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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364623/african-fermented-dairy-products-overview-of-predominant-technologically-important-microorganisms-focusing-on-african-streptococcus-infantarius-variants-and-potential-future-applications-for-enhanced-food-safety-and-security
#1
REVIEW
Christoph Jans, Leo Meile, Dasel Wambua Mulwa Kaindi, Wambui Kogi-Makau, Peter Lamuka, Pierre Renault, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Christophe Lacroix, Jan Hattendorf, Jakob Zinsstag, Esther Schelling, Gilbert Fokou, Bassirou Bonfoh
Milk is a major source of nutrients, but can also be a vehicle for zoonotic foodborne diseases, especially when raw milk is consumed. In Africa, poor processing and storage conditions contribute to contamination, outgrowth and transmission of pathogens, which lead to spoilage, reduced food safety and security. Fermentation helps mitigate the impact of poor handling and storage conditions by enhancing shelf life and food safety. Traditionally-fermented sour milk products are culturally accepted and widely distributed in Africa, and rely on product-specific microbiota responsible for aroma, flavor and texture...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097473/metabolic-syndrome-and-total-cancer-mortality-in-the-third-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#2
Wambui G Gathirua-Mwangi, Patrick O Monahan, Mwangi J Murage, Jianjun Zhang
PURPOSE: Although metabolic syndrome incidence has substantially increased during the last few decades, it largely remains unclear whether this metabolic disorder is associated with total cancer mortality. The present study was carried out to investigate this important question. METHODS: A total of 687 cancer deaths were identified from 14,916 participants in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by linking them to the National Death Index database through December 31, 2006...
February 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986906/shedding-new-light-on-the-process-of-licensing-for-pathogenicity-by-th-lymphocytes
#3
Cuiyan Tan, Wambui S Wandu, R Steven Lee, Samuel H Hinshaw, Dennis M Klinman, Eric Wawrousek, Igal Gery
Th cells sensitized against autoantigens acquire pathogenicity following two sequential events, namely activation by their target Ag and a process named "licensing." In this study, we analyzed these processes in a transgenic mouse system in which TCR-transgenic Th cells specific to hen egg lysozyme (HEL) are adoptively transferred to recipients and induce inflammation in eyes expressing HEL. Our data show that the notion that the lung is the organ where "licensing" for pathogenicity takes place is based on biased data collected with cells injected i...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918845/application-of-probabilistic-modeling-to-quantify-the-reduction-levels-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-attributable-to-chronic-aflatoxins-exposure
#4
Joseph M Wambui, Edward G Karuri, Julia A Ojiambo, Patrick M K Njage
Epidemiological studies show a definite connection between areas of high aflatoxin content and a high occurrence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B virus in individuals further increases the risk of HCC. The two risk factors are prevalent in rural Kenya and continuously predispose the rural populations to HCC. A quantitative cancer risk assessment therefore quantified the levels at which potential pre- and postharvest interventions reduce the HCC risk attributable to consumption of contaminated maize and groundnuts...
January 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895697/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823100/managing-encephalitis
#7
Hellen Wambui
What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article provided an overview of the signs and symptoms of encephalitis, and the treatment and management of this condition. It also discussed the different aspects of nursing care required for these patients.
October 5, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660116/the-effect-of-declining-exposure-on-t-cell-mediated-immunity-to-plasmodium-falciparum-an-epidemiological-natural-experiment
#8
Yaw Bediako, Joyce Mwongeli Ngoi, George Nyangweso, Juliana Wambua, Michael Opiyo, Eunice Wambui Nduati, Philip Bejon, Kevin Marsh, Francis Maina Ndungu
BACKGROUND: Naturally acquired immunity to malaria may be lost with lack of exposure. Recent heterogeneous reductions in transmission in parts of Africa mean that large populations of previously protected people may lose their immunity while remaining at risk of infection. METHODS: Using two ethnically similar long-term cohorts of children with historically similar levels of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum who now experience very different levels of exposure, we assessed the effect of decreased parasite exposure on antimalarial immunity...
