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Tatsuo Watanabe, Yuko Terada
There are several thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels including capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Food components activating TRPV1 inhibit body fat deposition through sympathetic nerve stimulation. TRPA1 is another pungency sensor for pungent compounds and is mainly coexpressed with TRPV1 in sensory nerve endings. Therefore, TRPA1 activation is expected to have an anti-obesity effect similar to TRPV1 activation. We have searched for agonists for TRPV1 and TRPA1 in vitro from Asian spices by the use of TRPV1- and TRPA1-expressing cells...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe
Capsaicin, the phytochemical responsible for the spiciness of peppers, has the potential to modulate metabolism via activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors, which are found not only on nociceptive sensory neurons, but also in a range of other tissues. TRPV1 activation induces calcium influx, and in certain tissues this is associated with increased activation or expression of key proteins such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), KLF2, PPARdelta, PPARgamma, and LXRα...
2015: Open Heart
Young-Jun Park, Tomotaro Nishikawa, Mineo Minami, Kazuhiro Nemoto, Tomohiro Iwasaki, Kenichi Matsushima
The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic mechanism underlying capsinoid biosynthesis in S3212, a low-pungency genotype of Capsicum frutescens. Screening of C. frutescens accessions for capsaicinoid and capsiate contents by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that low-pungency S3212 contained high levels of capsiate but no capsaicin. Comparison of DNA coding sequences of pungent (T1 and Bird Eye) and low-pungency (S3212) genotypes uncovered a significant 12-bp deletion mutation in exon 7 of the p-AMT gene of S3212...
December 2015: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Kazuya Yashiro, Anne Tonson, Émilie Pecchi, Christophe Vilmen, Yann Le Fur, Monique Bernard, David Bendahan, Benoît Giannesini
Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS)...
2015: PloS One
Ji H Lee, Yun S Lee, Eun-Jung Lee, Ji H Lee, Tae-Yoon Kim
Capsaicin has many biological effects, such as antioxidant, anticancer, and antiangiogenic effects, but it is rarely used because of its high pungency. Capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analog, also has multiple biological effects, similar to those of capsaicin, but does not cause irritation. However, the effect of capsiate on allergic responses and immune cells has not been well studied. In this study, we investigated the effect of capsiate on atopic dermatitis, mouse CD4+ T cells, and mast cell activation...
August 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Janclei P Coutinho, Gerardo F Barbero, Oreto F Avellán, A Garcés-Claver, Helena T Godoy, Miguel Palma, Carmelo G Barroso
In this work a multivariate statistical tool (Derringer and Suich optimization) was proposed for the separation of seventeen capsinoids (natural and synthetic) using the UHPLC-DAD chromatography. Capsinoids were analyzed at 280 nm. The variables optimized were the mobile phase (water (0.1% acetic acid as solvent A) and acetonitrile (0.1% as solvent B)), gradient time and flow rate. Two columns with different length (50 and 100 mm) were used for the chromatographic separation. The two columns used properly separated the seventeen capsinoids, however the 100 mm column length showed a better chromatographic separation with a shorter run time and smaller peak widths...
March 2015: Talanta
Yashiro Kazuya, Anne Tonson, Emilie Pecchi, Christiane Dalmasso, Christophe Vilmen, Yann Le Fur, Monique Bernard, David Bendahan, Benoît Giannesini
Capsiate is known to increase whole body oxygen consumption possibly via the activation of uncoupling processes, but its effect at the skeletal muscle level remains poorly documented and conflicting. To clarify this issue, gastrocnemius muscle function and energetics were investigated in mice 2 h after a single intake of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10 or 100 mg/kg body wt) through a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements. Mechanical performance and energy pathway fluxes were assessed strictly noninvasively during a standardized electrostimulation-induced exercise, using an original device implementing 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mitochondrial respiration was evaluated in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers...
