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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914086/killing-bacteria-with-cytotoxic-effector-proteins-of-human-killer-immune-cells-granzymes-granulysin-and-perforin
#1
Diego López León, Isabelle Fellay, Pierre-Yves Mantel, Michael Walch
Bacterial pathogens represent a constant threat to human health that was exacerbated in recent years by a dramatic increase of strains resistant to last resort antibiotics. The immune system of higher vertebrates generally evolved several efficient innate and adaptive mechanisms to fight ubiquitous bacterial pathogens. Among those mechanisms, immune proteases were recognized to contribute essentially to antibacterial immune defense. The effector serine proteases of the adaptive immune system, the granzymes, exert potent antimicrobial activity when they are delivered into the bacterial cytosol by prokaryotic membrane disrupting proteins, such as granulysin...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914001/subtilosin-prevents-biofilm-formation-by-inhibiting-bacterial-quorum-sensing
#2
Ammar Algburi, Saskia Zehm, Victoria Netrebov, Anzhelica B Bren, Vladimir Chistyakov, Michael L Chikindas
Subtilosin, the cyclic lantibiotic protein produced by Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933, targets the surface receptor and electrostatically binds to the bacterial cell membrane. In this study, subtilosin was purified using ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation and purified via column chromatography. Subtilosin's antibacterial minimum and sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and sub-MIC) and anti-biofilm activity (biofilm prevention) were established. Subtilosin was evaluated as a quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor in Gram-positive bacteria using Fe(III) reduction assay...
December 2, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913884/plasmid-pvax1-nh36-purification-by-membrane-and-bead-perfusion-chromatography
#3
Diana Ivonne Franco-Medrano, Patricia Guerrero-Germán, Rosa María Montesinos-Cisneros, Jaime Ortega-López, Armando Tejeda-Mansir
The demand for plasmid DNA (pDNA) has increased in response to the rapid advances in vaccines applications to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by virus, bacteria or parasites, such as Leishmania species. The immunization protocols require large amounts of supercoiled plasmid DNA (sc-pDNA) challenging the development of efficient and profitable processes for capturing and purified pDNA molecules from large volumes of lysates. A typical bioprocess involves four steps: fermentation, primary recovery, intermediate recovery and final purification...
December 2, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913853/the-role-of-intestinal-oxalate-transport-in-hyperoxaluria-and-the-formation-of-kidney-stones-in-animals-and-man
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan M Whittamore, Marguerite Hatch
The intestine exerts a considerable influence over urinary oxalate in two ways, through the absorption of dietary oxalate and by serving as an adaptive extra-renal pathway for elimination of this waste metabolite. Knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for oxalate absorption and secretion by the intestine therefore have significant implications for understanding the etiology of hyperoxaluria, as well as offering potential targets for future treatment strategies for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. In this review, we present the recent developments and advances in this area over the past 10 years, and put to the test some of the new ideas that have emerged during this time, using human and mouse models...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913415/a-highly-expressed-high-molecular-weight-s-layer-complex-of-pelosinus-strain-ufo1-binds-uranium
#5
Michael P Thorgersen, W Andrew Lancaster, Lara Rajeev, Xiaoxuan Ge, Brian J Vaccaro, Farris L Poole, Adam P Arkin, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Michael W W Adams
: Cells suspensions of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 were previously shown, using spectroscopic analysis, to sequester uranium as U(IV) complexed with carboxyl and phosphoryl ligands on protein(s). The goal of this project was to characterize the proteins involved in uranium binding. Virtually all of the uranium in UFO1 cells was associated with a heterodimeric protein, which was termed the uranium-binding complex (UBC). UBC was composed of two S-layer domain proteins encoded by UFO1_4202 and UFO1_4203...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911359/directed-protein-packaging-within-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-escherichia-coli-design-production-and-purification
#6
Nathan J Alves, Kendrick B Turner, Scott A Walper
An increasing interest in applying synthetic biology techniques to program outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are leading to some very interesting and unique applications for OMV where traditional nanoparticles are proving too difficult to synthesize. To date, all Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to produce OMV demonstrating packaging of a variety of cargo that includes small molecules, peptides, proteins and genetic material. Based on their diverse cargo, OMV are implicated in many biological processes ranging from cell-cell communication to gene transfer and delivery of virulence factors depending upon which bacteria are producing the OMV...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911097/performance-of-an-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-in-which-granular-sludge-and-dynamic-filtration-are-integrated
#7
Jixiang Yang, Xin Ji, Lunhui Lu, Hua Ma, Youpeng Chen, Jinsong Guo, Fang Fang
To alleviate the fouling of a filter, simple substrates, dynamic filtration, and granular sludge were applied in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The results showed that under a transmembrane pressure < 20 kPa, the filter flux ranged between 15 and 20 l (m(-2) h)(-1) for a period of 30 days. The flux was higher than the typical flux of AnMBRs with conventional membranes and most current dynamic filters. In addition, the low cost of the filter avoided the need for a higher flux. Moreover, a stable granular sludge bed, which consumed all volatile fatty acids, was maintained...