September 22, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386244/effect-of-water-stress-on-growth-of-three-linseed-linum-usitatissimum-l-varieties
#9
Lilian Wambui Kariuki, Peter Masinde, Stephen Githiri, Arnold N Onyango
Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an annual oil crop that accounts for approximately 1 % of the world's oilseed supplies. It produces seeds that are rich in the health-promoting ω-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic. In Kenya, linseed is grown in the Rift Valley and Western regions, places which often experience drought. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of water stress on growth of three linseed cultivars and to establish the extent of drought tolerance in the three cultivars. A greenhouse pot experiment in a completely randomized design was conducted at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329036/phylogenetic-epidemiological-and-functional-analyses-of-the-streptococcus-bovis-streptococcus-equinus-complex-through-an-overarching-mlst-scheme
#10
Christoph Jans, Tomas de Wouters, Bassirou Bonfoh, Christophe Lacroix, Dasel Wambua Mulwa Kaindi, Janine Anderegg, Désirée Böck, Sabrina Vitali, Thomas Schmid, Julia Isenring, Fabienne Kurt, Wambui Kogi-Makau, Leo Meile
BACKGROUND: The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) comprises seven (sub)species classified as human and animal commensals, emerging opportunistic pathogens and food fermentative organisms. Changing taxonomy, shared habitats, natural competence and evidence for horizontal gene transfer pose difficulties for determining their phylogeny, epidemiology and virulence mechanisms. Thus, novel phylogenetic and functional classifications are required. An SBSEC overarching multi locus sequence type (MLST) scheme targeting 10 housekeeping genes was developed, validated and combined with host-related properties of adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), activation of the immune responses via NF-KB and survival in simulated gastric juice (SGJ)...
June 21, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159353/research-progress-in-phytochemistry-and-biology-of-aframomum-species
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Wambui Amadi, Yan Zhang, Guanzhong Wu
CONTEXT: The African genus Aframomum (Zingiberaceae) is a group of diverse tropical plants frequently collected yet largely neglected taxonomically. The current and unprecedented loss of species due to man-made habitat destruction and climate change adds a desperate urgency not only to understand the phylogenetics, chemotaxonomy and biology, but also to preserve the quickly disappearing species. OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review reports on the research progress in phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Aframomum species...
November 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028065/digoxin-inhibits-induction-of-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis-in-mice-but-causes-severe-retinal-degeneration
#12
Samuel J H Hinshaw, Osato Ogbeifun, Wambui S Wandu, Cancan Lyu, Guangpu Shi, Yichao Li, Haohua Qian, Igal Gery
PURPOSE: Digoxin, a major medication for heart disease, was recently reported to have immunosuppressive capacity. Here, we determined the immunosuppressive capacity of digoxin on the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and on related immune responses. METHODS: The B10.A mice were immunized with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) and were treated daily with digoxin or vehicle control. On postimmunization day 14, the mouse eyes were examined histologically, while spleen cells were tested for cytokine production in response to IRBP and purified protein derivative...
March 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911274/hydroxychloroquine-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#13
Monique Bethel, Frances M Yang, Shuang Li, N Stanley Nahman, Alyce M Oliver, Wambui Machua, Laura D Carbone
OBJECTIVES: To determine dosing patterns and examine predictors of filled hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) prescriptions in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with SLE in the US Renal Data System (USRDS) database in fiscal year 2011. All patients were Medicare Part D beneficiaries. Patients with a diagnosis of SLE were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision code 710...
April 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655019/do-diabetes-mellitus-patients-adhere-to-self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-smbg-and-is-this-associated-with-glycemic-control-experiences-from-a-smbg-program-in-western-kenya
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
K Wambui Charity, Ajay M V Kumar, Sven Gudmund Hinderaker, Palanivel Chinnakali, Sonak D Pastakia, Jemimah Kamano
AIMS: Among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with poor glycemic control enrolled into a self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) program in Kenya, to assess the level of SMBG adherence, its associated factors and its relation to glycemic control (defined as HbA1c <7% and/or 2% absolute reduction relative to baseline). METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we used routinely collected data of patients enrolled during 2012-2013. We assessed adherence to SMBG by dividing the number of glucose tests performed by the number recommended...
