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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645181/the-clinical-benefits-of-perioperative-antioxidant-vitamin-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#1
Jun Geng, Ju Qian, Weijun Si, Hao Cheng, Fuhai Ji, Zhenya Shen
The clinical benefits of perioperative antioxidant vitamin therapy in cardiac patients remain controversial. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine the strength of the evidence supporting the perioperative use of antioxidant vitamins in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We searched 4 databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index and Cochrane Library) for randomized controlled trials that reported the effects of antioxidant vitamin therapy on patients undergoing cardiac surgery until 6 June 2016...
June 22, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645126/-adhd-in-adults-and-comorbid-substance-use-disorder-prevalence-clinical-diagnostics-and-integrated-therapy
#2
Henrike Dirks, Norbert Scherbaum, Bernhard Kis, Christian Mette
Substance use disorders (SUD) are one of the most frequent mental disorders among adults. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental health issues in childhood and adolescence, often persisting in adulthood. ADHD in childhood and adolescence is a robust predictor of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use in adulthood. Prevalence of comorbid ADHD in SUD patients is high. Nearly one quarter of these patients fulfill the DSM IV criteria for ADHD. Integrated concepts for treatment of SUD and ADHD are needed, but rare up to now...
June 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645105/a-three-gene-immunohistochemical-panel-serves-as-an-adjunct-to-clinical-staging-of-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#3
Chin-Ann J Ong, Nicholas B Shannon, Stefan Mueller, Sze Min Lek, Xuan Qiu, Fui Teen Chong, Ke Li, Kelvin K N Koh, Gerald C A Tay, Thakshayeni Skanthakumar, Jacqueline S G Hwang, Tony Kiat Hon Lim, Mei Kim Ang, Daniel S W Tan, Ngian-Chye Tan, Hiang Khoon Tan, Khee Chee Soo, N Gopalakrishna Iyer
BACKGROUND: Current management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) depends on tumor staging. Despite refinements in clinical staging algorithms, outcomes remain unchanged for the last two decades. In this study, we set out to identify a small, clinically applicable molecular panel to aid prognostication of patients with HNSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to derive copy number aberrations and expression changes to identify putative prognostic genes...
June 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645098/the-behavioral-economics-of-social-anxiety-disorder-reveal-a-robust-effect-for-interpersonal-traits
#4
Thomas L Rodebaugh, Natasha A Tonge, Jaclyn S Weisman, Michelle H Lim, Katya C Fernandez, Ryan Bogdan
Recent evidence suggests that reduced generosity among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in behavioral economic tasks may result from constraint in changing behavior according to interpersonal contingencies. That is, people with SAD may be slower to be more generous when the situation warrants. Conversely, more global effects on generosity may be related to interpersonal vindictiveness, a dimension only somewhat related to SAD. A total of 133 participants, 73 with the generalized form of SAD, completed self-report instruments and a behavioral economic task with simulated interpersonal (friend, romantic partner, stranger) interactions...
June 15, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645097/raman-spectroscopy-differentiates-between-sensitive-and-resistant-multiple-myeloma-cell-lines
#5
Domenico Franco, Sebastiano Trusso, Enza Fazio, Alessandro Allegra, Caterina Musolino, Antonio Speciale, Francesco Cimino, Antonella Saija, Fortunato Neri, Marco S Nicolò, Salvatore P P Guglielmino
Current methods for identifying neoplastic cells and discerning them from their normal counterparts are often nonspecific and biologically perturbing. Here, we show that single-cell micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used to discriminate between resistant and sensitive multiple myeloma cell lines based on their highly reproducible biomolecular spectral signatures. In order to demonstrate robustness of the proposed approach, we used two different cell lines of multiple myeloma, namely MM.1S and U266B1, and their counterparts MM...
June 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645067/using-a-detailed-inventory-of-a-large-wastewater-treatment-plant-to-estimate-the-relative-importance-of-construction-to-the-overall-environmental-impacts
#6
Serni Morera, Lluís Corominas, Miquel Rigola, Manel Poch, Joaquim Comas
The aim of this work is to quantify the relative contribution to the overall environmental impact of the construction phase compared to the operational phase for a large conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To estimate these environmental impacts, a systematic procedure was designed to obtain the detailed Life Cycle Inventories (LCI) for civil works and equipment, taking as starting point the construction project budget and the list of equipment installed at the Girona WWTP, which are the most reliable information sources of materials and resources used during the construction phase...
