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Qin Li, Klaus Michel, Anita Annahazi, Ihsan E Demir, Güralp O Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Lars Komorowski, Winfried Stöcker, Michael J Beyak, David Grundy, Gianrico Farrugia, Roberto De Giorgio, Michael Schemann
IgG of type 1 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-1, anti-Hu) specificity is a serological marker of paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity (including enteric/autonomic) usually related to small-cell lung carcinoma. We show here that IgG isolated from such sera and also affinity-purified anti-HuD label enteric neurons and cause an immediate spike discharge in enteric and visceral sensory neurons. Both labelling and activation of enteric neurons was prevented by preincubation with the HuD antigen. Activation of enteric neurons was inhibited by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium and dihydro-β-erythroidine and reduced by the P2X antagonist pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo (benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid (PPADS) but not by the 5-HT3 antagonist tropisetron or the N-type Ca-channel blocker ω-Conotoxin GVIA...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
Štěpán Stočes, Tom Ruttink, Jan Bartoš, Bruno Studer, Steven Yates, Zbigniew Zwierzykowski, Michael Abrouk, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Tomasz Książczyk, Elodie Rey, Jaroslav Doležel, David Kopecký
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent natural DNA sequence variation. They can be used for various applications including the construction of high-density genetic maps, analysis of genetic variability, genome-wide association studies, and map-based cloning. Here we report on transcriptome sequencing in the two forage grasses, meadow fescue ( Huds.) and Italian ryegrass ( Lam.), and identification of various classes of SNPs. Using the Orthology Guided Assembly (OGA) strategy, we assembled and annotated a total of 18,952 and 19,036 transcripts for Italian ryegrass and meadow fescue, respectively...
November 2016: Plant Genome
Murtaza K Adam, Sarah Thornton, Carl D Regillo, Carl Park, Allen C Ho, Jason Hsu
PURPOSE: To determine minimal endoillumination levels required to perform 3-dimensional heads-up vitreoretinal surgery and to correlate endoillumination levels used for measurements of heads-up display (HUD) luminous emittance. METHODS: Prospective, observational surgical case series of 10 patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery. Endoillumination levels were set to 40% of maximum output and were decreased at set intervals until the illumination level was 0%. Corresponding luminous emittance (lux) of the HUD was measured 40 cm from the display using a luxmeter (Dr...
November 29, 2016: Retina
Kelly J Vining, Sean R Johnson, Amirhossein Ahkami, Iris Lange, Amber N Parrish, Susan C Trapp, Rodney B Croteau, Shannon C K Straub, Iovanna Pandelova, B Markus Lange
The genus Mentha encompasses species cultivated for their essential oils, which are formulated into a vast array of consumer products. Desirable oil characteristics and resistance to the fungal disease Verticillium wilt are top priorities for the mint industry. However, cultivated mints have complex polyploid genomes and are sterile. Breeding efforts, therefore, require the development of genomic resources for fertile mint species. Here, we present draft de novo genome and plastome assemblies for a wilt-resistant South African accession of Mentha longifolia (L...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Plant
Daniela Tekeľová, Silvia Bittner Fialová, Jaroslav Tóth, Szilvia Czigle
Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
Angelo G I Maremmani, Pier Paolo Pani, Emanuela Trogu, Federica Vigna-Taglianti, Federica Mathis, Roberto Diecidue, Ursula Kirchmayer, Laura Amato, Joli Ghibaudi, Antonella Camposeragna, Alessio Saponaro, Marina Davoli, Fabrizio Faggiano, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: A specific psychopathology of addiction has been proposed and described using the self-report symptom inventory (SCL-90), leading to a 5-factor aggregation of psychological/psychiatric symptoms: 'worthlessness and being trapped', 'somatic symptoms', 'sensitivity-psychoticism', 'panic-anxiety' and 'violence-suicide' in various populations of patients with heroin use disorder (HUD) and other substance use disorders (SUDs). These clusters of symptoms, according to studies that have highlighted the role of possible confounding factors (such as demographic and clinical characteristics, active heroin use, lifetime psychiatric problems and kind of treatment received by the patients), seem to constitute a trait rather than a state of the psychological structure of addiction...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Shoaib R Soomro, Hakan Urey
A transparent retro-reflective screen, which can be used as head-up-display (HUD) or a see-through screen for head mounted projection displays (HMPD) is proposed. The high optical gain of screen enables the use of low power projectors to produce very bright content. The screen assembly is based on retro-reflective microspheres, patterned on an optically clear substrate using steel stencil as a shadow mask. The incident light is retro-reflected as a narrow angular cone to create an eyebox for the viewer. The optical gain and transparency of screen is varied by changing the fill factor of the mask...