February 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26523291/differences-in-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cells-among-childhood-cancer-survivors-treated-with-and-without-radiation
#15
Kamnesh Pradhan, Julie Mund, Jamie Case, Samir Gupta, Ziyue Liu, Wambui Gathirua-Mwangi, Anna McDaniel, Jamie Renbarger, Victoria Champion
Radiation during childhood cancer treatment increases the propensity to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease among adult survivors of childhood cancer. This is thought to be mediated through the damage to the underlying vascular endothelium. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) involved in vascular endothelial repair after its damage may be affected by radiation therapy but have never been investigated in adult survivors of childhood cancer. In this pilot study, utilizing multi-parametric flowcytometry, endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), which are the bonafide EPCs, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), which are not EPCs, were compared between adult survivors of childhood cancer with or without radiation exposure...
August 2015: Journal of Hematology & Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26433396/outcomes-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-in-rural-kenya-a-cohort-study
#16
Eunice Wambui Nduati, Amin Shaban Hassan, Miguel Garcia Knight, Daniel Muli Muema, Margaret Nassim Jahangir, Shalton Lwambi Mwaringa, Timothy Juma Etyang, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Britta Christina Urban, James Alexander Berkley
BACKGROUND: Success in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) raises the prospect of eliminating pediatric HIV infection. To achieve global elimination, however, strategies are needed to strengthen PMTCT interventions. This study aimed to determine PMTCT outcomes and identify challenges facing its successful implementation in a rural setting in Kenya. METHODS: A retrospective cohort design was used. Routine demographic and clinical data for infants and mothers enrolling for PMTCT care at a rural hospital in Kenya were analysed...
October 3, 2015: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26416127/mammography-adherence-in-african-american-women-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Wambui G Gathirua-Mwangi, Patrick O Monahan, Timothy Stump, Susan M Rawl, Celette Sugg Skinner, Victoria L Champion
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality among women in the developed world. Mammography screening is especially important for African-Americans because they experience a greater mortality (OR = 1.38) than Caucasians despite having a lower incidence of breast cancer. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two interventions with usual care on mammography adherence among African-American women. METHODS: A subsample of African-American women (n = 244) aged 41-65 years who had not had a mammogram in the last 15 months and no history of breast cancer was randomly assigned to receive (1) mailed interactive DVD, (2) computer-tailored telephone counseling, or (3) usual care...
February 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26350490/adult-bmi-change-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-2005-2010
#18
Wambui G Gathirua-Mwangi, Terrell W Zollinger, Mwangi J Murage, Kamnesh R Pradhan, Victoria L Champion
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality among women in the developed world. This study assessed the association between occurrence of breast cancer and body mass index (BMI) change from age 25 to age closest to breast cancer diagnosis while exploring the modifying effects of demographic variables. METHODS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were used. Women included were ≥50 years, not pregnant and without a diagnosis of any cancer but breast...
November 2015: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26174895/complementary-use-of-passive-surveillance-and-mini-sentinel-to-better-characterize-hemolysis-after-immune-globulin
#19
Scott Winiecki, Bethany Baer, Wambui Chege, Christopher Jankosky, Paul Mintz, Meghan Baker, Tiffany Woodworth, Michael Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Hemolysis after intravenous immune globulins (IGIVs) is a known complication, but expanding indications and recent manufacturing changes warrant ongoing postmarketing surveillance. Characterization of post-IGIV hemolysis to date has been limited to small case series. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We queried the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from 2007 to 2014. All reported post-IGIV hemolysis cases were classified using a prespecified case definition and a case series analysis performed...
July 2015: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26067490/leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-lrrk2-deficiency-diminishes-the-development-of-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis-eau-and-the-adaptive-immune-response
#20
Wambui S Wandu, Cuiyan Tan, Osato Ogbeifun, Barbara P Vistica, Guangpu Shi, Samuel J H Hinshaw, Chengsong Xie, Xi Chen, Dennis M Klinman, Huaibin Cai, Igal Gery
BACKGROUND: Mutations in LRRK2 are related to certain forms of Parkinson's disease and, possibly, to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. In both these diseases inflammatory processes participate in the pathogenic process. LRRK2 is expressed in lymphoid cells and, interestingly, Lrrk2 (-/-) mice were reported to develop more severe experimental colitis than their wild type (WT) controls. Here, we examined the possible involvement of LRRK2 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), an animal model for human uveitis, by testing Lrrk2 (-/-) mice for their capacity to develop this experimental eye disease and related immune responses...
2015: PloS One
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