June 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645018/take-over-performance-in-evasive-manoeuvres
#7
Riender Happee, Christian Gold, Jonas Radlmayr, Sebastian Hergeth, Klaus Bengler
We investigated after effects of automation in take-over scenarios in a high-end moving-base driving simulator. Drivers performed evasive manoeuvres encountering a blocked lane in highway driving. We compared the performance of drivers 1) during manual driving, 2) after automated driving with eyes on the road while performing the cognitively demanding n-back task, and 3) after automated driving with eyes off the road performing the visually demanding SuRT task. Both minimum time to collision (TTC) and minimum clearance towards the obstacle disclosed a substantial number of near miss events and are regarded as valuable surrogate safety metrics in evasive manoeuvres...
June 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644995/less-is-more-breast-conservation-might-be-even-better-than-mastectomy-in-early-breast-cancer-patients
#8
Oreste D Gentilini, Maria-Joao Cardoso, Philip Poortmans
During the recent years an increase of mastectomy rates in early breast cancer patients has been observed. Nevertheless, several large population-based studies reported a possible improved outcome after breast conserving therapy compared to radical surgery, after all the adjustments. We hereby summarize our opinion on this topic suggesting that these robust and consistent data might challenge the statement that breast conserving therapy is merely not inferior to radical surgery.
June 20, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644966/an-immunosuppressive-function-of-interleukin-35-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#9
Siqi Liu, Qian Zhang, Xue Shao, Wenrui Wang, Chuanhui Zhang, Zhenjing Jin
Interleukin (IL)-35, a newly identified member of the IL-12 cytokine family, has been reported to suppress inflammation and induce immunotolerance. However, little is known regarding the role of IL-35 during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we measured the serum IL-35 concentration of 73 patients with hepatitis C and 22 healthy individuals, as well as further investigated the modulatory function of IL-35 on CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(dim/-) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on hepatocytes infected with HCV in cell culture (HCVcc)...
June 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644886/complex-i-inhibition-augments-dichloroacetate-cytotoxicity-through-enhancing-oxidative-stress-in-vm-m3-glioblastoma-cells
#10
Nathan P Ward, Angela M Poff, Andrew P Koutnik, Dominic P D'Agostino
The robust glycolytic metabolism of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has proven them susceptible to increases in oxidative metabolism induced by the pyruvate mimetic dichloroacetate (DCA). Recent reports demonstrate that the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhances the damaging oxidative stress associated with DCA treatment in cancer cells. We sought to elucidate the role of metformin's reported activity as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor in the enhancement of DCA cytotoxicity in VM-M3 GBM cells. Metformin potentiated DCA-induced superoxide production, which was required for enhanced cytotoxicity towards VM-M3 cells observed with the combination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644859/grief-interventions-for-people-bereaved-by-suicide-a-systematic-review
#11
Katja Linde, Julia Treml, Jana Steinig, Michaela Nagl, Anette Kersting
BACKGROUND: Adaption to the loss of a loved one due to suicide can be complicated by feelings of guilt, shame, responsibility, rejection, and stigmatization. Therefore people bereaved by suicide have an increased risk for developing complicated grief which is related to negative physical and mental disorders and an increased risk for suicidal behavior. Grief interventions are needed for this vulnerable population. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the current state of evidence concerning the effectiveness of interventions that focus on grief for people bereaved by suicide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644841/low-dimensional-spike-rate-models-derived-from-networks-of-adaptive-integrate-and-fire-neurons-comparison-and-implementation
#12
Moritz Augustin, Josef Ladenbauer, Fabian Baumann, Klaus Obermayer
The spiking activity of single neurons can be well described by a nonlinear integrate-and-fire model that includes somatic adaptation. When exposed to fluctuating inputs sparsely coupled populations of these model neurons exhibit stochastic collective dynamics that can be effectively characterized using the Fokker-Planck equation. This approach, however, leads to a model with an infinite-dimensional state space and non-standard boundary conditions. Here we derive from that description four simple models for the spike rate dynamics in terms of low-dimensional ordinary differential equations using two different reduction techniques: one uses the spectral decomposition of the Fokker-Planck operator, the other is based on a cascade of two linear filters and a nonlinearity, which are determined from the Fokker-Planck equation and semi-analytically approximated...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644806/discriminative-deep-metric-learning-for-face-and-kinship-verification
#13
Jiwen Lu, Junlin Hu, Yap-Peng Tan
This paper presents a new discriminative deep metric learning (DDML) method for face and kinship verification in wild conditions. While metric learning has achieved reasonably good performance in face and kinship verification, most existing metric learning methods aim to learn a single Mahalanobis distance metric to maximize the inter-class variations and minimize the intra-class variations, which cannot capture the nonlinear manifold where face images usually lie on. To address this, we propose a DDML method to train a deep neural network to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations to project face pairs into the same latent feature space, under which the distance of each positive pair is reduced and that of each negative pair is enlarged, respectively...
