial toxins of the colicin family, which could provide new antibiotic functions against resistant bacteria, contain disordered N-terminal translocation domains (T-domains) that are essential for receptor binding and the penetration of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. Here we investigate the conformational behavior of the T-domain of colicin N (ColN-T) to understand why such domains are widespread in toxins that target Gram-negative bacteria...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045816/assessment-of-bacterial-membrane-fluidity-by-flow-cytometry
#10
Marielle Bouix, Sarrah Ghorbal
It can be interesting to evaluate the cytoplasmic membrane fluidity of bacteria in order to understand the impacts of stresses during processing. Traditionally, membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence anisotropy measured by spectrofluorimetry, but this method does not make it possible to reveal the heterogeneity of bacterial populations. Flow cytometry, as opposed to spectrofluorimetry, has the ability to simultaneously detect different sub-populations. We developed a new method to measure the fluorescence anisotropy of bacterial membranes using flow cytometry...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045498/novel-drug-targets-in-cell-wall-biosynthesis-exploited-by-gene-disruption-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
Ayssar A Elamin, Susanne Steinicke, Wulf Oehlmann, Yvonne Braun, Hanaa Wanas, Eduard A Shuralev, Carmen Huck, Marko Maringer, Manfred Rohde, Mahavir Singh
For clinicians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nightmare pathogen that is one of the top three causes of opportunistic human infections. Therapy of P. aeruginosa infections is complicated due to its natural high intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Active efflux and decreased uptake of drugs due to cell wall/membrane permeability appear to be important issues in the acquired antibiotic tolerance mechanisms. Bacterial cell wall biosynthesis enzymes have been shown to be essential for pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043783/marine-mammal-microbiota-yields-novel-antibiotic-with-potent-activity-against-clostridium-difficile
#12
Jessica L Ochoa, Laura M Sanchez, Byoung-Mo Koo, Jennifer S Doherty, Manohary Rajendram, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Carol A Gross, Roger G Linington
The recent explosion of research on the microbiota has highlighted the important interplay between commensal microorganisms and the health of their cognate hosts. Metabolites isolated from commensal bacteria have been demonstrated to possess a range of antimicrobial activities, and it is widely believed that some of these metabolites modulate host behavior, affecting predisposition to disease and pathogen invasion. Our access to the local marine mammal stranding network and previous successes in mining the fish microbiota poised us to test the hypothesis that the marine mammal microbiota is a novel source of commensal bacteria-produced bioactive metabolites...
October 18, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043249/interactions-between-bacteria-and-bile-salts-in-the-gastrointestinal-and-hepatobiliary-tracts
#13
REVIEW
Verónica Urdaneta, Josep Casadesús
Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042567/mapping-the-ultrafast-flow-of-harvested-solar-energy-in-living-photosynthetic-cells
#14
Peter D Dahlberg, Po-Chieh Ting, Sara C Massey, Marco A Allodi, Elizabeth C Martin, C Neil Hunter, Gregory S Engel
Photosynthesis transfers energy efficiently through a series of antenna complexes to the reaction center where charge separation occurs. Energy transfer in vivo is primarily monitored by measuring fluorescence signals from the small fraction of excitations that fail to result in charge separation. Here, we use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to follow the entire energy transfer process in a thriving culture of the purple bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides. By removing contributions from scattered light, we extract the dynamics of energy transfer through the dense network of antenna complexes and into the reaction center...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042496/structural-basis-of-type-2-secretion-system-engagement-between-the-inner-and-outer-bacterial-membranes
#15
Iain D Hay, Matthew J Belousoff, Trevor Lithgow
Sophisticated nanomachines are used by bacteria for protein secretion. In Gram-negative bacteria, the type 2 secretion system (T2SS) is composed of a pseudopilus assembly platform in the inner membrane and a secretin complex in the outer membrane. The engagement of these two megadalton-sized complexes is required in order to secrete toxins, effectors, and hydrolytic enzymes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has at least two T2SSs, with the ancestral nanomachine having a secretin complex composed of XcpQ. Until now, no high-resolution structural information was available to distinguish the features of this Pseudomonas-type secretin, which varies greatly in sequence from the well-characterized Klebsiella-type and Vibrio-type secretins...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040458/orchestration-of-the-mammalian-host-cell-glucose-transporter-proteins-1-and-3-by-chlamydia-contributes-to-intracellular-growth-and-infectivity
#16
Xiaogang Wang, Kevin Hybiske, Richard S Stephens
Chlamydia are gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that replicate within a discrete cellular vacuole, called an inclusion. Although it is known that Chlamydia require essential nutrients from host cells to support their intracellular growth, the molecular mechanisms for acquiring these macromolecules remain uncharacterized. In the present study it was found that the expression of mammalian cell glucose transporter proteins 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3) were up-regulated during chlamydial infection. Up-regulation was dependent on bacterial protein synthesis and Chlamydia-induced MAPK kinase activation...
