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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918573/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-against-trimethyltin-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-injury
#1
Sukhwinder Kaur, Neha Sharma, Bimla Nehru
BACKGROUND: Despite the immense neuromodulatory potentials of Ginkgo biloba extract as a memory enhancer, its underlying mechanism seems inadequate particularly with regard to its anti-inflammatory properties. AIM: The objective of the present study is to investigate the protective potentials of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) against hippocampal neuronal injury induced by trimethyltin (TMT), a potent neurotoxicant. METHODS: Male SD rats were administered trimethyltin (8...
September 16, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918562/crispr-cas9-genome-editing-in-wheat
#2
Dongjin Kim, Burcu Alptekin, Hikmet Budak
Genome editing has been a long-term challenge for molecular biology research, particularly for plants possess complex genome. The recently discovered Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a versatile tool for genome editing which enables editing of multiple genes based on the guidance of small RNAs. Even though the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 system has been shown with several studies from diploid plants, its application remains a challenge for plants with polyploid and complex genome...
September 16, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918507/the-muscle-regulatory-transcription-factor-myod-participates-with-p53-to-directly-increase-the-expression-of-the-pro-apoptotic-bcl2-family-member-puma
#3
Terri J Harford, Greg Kliment, Girish C Shukla, Crystal M Weyman
The muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD is a master regulator of skeletal myoblast differentiation. We have previously reported that MyoD is also necessary for the elevated expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA, and the ensuing apoptosis, that occurs in a subset of myoblasts induced to differentiate. Herein, we report the identification of a functional MyoD binding site within the extended PUMA promoter. In silico analysis of the murine PUMA extended promoter revealed three potential MyoD binding sites within 2 kb of the transcription start site...
September 16, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918251/hmg-box-factor-soxd-sox15-and-homeodomain-containing-factor-xanf1-hesx1-directly-interact-and-regulate-the-expression-of-xanf1-hesx1-during-early-forebrain-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#4
Natalia Y Martynova, Fedor M Eroshkin, Eugeny E Оrlov, Andrey G Zaraisky
The homeodomain-containing transcription factor Anf (also known as Rpx/Hesx1 in mammals) plays an important role during the forebrain development in vertebrates. Here we demonstrate the ability of the Xenopus laevis Anf, Xanf1/Hesx1, to directly bind SRY-related HMG-box-containing transcription factor SoxD/Sox15 and to cooperate with the latter during regulating of the expression of Xanf1/Hesx1 own gene. As we have shown by GST pull-down, EMSA and the luciferase reporter assays, Xanf1/Hesx1 and SoxD/Sox15 bind the Xanf1/Hesx1 promoter region counteracting the inhibitory effect of Xanf1/Hesx1 alone...
September 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918244/determinants-and-regulation-of-protein-turnover-in-yeast
#5
Miguel Martin-Perez, Judit Villén
Protein turnover maintains the recycling needs of the proteome, and its malfunction has been linked to aging and age-related diseases. However, not all proteins turnover equally, and the factors that contribute to accelerate or slow down turnover are mostly unknown. We measured turnover rates for 3,160 proteins in exponentially growing yeast and analyzed their dependence on physical, functional, and genetic properties. We found that functional characteristics, including protein localization, complex membership, and connectivity, have greater effect on turnover than sequence elements...