May 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Yoshihito Nogusa, Yumi Ando, Hisayuki Uneyama
Capsaicin and capsiate, which is an analogue of capsaicin, are agonists of capsaicin-binding transient potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors. However, their physiological effects are different. Capsaicin induces thermogenesis and nociception, while the different kinetics of capsiate result in thermogenesis without nociception in the oral cavity. In the present study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain activation after intragastric infusion of non-nociceptive levels of capsaicin and capsiate in wild-type and TRPV1-knockout (KO) mice...
December 2013: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kohji Ishihara, Soon-Il Kwon, Noriyoshi Masuoka, Nobuyoshi Nakajima, Hiroki Hamada
Capsiate has a structure similar to capsaicin but no oral pungency. Furthermore, capsiate displayed antioxidant activity and inhibited angiogenesis and vascular permeability, and therefore, showed potential as a medicine and food supplement. Capsaicin is now commercially available, however capsiate is scarcely present in natural foods. We investigated the direct enzymatic conversion of a capsaicinoid to a capsinoid. It was observed that the rate of lipase-catalyzed acylation of vanillyl alcohol with nonanoic acid was faster than that of hydrolysis of N-vanillylnonanamide to vanillyl amide and nonanoic acid in n-hexane at 70°C...
July 2010: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Satoru Ebihara, Takae Ebihara, Peijun Gui, Ken Osaka, Yasunori Sumi, Masahiro Kohzuki
Despite the development of strong antibiotics, the pneumonia death is increasing all over the world in these decades. Among the people who died of pneumonia, the majority were 65 years old or over. Although pneumonia is recently categorized into several entities, aspiration pneumonia includes all entities. Therefore, targeting dysphagia and aspiration to treat pneumonia is a promising strategy and anti-aspiration drugs will be a part of pneumonia treatment. The swallowing reflex in elderly people was temperature-sensitive and the improvement of swallowing reflex by temperature stimuli could be mediated by the thermosensing TRP channels at pharynx...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Daisuke Tomohiro, Kotaro Mizuta, Tsugumi Fujita, Yukiko Nishikubo, Eiichi Kumamoto
AIMS: Although capsaicin not only activates transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels but also inhibits nerve conduction, the latter action has not yet been fully examined. The purpose of the present study was to know whether various vanilloids have an inhibitory action similar to that of capsaicin and further to compare their actions with that of local anesthetic procaine. MAIN METHODS: Fast-conducting compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from frog sciatic nerve fibers by using the air-gap method...
March 14, 2013: Life Sciences
Dae Young Kwon, Youg Sup Kim, Shi Yong Ryu, Mi-Ran Cha, Gyu Hwan Yon, Hye Jeong Yang, Min Jung Kim, Sunna Kang, Sunmin Park
Red peppers and red pepper paste are reported to have anti-obesity, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animals and humans due to the capsaicin in red pepper. We investigated whether consuming capsaicin and capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analogue, modifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, pancreatic β-cell survival and insulin sensitivity in 90% pancreatectomized (Px) diabetic rats, a moderate and non-obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Px diabetic rats were divided into 3 treatment groups: 1) capsaicin (Px-CPA), 2) capsiate (Px-CPI) or 3) dextrose (Px-CON) and provided high fat diets (40 energy % fat) containing assigned components (0...
June 2013: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Xiu-Ju Luo, Bin Liu, Zhong Dai, Zhi-Chun Yang, Jun Peng
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a predominant neurotransmitter from capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves, which are widely distributed in the gastrointestinal system. These sensory nerves are reported to be involved in the protection of gastric mucosa against damage by various stimuli, and CGRP is a potential mediator in this process. In addition to increase in gastric mucosal blood flow, the beneficial effects of CGRP on gastric mucosa include inhibition of gastric acid secretion, prevention of cellular apoptosis and oxidative injury...