October 17, 2016: Optics Express
Li-Tzy Wu, He Zhu, Marvin S Swartz
BACKGROUND: The United States is experiencing an opioid overdose epidemic. Treatment use data from diverse racial/ethnic groups with opioid use disorder (OUD) are needed to inform treatment expansion efforts. METHODS: We examined demographic characteristics and behavioral health of persons aged ≥12 years that met criteria for past-year OUD (n=6,125) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=503,101). We determined the prevalence and correlates of past-year use of alcohol/drug use treatment and opioid-specific treatment to inform efforts for improving OUD treatment...
October 19, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
X Pham, G Song, S Lao, L Goff, H Zhu, D Valle, D Avramopoulos
We previously reported a schizophrenia-associated polymorphic CT di-nucleotide repeat (DNR) at the 5'-untranslated repeat (UTR) of DPYSL2, which responds to mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling with allelic differences in reporter assays. Now using microarray analysis, we show that the DNR alleles interact differentially with specific proteins, including the mTOR-related protein HuD/ELAVL4. We confirm the differential binding to HuD and other known mTOR effectors by electrophoretic mobility shift assays...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Leah J Clifton, Allan D Cala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Maria J O'Connell, Wesley J Kasprow, Robert A Rosenheck
OBJECTIVE: This study examined social network structure and function among a sample of 460 homeless veterans who participated in an experimental trial of the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to HUD-VASH (housing subsidies and case management), case management only, or standard care. Mixed-model longitudinal analysis was used to compare treatment groups on social network outcomes over 18 months...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Mario A Pulido, Meleeneh Kazarian DerHartunian, Zhenxia Qin, Eric M Chung, Diane S Kang, Andrew W Woodham, Jeffrey A Tsou, Rinse Klooster, Omid Akbari, Lina Wang, W Martin Kast, Stephen V Liu, Jan J G M Verschuuren, Dana W Aswad, Ite A Laird-Offringa
Autoantibodies against SCLC-associated neuronal antigen ELAVL4 (HuD) have been linked to smaller tumors and improved survival, but the antigenic epitope and mechanism of autoimmunity have never been solved. We report that recombinant human ELAVL4 protein incubated under physiological conditions acquires isoaspartylation, a type of immunogenic protein damage. Specifically, the N-terminal region of ELAVL4, previously implicated in SCLC-associated autoimmunity, undergoes isoaspartylation in vitro, is recognized by sera from anti-ELAVL4 positive SCLC patients and is highly immunogenic in subcutaneously injected mice and in vitro stimulated human lymphocytes...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sheng-Sheng Yu, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, Facundo M Fernández, Nicholas V Hud, F Joseph Schork, Martha A Grover
In this work, we introduce a kinetic model to study the effectiveness of ester-mediated amide bond formation under prebiotic conditions. In our previous work, we found that a simple system composed of α-hydroxy acids and α-amino acids is capable of forming peptide bonds via esterification followed by the ester-amide exchange reaction. To further understand the kinetic behavior of this copolymerization, we first tracked the growth of initial species from a valine/lactic acid mixture in a closed system reactor...
October 3, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jesse V Gavette, Matthias Stoop, Nicholas V Hud, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy
The RNA world hypothesis posits that DNA and proteins were later inventions of early life, or the chemistry that gave rise to life. Most scenarios put forth for the emergence of DNA assume a clean separation of RNA and DNA polymer, and a smooth transition between RNA and DNA. However, based on the reality of "clutter" and lack of sophisticated separation/discrimination mechanisms in a protobiological (and/or prebiological) world, heterogeneous RNA-DNA backbone containing chimeric sequences could have been common-and have not been fully considered in models transitioning from an RNA world to an RNA-DNA world...