September 13, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918057/one-step-piggybac-transposon-based-crispr-cas9-activation-of-multiple-genes
#6
Shenglan Li, Anqi Zhang, Haipeng Xue, Dali Li, Ying Liu
Neural cell fate is determined by a tightly controlled transcription regulatory network during development. The ability to manipulate the expression of multiple transcription factors simultaneously is required to delineate the complex picture of neural cell development. Because of the limited carrying capacity of the commonly used viral vectors, such as lentiviral or retroviral vectors, it is often challenging to perform perturbation experiments on multiple transcription factors. Here we have developed a piggyBac (PB) transposon-based CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) all-in-one system, which allows for simultaneous and stable endogenous transactivation of multiple transcription factors and long non-coding RNAs...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918029/activation-of-ampk-attenuated-cardiac-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-cdk2-via-p21-p27-and-mir-29-family-pathways-in-rats
#7
Hanping Qi, Yan Liu, Shuzhi Li, Yunping Chen, Lei Li, Yonggang Cao, Mingyao E, Pilong Shi, Chao Song, Baiyan Li, Hongli Sun
Cardiac fibrosis is pathological damage associated with nearly all forms of heart disease. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionary conserved energy-sensing enzyme. Emerging evidences indicate that AMPK plays an important role in cardiac fibrosis and cell proliferation. However, less is known about the detailed mechanism of AMPK activation on cardiac fibrosis. In this study, we found the AMPK activation improved the impaired cardiac function of cardiac fibrosis rats and decreased interstitial fibrosis...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918026/anti-fibrotic-effects-of-synthetic-oligodeoxynucleotide-for-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-smad-in-an-animal-model-of-liver-cirrhosis
#8
Jung-Yeon Kim, Hyun-Jin An, Woon-Hae Kim, Mi-Gyeong Gwon, Hyemin Gu, Yoon-Yub Park, Kwan-Kyu Park
Liver fibrosis is characterized by changes in tissue architecture and extracellular matrix composition. Liver fibrosis affects not only hepatocytes but also the non-parenchymal cells such as hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which are essential for maintaining an intact liver structure and function. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine that induces liver fibrosis through activation of Smad signaling pathways. To improve a new therapeutic approach, synthetic TGF-β1/Smad oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) was used to suppress both TGF-β1 expression and Smad transcription factor using a combination of antisense ODN and decoy ODN...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918023/repression-of-coup-tfi-improves-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-into-insulin-producing-cells
#9
Tao Zhang, Xiao-Hang Li, Dian-Bao Zhang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Feng Zhao, Xue-Wen Lin, Rui Wang, Hong-Xin Lang, Xi-Ning Pang
Identifying molecular mechanisms that regulate insulin expression in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) can provide clues on how to stimulate the differentiation of bmMSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs), which can be used as a therapeutic approach against type 1 diabetes (T1D). As repression factors may inhibit differentiation, the efficiency of this process is insufficient for cell transplantation. In this study, we used the mouse insulin 2 (Ins2) promoter sequence and performed a DNA affinity precipitation assay combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the transcription factor, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcriptional factor I (COUP-TFI)...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918014/artificial-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-of-a20-suppresses-restenosis-in-sprague-dawley-rats-after-carotid-injury-via-the-ppar%C3%AE-pathway
#10
Zhaoyou Meng, Pan Gao, Lin Chen, Jing Peng, Jialu Huang, Min Wu, Kangning Chen, Zhenhua Zhou
The inhibition of inflammation and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is an ideal strategy to suppress intimal hyperplasia after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Evidence has indicated that overexpression of A20 suppresses neointima formation, but its low transfection efficiency limits its application. Hence, we upregulated A20 expression via transfection of rAd.ATF (recombinant adenovirus vector of artificial transcription factor) and rAd.A20 in rat carotid arteries after balloon dilatation (in vivo) and isolated VSMCs (in vitro)...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918000/nitric-oxide-prevents-aft1-activation-and-metabolic-remodeling-in-frataxin-deficient-yeast
#11
David Alsina, Joaquim Ros, Jordi Tamarit
Yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) is the orthologue of human frataxin, a mitochondrial protein whose deficiency causes Friedreich Ataxia. Yfh1 deficiency activates Aft1, a transcription factor governing iron homeostasis in yeast cells. Although the mechanisms causing this activation are not completely understood, it is assumed that it may be caused by iron-sulfur deficiency. However, several evidences indicate that activation of Aft1 occurs in the absence of iron-sulfur deficiency. Besides, Yfh1 deficiency also leads to metabolic remodeling (mainly consisting in a shift from respiratory to fermentative metabolism) and to induction of Yhb1, a nitric oxide (NO) detoxifying enzyme...