December 2, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911010/screening-of-mercury-resistant-and-indole-3-acetic-acid-producing-bacterial-consortium-for-growth-promotion-of-cicer-arietinum-l
#8
Aatif Amin, Zakia Latif
Mercury resistant (Hg(R) ) bacteria were screened from industrial effluents and effluents-polluted rhizosphere soils near to districts Kasur and Sheikhupura, Pakistan. Out of 60 isolates, three bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. AZ-1, Bacillus cereus AZ-2, and Enterobacter cloacae AZ-3 showed Hg-resistance as 20 μg ml(-1) of HgCl2 and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production as 8-38 μg ml(-1) . Biochemical and molecular characterization of selected bacteria was confirmed by 16S ribotyping. Mercury resistant genes merA, merB, and merE of mer operon in Bacillus spp...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907988/kr12-peptide-associated-with-cyclodextrin-antimicrobial-and-antitumor-activities
#9
Karina I R Teixeira, Maria E Cortés, Robson A S Santos, Flávio Oliveira, Ruben D Sinisterra
The aim of this study was to determine the physical properties and antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects of the KR12 peptide complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Hp-βCd) in vitro. The KR12:Hp-βCd composition was evaluated for particle size and its zeta (ζ)-potential in the presence and absence of cells. Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis for the peptide alone or associated was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration...
December 1, 2016: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907185/antioxidant-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-properties-as-well-as-the-phenolic-content-of-the-extract-from-hancornia-speciosa-gomes
#10
Uilson P Santos, Jaqueline F Campos, Heron Fernandes V Torquato, Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Leticia M Estevinho, Kely de Picoli Souza, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907104/a-new-member-of-the-growing-family-of-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-systems-in-xenorhabdus-doucetiae
#11
Jean-Claude Ogier, Bernard Duvic, Anne Lanois, Alain Givaudan, Sophie Gaudriault
Xenorhabdus is a bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes and is pathogenic for insects. Its life cycle involves a stage inside the insect cadaver, in which it competes for environmental resources with microorganisms from soil and the insect gut. Xenorhabdus is, thus, a useful model for identifying new interbacterial competition systems. For the first time, in an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus doucetiae strain FRM16, we identified a cdi-like locus. The cdi loci encode contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) systems composed of proteins from the two-partner secretion (TPS) family...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906992/a-dual-filtration-based-multiplex-pcr-method-for-simultaneous-detection-of-viable-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-listeria-monocytogenes-and-staphylococcus-aureus-on-fresh-cut-cantaloupe
#12
Ke Feng, Wenzhong Hu, Aili Jiang, Sarengaowa, Yongping Xu, Yu Zou, Liu Yang, Xin Wang
Fresh-cut cantaloupe is particularly susceptible to contamination with pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, development of rapid, yet accurate detection techniques is necessary to ensure food safety. In this study, a multiplex PCR system and propidium monoazide (PMA) concentration were optimized to detect all viable pathogens in a single tube. A dual filtration system utilized a filtration membrane with different pore sizes to enrich pathogens found on fresh-cut cantaloupe...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906132/the-distinct-fate-of-smooth-and-rough-mycobacterium-abscessus-variants-inside-macrophages
#13
Anne-Laure Roux, Albertus Viljoen, Aïcha Bah, Roxane Simeone, Audrey Bernut, Laura Laencina, Therese Deramaudt, Martin Rottman, Jean-Louis Gaillard, Laleh Majlessi, Roland Brosch, Fabienne Girard-Misguich, Isabelle Vergne, Chantal de Chastellier, Laurent Kremer, Jean-Louis Herrmann
Mycobacterium abscessus is a pathogenic, rapidly growing mycobacterium responsible for pulmonary and cutaneous infections in immunocompetent patients and in patients with Mendelian disorders, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Mycobacterium abscessus is known to transition from a smooth (S) morphotype with cell surface-associated glycopeptidolipids (GPL) to a rough (R) morphotype lacking GPL. Herein, we show that M. abscessus S and R variants are able to grow inside macrophages and are present in morphologically distinct phagosomes...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905935/development-of-a-filter-to-prevent-infections-with-spore-forming-bacteria-in-injecting-drug-users
#14
Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Albert Bolhuis
BACKGROUND: In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated heroin, and our aim was to develop a filter that efficiently removes these bacteria and is also likely to be acceptable for use by people who inject drugs (i.e. quick, simple and not spoil the hit). METHODS: A prototype filter was designed and different filter membranes were tested to assess the volume of liquid retained, filtration time and efficiency of the filter at removing bacterial spores...