October 10, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Katherine A Ahrens, Barbara A Haley, Lauren M Rossen, Patricia C Lloyd, Yutaka Aoki
OBJECTIVES: To compare blood lead levels (BLLs) among US children aged 1 to 5 years according to receipt of federal housing assistance. METHODS: In our analyses, we used 2005 to 2012 data for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) respondents that were linked to 1999 to 2014 administrative records from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). After we restricted the analysis to children with family income-to-poverty ratios below 200%, we compared geometric mean BLLs and the prevalence of BLLs of 3 micrograms per deciliter or higher among children who were living in assisted housing at the time of their NHANES blood draw (n = 151) with data for children who did not receive housing assistance (n = 1099)...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Nadège Oustriere, Lilian Marchand, Jean Luc Bouchardon, Olivier Faure, Jacques Moutte, Michel Mench
Aided phytostabilization of a barren, alkaline metal(loid)-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes, with high soluble Cr and Mo concentrations, was assessed in a pot experiment using (1) Ni/Cd-tolerant populations of Festuca pratensis Huds., Holcus lanatus L., and Plantago lanceolata L. sowed in mixed stand and (2) six soil treatments: untreated soil (UNT), ramial chipped wood (RCW, 500m(3)ha(-1)), composted sewage sludge (CSS, 120t DW ha(-1)), UNT soil amended with compost (5% w/w) and either vermiculite (5%, VOM) or iron grit (1%, OMZ), and an uncontaminated soil (CTRL)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Bradley Burcar, Matthew Pasek, Maheen Gull, Brian J Cafferty, Francisco Velasco, Nicholas V Hud, César Menor-Salván
The poor reactivity of insoluble phosphates, such as apatite-group minerals, has been a long-appreciated obstacle for proposed models of prebiotic organophosphate formation. This obstacle presents a significant challenge to the nascent development of an RNA world and other models for the origins of life on Earth. Herein, we demonstrate that a scenario based on the formation of a urea/ammonium formate/water (UAFW) eutectic solution leads to an increase in phosphorylation when compared to urea alone for phosphate sources of varying solubility...
October 10, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Barbara L Brush, Laura E Gultekin, Elizabeth C Grim
Current estimates of homelessness in the U.S. are biased toward counts of sheltered or visibly unsheltered individuals. Those who remain out of sight during counts and/or live in places or circumstances that elude the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) definition of homelessness remain undercounted. Underreporting the unique characteristics associated with subgroups of people experiencing homelessness also limits access to the services that best meet their needs. As national counts drive policy and funding for housing-related services, front-line providers have too few resources to treat less visible and understood populations...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Nicoletta Marchesi, Marialaura Amadio, Claudia Colombrita, Stefano Govoni, Antonia Ratti, Alessia Pascale
Neuronal ELAV/Hu (nELAV) are RNA-binding proteins that mainly regulate gene expression by increasing the stability and/or translation rate of target mRNAs bearing ARE (adenine and uracil-rich elements) sequences. Among nELAV target transcripts there is ADAM10, an α-secretase involved in the non-amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) which leads to the production of the neuroprotective sAβPPα peptide. The aim of this study was to evaluate if nELAV depletion affects ADAM10 expression in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Haihui Wang, Fika Tri Anggraini, Xuequn Chen, Donald J DeGracia
Prolonged translation arrest correlates with delayed neuronal death of hippocampal CA1 neurons following global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Many previous studies investigated ribosome molecular biology, but mRNA regulatory mechanisms after brain ischemia have been less studied. Here we investigated the embryonic lethal abnormal vision/Hu isoforms HuR, HuB, HuC, and HuD, as well as expression of mRNAs containing adenine and rich uridine elements following global ischemia in rat brain. Proteomics of embryonic lethal abnormal vision immunoprecipitations or polysomes isolated from rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3 from controls or following 10 min ischemia plus 8 h of reperfusion showed distinct sets of mRNA-binding proteins, suggesting differential mRNA regulation in each condition...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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