February 2013: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Mary-Jon Ludy, George E Moore, Richard D Mattes
Consumption of spicy foods containing capsaicin, the major pungent principle in hot peppers, reportedly promotes negative energy balance. However, many individuals abstain from spicy foods due to the sensory burn and pain elicited by the capsaicin molecule. A potential alternative for nonusers of spicy foods who wish to exploit this energy balance property is consumption of nonpungent peppers rich in capsiate, a recently identified nonpungent capsaicin analog contained in CH-19 Sweet peppers. Capsiate activates transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the gut but not in the oral cavity...
February 2012: Chemical Senses
Nian-Sheng Li, Xiu-Ju Luo, Zhong Dai, Bin Liu, Yi-Shuai Zhang, Zhi-Chun Yang, Jun Peng
Capsiate is a non-pungent analogue of capsaicin from CH-19 Sweet peppers. Capsaicin is reported to trigger calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) and produces beneficial effects on gastric mucosa. This study aimed to investigate whether capsiate is able to produce beneficial effects on gastric mucosa and whether the protective effects of capsipate occur through a mechanism involving the activation of TRPV1 and CGRP release...
January 2012: Planta Medica
Kenji Shintaku, Kunitoshi Uchida, Yoshiro Suzuki, Yiming Zhou, Tohru Fushiki, Tatsuo Watanabe, Susumu Yazawa, Makoto Tominaga
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capsiate is produced by 'CH-19 Sweet' (Capsicum annuun L.), a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper. Like capsaicin, capsiate is thought to enhance energy metabolism by activating the sympathetic nervous system and suppressing inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms for this are uncertain. We previously reported that capsiate could activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a capsaicin receptor. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether capsinoids activate other TRP channels...
March 2012: British Journal of Pharmacology
Satoshi Haramizu, Fuminori Kawabata, Koichiro Ohnuki, Naohiko Inoue, Tatsuo Watanabe, Susumu Yazawa, Tohru Fushiki
Enhancement of energy expenditure and reducing energy intake are crucial for weight control. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, is known to suppress body fat accumulation and reduce body weight by enhancing of energy expenditure in both mice and humans. However, it is poorly understood whether suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate administration is equal to exercise or not. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of repeated administration of capsiate and exercise and to investigate the weight rebound after repeated capsiate administration and/or exercise...
August 2011: Biomedical Research
Yuni Wahyuni, Ana-Rosa Ballester, Enny Sudarmonowati, Raoul J Bino, Arnaud G Bovy
A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological characters such as fruit color, pungency and origin. Major metabolites in fruits of pepper, carotenoids, capsaicinoids (pungency), flavonoid glycosides, and vitamins C and E were analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography...
August 2011: Phytochemistry
Kunduru K Reddy, Thumu Ravinder, Rachapudi B N Prasad, Sanjit Kanjilal
Synthesis of 10 capsiate analogues was conducted by lipase-mediated (Novozyme 435) esterification of vanillyl alcohol with different fatty acids. The antioxidant activity of the synthesized capsiates was evaluated using three in vitro assays: DPPH radical scavenging assay (polar medium), Rancimat assay (nonpolar medium), and autoxidation of linoleic acid (micellar medium). The objective of this study is to find the influence of structural characteristics of the alkyl chain of capsiate analogues on their antioxidant activity...
January 26, 2011: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kaori Ono, Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui, Yoshiko Hara-Kimura, Naohiko Inoue, Yoshihito Nogusa, Yuki Okabe, Kei Nagashima, Fusao Kato
The sympathetic thermoregulatory system controls the magnitude of adaptive thermogenesis in correspondence with the environmental temperature or the state of energy intake and plays a key role in determining the resultant energy storage. However, the nature of the trigger initiating this reflex arc remains to be determined. Here, using capsiate, a digestion-vulnerable capsaicin analog, we examined the involvement of specific activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels within the gastrointestinal tract in the thermogenic sympathetic system by measuring the efferent activity of the postganglionic sympathetic nerve innervating brown adipose tissue (BAT) in anesthetized rats...
March 2011: Journal of Applied Physiology
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