October 9, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040295/hydrophobic-residues-are-critical-for-the-helix-forming-hemolytic-and-bactericidal-activities-of-amphipathic-antimicrobial-peptide-tp4
#17
Ting-Wei Chang, Shu-Yi Wei, Shih-Han Wang, Hung-Mu Wei, Yu-June Wang, Chiu-Feng Wang, Chinpan Chen, You-Di Liao
Antimicrobial peptides are important components of the host innate defense mechanism against invading pathogens, especially for drug-resistant bacteria. In addition to bactericidal activity, the 25 residue peptide TP4 isolated from Nile tilapia also stimulates cell proliferation and regulates the innate immune system in mice. In this report, TP4 hyperpolarized and depolarized the membrane potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at sub-lethal and lethal concentrations. It also inhibited and eradicated biofilm formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039057/the-effects-of-low-doses-of-gamma-radiation-on-growth-and-membrane-activity-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-grp3-and-escherichia-coli-m17
#18
D Soghomonyan, A Margaryan, K Trchounian, K Ohanyan, H Badalyan, A Trchounian
Microorganisms are part of the natural environments and reflect the effects of different physical factors of surrounding environment, such as gamma (γ) radiation. This work was devoted to the study of the influence of low doses of γ radiation with the intensity of 2.56 μW (m(2) s)(-1) (absorbed doses were 3.8 mGy for the radiation of 15 min and 7.2 mGy-for 30 min) on Escherichia coli M-17 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa GRP3 wild type cells. The changes of bacterial, growth, survival, morphology, and membrane activity had been studied after γ irradiation...
October 16, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038545/adjacent-possible-ecological-niche-growth-of-lactobacillus-species-co-cultured-with-escherichia-coli-in-a-synthetic-minimal-medium
#19
Kouhei Mizuno, Mamiko Mizuno, Mio Yamauchi, Aya J Takemura, Veronica Medrano Romero, Kazuya Morikawa
In certain conditions, members of the Lactobacillus genus are auxotrophs that have fastidious requirements for growth. Notably, Lactobacillus cannot grow in M9 medium, a minimal synthetic medium used for Escherichia coli. However, we found that some Lactobacillus strains can be grown in M9 when co-cultured with E. coli K-12. In the co-culture, L. casei proliferates exponentially, reaching cell densities of 10(8) CFU (colony-forming unit) ml(-1) in 6 h and dominating E. coli in the late growth phase. Spent medium from E...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038542/store-operated-ca-2-entry-facilitates-the-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cyclooxygenase-2-expression-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#20
Jhen-Hong Wong, Kuo-Hao Ho, Sean Nam, Wen-Li Hsu, Chia-Hsien Lin, Che-Mai Chang, Jaw-Yuan Wang, Wei-Chiao Chang
Helicobacter pylori has been identified as one of the major causes of chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and H. pylori LPS might play an exclusively important role in activating inflammatory pathways in monocytes and macrophages. To study the role of LPS in the underlying mechanism of inflammatory responses, we established an in vitro model using the human AGS gastric cancer cell line...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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