June 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644798/joint-alignment-of-multiple-point-sets-with-batch-and-incremental-expectation-maximization
#14
Dimitrios Georgios Evangelidis, Radu Horaud
This paper addresses the problem of registering multiple point sets. Solutions to this problem are often approximated by repeatedly solving for pairwise registration, which results in an uneven treatment of the sets forming a pair: a model set and a data set. The main drawback of this strategy is that the model set may contain noise and outliers, which negatively affects the estimation of the registration parameters. In contrast, the proposed formulation treats all the point sets on an equal footing. Indeed, all the points are drawn from a central Gaussian mixture, hence the registration is cast into a clustering problem...
June 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644795/a-novel-short-term-event-extraction-algorithm-for-biomedical-signals
#15
Sasan Yazdani, Sibylle Fallet, Jean-Marc Vesin
In this paper we propose a fast novel non-linear filtering method named Relative-Energy (Rel-En), for robust short-term event extraction from biomedical signals. We developed an algorithm that extracts short- and long-term energies in a signal and provides a coefficient vector with which the signal is multiplied, heightening events of interest. This algorithm is thoroughly assessed on benchmark datasets in three different biomedical applications namely, ECG QRS-complex detection, EEG K-complex detection, and imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) peak detection...
June 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644794/electrocardiogram-signal-quality-assessment-based-on-structural-image-similarity-metric
#16
Yalda Shahriari, Richard Fidler, Michele Pelter, Yong Bai, Andrea Villaroman, Xiao Hu
OBJECTIVE: We developed an image-based electrocardiographic (ECG) quality assessment technique that mimics how clinicians annotate ECG signal quality. METHODS: We adopted the Structural Similarity Measure (SSIM) to compare images of two ECG records that are obtained from displaying ECGs in a standard scale. Then a subset of representative ECG images from the training set was selected as templates through a clustering method. SSIM between each image and all the templates were used as the feature vector for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier...
June 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644780/avoiding-racial-essentialism-in-medical-science-curricula
#17
Lundy Braun, Barry Saunders
A wave of medical student activism is shining a spotlight on medical educators' sometimes maladroit handling of racial categories in teaching about health disparities. Coinciding with recent critiques, primarily by social scientists, regarding the imprecise and inappropriate use of race as a biological or epidemiological risk factor in genetics research, medical student activism has triggered new collaborations among students, faculty, and administrators to rethink how race is addressed in the medical curriculum...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644693/supplemental-oxygen-in-interstitial-lung-disease-an-art-in-need-of-science
#18
Kerri A Johannson, Sachin R Pendharkar, Kirk Mathison, Charlene D Fell, Jordan A Guenette, Meena Kalluri, Martin Kolb, Christopher J Ryerson
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) comprises a large and heterogeneous group of disorders that often lead to progressive fibrosis and premature death. Oxygen supplementation is typically used in advanced lung disease patients with resting hypoxemia; however, there is a paucity of evidence guiding the use of supplemental oxygen in ILD, and significant heterogeneity in clinical practice. It remains unclear whether supplemental oxygen improves clinically meaningful outcomes, and the role of ambulatory oxygen supplementation in isolated exertional hypoxemia is particularly controversial...
June 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644579/pairing-field-methods-to-improve-inference-in-wildlife-surveys-while-accommodating-detection-covariance
#19
John Clare, Shawn T McKinney, John E DePue, Cynthia S Loftin
It is common to use multiple field sampling methods when implementing wildlife surveys to compare method efficacy or cost-efficiency, integrate distinct pieces of information provided by separate methods, or evaluate method-specific biases and misclassification error. Existing models that combine information from multiple field methods or sampling devices permit rigorous comparison of method-specific detection parameters, enable estimation of additional parameters such as false-positive detection probability, and improve occurrence or abundance estimates, but with the assumption that the separate sampling methods produce detections independently of one another...
June 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644576/size-dependency-of-tree-growth-response-to-drought-among-norway-spruce-and-european-beech-individuals-in-monospecific-and-mixed-species-stands
#20
Haiyu Ding, Hans Pretzsch, Gerhard Schütze, Thomas Rötzer
Climatic anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to the forest stands. This study analysed the size dependency of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica [L.]) in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response of drought stress, indices including basal area increment, resistance, recovery, and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores...
June 23, 2017: Plant Biology
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