September 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917973/inhibitory-effects-of-dianthi-herba-ethanolic-extract-on-inflammatory-and-nociceptive-responses-in-murine-macrophages-and-mouse-models-of-abdominal-writhing-and-ear-edema
#12
You-Chang Oh, Yun Hee Jeong, Won-Kyung Cho, Youn-Hwan Hwang, Jin Yeul Ma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dianthi Herba is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory-related diseases including acute pyelonephritis, cystitis, laryngopharyngitis, and urethritis. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the effects of Dianthi Herba ethanolic extract (DH) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses in murine macrophages as well as nociceptive and edema mouse models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The biological effects of DH on inflammatory cytokine, mediator, and related protein production were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917838/human-smoothened-inhibits-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection
#13
Takeshi Yoshida, Akiko Hamano, Asuka Ueda, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Shoji Yamaoka
Human SMOOTHENED (SMO) was identified by expression cloning as a new host factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection. Forced expression of SMO inhibited HIV-1 replication and infection with a single-round lentiviral vector, but not infection with a murine leukemia virus-based retroviral vector in human MT-4 T cells. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that stable expression of SMO impaired formation of the integrated form of lentiviral DNA, but did not interrupt reverse transcription. This inhibition was evident in MT-4 and HUT102 human T cell lines expressing low levels of SMO mRNA, but not in SupT1 or Jurkat T cell lines expressing higher levels of SMO mRNA...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917667/amyloid-%C3%AE-42-clearance-and-neuroprotection-mediated-by-x-box-binding-protein-1-signaling-decline-with-aging-in-the-drosophila-brain
#14
María S Marcora, Lautaro F Belfiori-Carrasco, Nadia I Bocai, Laura Morelli, Eduardo M Castaño
The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be pathogenically related to Alzheimer's disease. Yet, the effects of chronic amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) accumulation and UPR activation upon neurotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we show that neuronal Aβ42 expression in Drosophila activated the inositol-requiring protein-1/X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) UPR branch before the onset of behavioral impairment and persisted with aging. Early upregulation of hsc3/BiP, a target of XBP1 and activating transcription factor 6 pathways, was also sustained in old animals...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917653/human-il6-stimulates-bovine-satellite-cell-proliferation-through-a-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3-stat3-dependent-mechanism
#15
A M Brandt, J M Kania, B M Reinholt, S E Johnson
Bovine satellite cell (bSC) myogenesis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur through the orchestrated actions of multiple autocrine and paracrine growth factors. Intimate to the bSC niche is IL6, a dual-purpose cytokine with proinflammatory and mitogenic properties. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of IL6 on proliferation and differentiation of bSC in vitro. Treatment of primary bSC cultures with recombinant bovine IL6 (bIL6) failed to alter myogenesis owing to the absence of intracellular signal transduction...
August 31, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917589/a-novel-rgl2-dof6-complex-contributes-to-primary-seed-dormancy-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-by-regulating-a-gata-transcription-factor
#16
Pratibha Ravindran, Vivek Verma, Petra Stamm, Prakash P Kumar
The DELLA protein RGA-LIKE2 (RGL2) is a key transcriptional repressor of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling that regulates seed germination. We identified GATA12, a gene encoding a GATA-type zinc finger transcription factor, as one of the downstream targets of RGL2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our data show that freshly harvested (unstratified) seeds of GATA12 antisense suppression lines have reduced dormancy than the wild type, while ectopic expression lines show enhanced seed dormancy. We show that GATA12 transcription is negatively regulated by GA and its transcript levels decline dramatically under dormancy-breaking conditions such as dry storage and cold-stratification of seeds...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917488/gene-expression-regulation-of-the-tlr9-and-myd88-dependent-pathways-in-rock-bream-against-rock-bream-iridovirus-rbiv-infection
#17
Myung-Hwa Jung, Sung-Ju Jung
Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV), which is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus, causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream in Korea. To date, the innate immune defense mechanisms of rock bream against RBIV is unclear. In this study, we assessed the expression levels of genes related to TLR9 and MyD88-dependent pathways in RBIV-infected rock bream in high, low or no mortality conditions. In the high mortality group (100% mortality at 15 days post infection (dpi)), high levels of TLR9 and MyD88 expressions (6...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917487/glutamate-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-oxidative-damage-and-mrna-expression-changes-of-tight-junction-and-defensin-proteins-inflammatory-and-apoptosis-response-signaling-molecules-in-the-intestine-of-fish
#18
Jun Jiang, Long Yin, Jin-Yang Li, Qian Li, Dan Shi, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Ye Zhao, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
The present study explored the possible preventive effects of dietary glutamate (Glu) on LPS-induced oxidative damage, mRNA expression changes of tight junction (TJ) proteins and defensins, inflammatory and apoptosis response signaling molecules in fish intestine. Young Jian carp were fed five diets supplemental graded levels of Glu (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g kg(-1) diet) for 63 days. The results indicated that Glu supplementation depressed LPS induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and severe oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) in fish intestine, which was partially due to the increased glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) (P < 0...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917238/qualitative-study-of-eating-habits-in-bruneian-primary-school-children
#19
Tajidah Talip, Rajiah Serudin, Salmah Noor, Nik Tuah
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917143/glutathione-induced-alleviation-of-cadmium-toxicity-in-zea-mays
#20
Mei Li, Pengfei Hao, Fangbin Cao
Glutathione (GSH) is known to alleviate cadmium (Cd) stress in many plant species. However, the comprehensive mechanisms responsible for this effect in maize are still need more investigation. Here, a combination of physiological and molecular approaches was utilized in GSH-Cd treated maize seedlings, which revealed that GSH reversed the adverse effects of Cd, as reflected by plant growth, plant hormones, vacuole, stoma development, gene expression, etc. Plant growth, root cell viability, photosynthetic capacity, redox equilibrium, and cell ultrastructure recovery following GSH treatment, coupled with the strong up-regulation of Cd tolerance-related genes (e...
September 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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