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adenosine triphosphate

Patrizia Ballerini, Melania Dovizio, Annalisa Bruno, Stefania Tacconelli, Paola Patrignani
Platelets, beyond their role in hemostasis and thrombosis, may sustain tumorigenesis and metastasis. These effects may occur via direct interaction of platelets with cancer and stromal cells and by the release of several platelet products. Platelets and tumor cells release several bioactive molecules among which a great amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ADP is also formed extracellularly from ATP breakdown by the ecto-nucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases. Under ATP and ADP stimulation the purinergic P2Y1 receptor (R) initiates platelet activation followed by the ADP-P2Y12 R-mediated amplification...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Felix Neumaier, Serdar Alpdogan, Jürgen Hescheler, Toni Schneider
R-type currents mediated by native and recombinant Ca v 2.3 voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels (VGCCs) exhibit facilitation (run-up) and subsequent decline (run-down) in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. A better understanding of the two processes could provide insight into constitutive modulation of the channels in intact cells, but low expression levels and the need for pharmacological isolation have prevented investigations in native systems. Here, to circumvent these limitations, we use conventional and perforated-patch-clamp recordings in a recombinant expression system, which allows us to study the effects of cell dialysis in a reproducible manner...
February 16, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Djuna Z de Back, Richard Vlaar, Boukje Beuger, Brunette Daal, Johan Lagerberg, Alexander P J Vlaar, Dirk de Korte, Marian van Kraaij, Robin van Bruggen
BACKGROUND: Several circumstances require the accurate measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival and clearance, such as determination of posttransfusion recovery of stored RBCs to investigate the effect of new additive solutions. To this end, biotin as a marker of RBCs to track donor RBCs in the blood of the recipient has been used in many studies. However, so far only experimental, nonvalidated, biotin-labeled red cell concentrates (RCCs) are transfused. The goal of this study was to produce a standardized biotin-labeled RCC product in a fast, simple, and sterile manner that can be used for clinical research and for the evaluation of new blood products according to Good Practice Guidelines (GPG) for blood establishments...
February 15, 2018: Transfusion
Jing Lin, Chaoyue Zhao, Cuijuan Liu, Shiyao Fu, Luying Han, Xinping Lu, Chunrong Yang
Introduction: The development of nanodrug carriers utilizing tumor microenvironment has become a hotspot in reversing multidrug resistance (MDR). Materials and methods: This study synthesized a redox-sensitive copolymer, Pluronic F127-disulfide bond-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (FSST), through the connection of the reduction-sensitive disulfide bond between F127 and d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate. This polymer could induce the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, ultimately resulting in cytotoxicity...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Charu Garg, Joon Ho Seo, Jayalakshmi Ramachandran, Ji Meng Loh, Frances Calderon, Jorge E Contreras
BACKGROUND: Trovafloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, recently identified as an inhibitor of pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels. Panx1 channels are important conduits for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release from live and dying cells that enhances the inflammatory response of immune cells. Elevated extracellular levels ATP released upon injury activate purinergic pathways in inflammatory cells that promote migration, proliferation, phagocytosis, and apoptotic signals. Here, we tested whether trovafloxacin administration attenuates the neuroinflammatory response and improves outcomes after brain trauma...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Zhifang Zheng, Yishu Liu, Lulu Zhu, Jianbing Tang, Wenhua Huang, Biao Cheng
BACKGROUND: The effect of lumbar sympathectomy for the treatment of lower limb ischemia remains a matter of controversy. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lumbar sympathectomy, after which Evans blue dye was injected into the hind plantar skin. Extravasation of dye was measured and compared with rats undergoing sham operation. Hind plantar skin was processed for HE staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. RESULTS: In sympathectomized rats, blue stained areas in hind plantar skin and concentrations of Evans blue were significantly less than that of sham sympathectomy (control) rats, both 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Yunzi Li, Qian Liu, Jing Sun, Jin Wang, Xinfeng Liu, Jing Gao
Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathology of neuronal damage during Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies suggest that simvastatin (SV) ameliorates amyloid β (Aβ)‑mediated cognitive impairment in AD patients and transgenic mice; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. To investigate the potential mechanisms by which SV protects against AD neurotoxicity, the present study used a series of cellular and molecular assays to analyze the effects of SV in an in vitro model of Aβ1‑42-induced injury...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Juan F Guarracino, Alejandro R Cinalli, Mariela I Veggetti, Adriana S Losavio
At the mouse neuromuscular junction, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is co-released with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), and once in the synaptic cleft, it is hydrolyzed to adenosine. Both ATP/adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine modulate ACh secretion by activating presynaptic P2Y13 and A1 , A2A , and A3 receptors, respectively. To elucidate the action of endogenous purines on K+ -dependent ACh release, we studied the effect of purinergic receptor antagonists on miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) frequency in phrenic diaphragm preparations...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Daiki Kikuchi, Motonobu Saito, Katsuharu Saito, Yohei Watanabe, Yoshiko Matsumoto, Yasuyuki Kanke, Hisashi Onozawa, Suguru Hayase, Wataru Sakamoto, Teruhide Ishigame, Tomoyuki Momma, Shinji Ohki, Seiichi Takenoshita
Solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters exchange various molecules without energy from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, indicating an association with anticancer drug resistance. However, the expression and role of SLC transporters in malignant tumors has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the current study, the expression of SLC37A family genes was evaluated in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and it was revealed that SLC family 37 member 1 (SLC37A1) expression was significantly increased in tumorous tissues compared with that in non-tumorous tissues...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Ju-Ri Sim, Seok-Seong Kang, Daesang Lee, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, modulate immune responses in the gut. However, the effect of SCFAs on mucosal vaccine-induced immune cell migration is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether SCFAs modulate chemokine expression induced by the killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™, in human intestinal epithelial cells. Shanchol™ induced expression of CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, and CXCL10 at the mRNA level, but not at the protein level. Interestingly, CCL20 secretion was substantially increased by co-stimulation with Shanchol™ and butyrate, while neither acetate nor propionate showed such effect...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zhenyang Yu, Jing Zhang, Meifang Hou
The redox state of NADH/NADPH balance (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is crucial in cellular homeostasis. Recent studies reported that sodium halide ions (NaX, X = F-, Cl-, Br- and I-) stimulated NAD(P)H in Vibrio fischeri (VF). However, it remained unanswered whether this pattern applied in salts with other cations, e.g., K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, whose aquatic concentrations were increased by anthropogenic activities and climate change. Currently, VF were incubated with chloride salts, including KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, and effects were measured in a time-dependent fashion...
February 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Yuya Baba, Yusuke Sato, Gaku Owada, Shunsuke Minakuchi
PURPOSE: Effective denture plaque control is necessary in elderly individuals to prevent oral and systemic diseases. However, comparative studies of denture cleaning methods are limited, especially those investigating patient satisfaction. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of a mechanical denture cleaning method versus a combination of mechanical and chemical methods in terms of denture cleanliness, patient satisfaction, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
Li Tang, Shengfu Yang, Huawei Wang, Hai Gu, Xueshan Xia, Yue Feng, Zexing Yang, Shuhua Zhao, Cunmei Su, Zhenfang Su, Kunhua Wang
Low fertility is one of the most common side effects caused by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), whereas the molecular mechanism underlying this process were largely unclear. This study was conducted to investigate whether autophagy plays a role in NRTIs-induced oocyte dysfunction and low fertility in female rat. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted. For the in vivo experiment, female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) intragastric treatment for 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks; a control was also set...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Hai Wang, Zan Gao, Xuanyou Liu, Pranay Agarwal, Shuting Zhao, Daniel W Conroy, Guang Ji, Jianhua Yu, Christopher P Jaroniec, Zhenguo Liu, Xiongbin Lu, Xiaodong Li, Xiaoming He
Multidrug resistance is a major challenge to cancer chemotherapy. The multidrug resistance phenotype is associated with the overexpression of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven transmembrane efflux pumps in cancer cells. Here, we report a lipid membrane-coated silica-carbon (LSC) hybrid nanoparticle that targets mitochondria through pyruvate, to specifically produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. The ROS can oxidize the NADH into NAD+ to reduce the amount of ATP available for the efflux pumps...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Tomomichi Ishizaka, Yu Yoshimatsu, Yu Maeda, Katsuyoshi Chiba, Kazuhiko Mori
Nicorandil is a representative antianginal drug that has dual properties of a nitrate and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel agonist; however, its effects on integrated cardiac function have not been fully understood. This study was conducted to clarify the functional, hemodynamic, and electrophysiological effects of nicorandil using ventricular pressure-volume loop analysis in isoflurane-anesthetized monkeys. Nicorandil was given intravenously at therapeutic doses of 0.2 and 2 mg/kg over 10 minutes to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 5) with a pause of 10 minutes between the 2 doses...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Achim Mall, Jessica Sobotta, Claudia Huber, Carolin Tschirner, Stefanie Kowarschik, Katarina Bačnik, Mario Mergelsberg, Matthias Boll, Michael Hügler, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Ivan A Berg
Biological inorganic carbon fixation proceeds through a number of fundamentally different autotrophic pathways that are defined by specific key enzymatic reactions. Detection of the enzymatic genes in (meta)genomes is widely used to estimate the contribution of individual organisms or communities to primary production. Here we show that the sulfur-reducing anaerobic deltaproteobacterium Desulfurella acetivorans is capable of both acetate oxidation and autotrophic carbon fixation, with the tricarboxylic acid cycle operating either in the oxidative or reductive direction, respectively...