December 1, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905913/sera-from-severe-trauma-patients-with-pneumonia-and-without-infectious-complications-have-differential-effects-on-neutrophil-biology
#15
B Relja, R Taraki, M P J Teuben, K Mörs, N Wagner, S Wutzler, F Hildebrand, M Perl, I Marzi
BACKGROUND: Major trauma patients (TP) developing imbalanced immune response are at high risk for infectious post-injury complications including pneumonia. Neutrophils play a central role in the host defense against bacteria and thereby pathogenesis of infections. While there are numerous studies about neutrophil function after trauma, data about their biology in patients who suffer from pneumonia following trauma are sparse. Here, we studied the effect of serum isolated from patients who do and do not develop infection (inf...
December 1, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903652/prepore-stability-controls-productive-folding-of-the-bam-independent-multimeric-outer-membrane-secretin-puld
#16
Ingrid Guilvout, Sébastien Brier, Mohamed Chami, Véronique Hourdel, Olivera Francetic, Anthony P Pugsley, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Gerard H M Huysmans
Members of a group of multimeric secretion pores that assemble independently of any known membrane-embedded insertase in Gram-negative bacteria fold into a prepore before membrane-insertion occurs. The mechanisms and the energetics that drive the folding of these proteins are poorly understood. Here, equilibrium unfolding and hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry indicated that a loss of 4-5 kJ/mol/protomer in the N3-domain that is peripheral to the membrane-spanning C-domain in the dodecameric secretin PulD, the founding member of this class, prevents pore formation by destabilizing the prepore into a poorly structured dodecamer as visualized by electron microscopy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902439/evidence-that-pneumococcal-walk-is-regulated-by-stkp-through-protein-protein-interaction
#17
Gro Anita Stamsås, Daniel Straume, Zhian Salehian, Leiv Sigve Håvarstein
WalRK is the only two-component regulatory system essential for viability in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite its importance, the biological role of this system is not well understood. However, previous studies have shown that it has a crucial role in controlling pneumococcal cell division. Considerable efforts have been made to understand how the WalRK system is regulated, but no signal(s) sensed by the WalK histidine kinase has been identified so far. Here, we provide evidence that the serine/threonine protein kinase StkP modulates the activity of WalK through direct protein-protein interaction, suggesting that this interaction is one of the signals sensed by WalK...
November 29, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900448/the-archaeal-signal-recognition-particle-present-understanding-and-future-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Sayandeep Gupta, Mousam Roy, Abhrajyoti Ghosh
The signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor constitute universally conserved and essential cellular machinery that controls the proper membrane localization of nascent polypeptides with the transmembrane domain. In the past decade, there has been an immense advancement in our understanding of this targeting machine in all three domains of life. A significant portion of such progress came from the structural analysis of archaeal SRP components. Despite the availability of structural insights from different archaeal SRP components, little is known about protein translocation in this domain of life compared to either bacteria or eukaryotes...
November 29, 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894646/the-enigmatic-esx-proteins-looking-beyond-mycobacteria
#19
REVIEW
Meera Unnikrishnan, Chrystala Constantinidou, Tracy Palmer, Mark J Pallen
Bacteria export proteins across membranes using a range of transport machineries. Type VII secretion systems (T7SSs), originally described in mycobacteria, are now known to be widespread across diverse bacterial phyla. Recent studies have characterized secretion components and mechanisms of type VII secretion in pathogenic and environmental bacteria. A variety of functions have been attributed to T7SS substrates, including interactions with eukaryotes and with other bacteria. Here, we evaluate the growing body of knowledge on T7SSs, with focus on the nonmycobacterial systems, reviewing their phylogenetic distribution, structure and function in diverse settings...
November 25, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894013/outer-membrane-protein-design
#20
REVIEW
Joanna Sg Slusky
Membrane proteins are the gateway to the cell. These proteins are also a control center of the cell, as information from the outside is passed through membrane proteins as signals to the cellular machinery. The design of membrane proteins seeks to harness the power of these gateways and signal carriers. This review will focus on the design of the membrane proteins that are in the outer membrane, a membrane which only exists for gram negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Unlike other membrane proteins, outer membrane proteins are uniquely shaped as β-barrels...
November 25, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
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