February 2, 2018: Science
Takuro Nunoura, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Rikihisa Izaki, Takashi Suwa, Takaaki Sato, Takeshi Harada, Koji Mori, Yumiko Kato, Masayuki Miyazaki, Shigeru Shimamura, Katsunori Yanagawa, Aya Shuto, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Nobuyuki Fujita, Yoshihiro Takaki, Haruyuki Atomi, Ken Takai
Inorganic carbon fixation is essential to sustain life on Earth, and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle is one of the most ancient carbon fixation metabolisms. A combination of genomic, enzymatic, and metabolomic analyses of a deeply branching chemolithotrophic Thermosulfidibacter takaii ABI70S6T revealed a previously unknown reversible TCA cycle whose direction was controlled by the available carbon source(s). Under a chemolithoautotrophic condition, a rTCA cycle occurred with the reverse reaction of citrate synthase (CS) and not with the adenosine 5'-triphosphate-dependent citrate cleavage reactions that had been regarded as essential for the conventional rTCA cycle...
February 2, 2018: Science
Joseph Y Cheung, JuFang Wang, Xue-Qian Zhang, Jianliang Song, Dhanendra Tomar, Muniswamy Madesh, Annick Judenherc-Haouzi, Philippe Haouzi
In adult left ventricular mouse myocytes, exposure to sodium cyanide (NaCN) in the presence of glucose dose-dependently reduced contraction amplitude, with ~80% of maximal inhibitory effect attained at 100 µM. NaCN (100 µM) exposure for 10 min. significantly decreased contraction and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i)transient amplitudes, systolic but not diastolic [Ca2+]i, and maximal L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) amplitude: indicating acute alteration of [Ca2+]i homeostasis largely accounted for the observed excitation-contraction abnormalities...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Ahmad M Alamri, Xuefeng Liu, Jan K Blancato, Bassem R Haddad, Weisheng Wang, Xiaogang Zhong, Sujata Choudhary, Ewa Krawczyk, Bhaskar V Kallakury, Bruce J Davidson, Priscilla A Furth
Restricted availability of cell and animal models is a rate-limiting step for investigation of salivary gland neoplasm pathophysiology and therapeutic response. Conditionally reprogrammed cell (CRC) technology enables establishment of primary epithelial cell cultures from patient material. This study tested a translational workflow for acquisition, expansion and testing of CRC-derived primary cultures of salivary gland neoplasms from patients presenting to an academic surgical practice. Results showed that cultured cells were sufficient for epithelial cell-specific transcriptome characterization to detect candidate therapeutic pathways and fusion genes, and for screening for cancer risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and driver gene mutations through exome sequencing...
January 29, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Bernardo Baldisserotto
The spleen is an immune lymphatic organ linked with control of the immune response, which is important to fish health. Recent evidence has suggested the involvement of purinergic signaling in the modulation of immune and inflammatory responses through the nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the nucleoside adenosine (Ado), which are regulated by the enzymes nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA). Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether purinergic signaling can modulate the immune and inflammatory responses in the spleen of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) naturally infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis...
February 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
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