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asthma biologics

John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Diane Lefaudeux, Bertrand De Meulder, Matthew J Loza, Nancy Peffer, Anthony Rowe, Frédéric Baribaud, Aruna T Bansal, Rene Lutter, Ana R Sousa, Julie Corfield, Ioannis Pandis, Per S Bakke, Massimo Caruso, Pascal Chanez, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Louise J Fleming, Stephen J Fowler, Ildiko Horvath, Norbert Krug, Paolo Montuschi, Marek Sanak, Thomas Sandstrom, Dominic E Shaw, Florian Singer, Peter J Sterk, Graham Roberts, Ian M Adcock, Ratko Djukanovic, Charles Auffray, Kian F Chung
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease in which there is a differential response to asthma treatments. This heterogeneity needs to be evaluated so that a personalised management approach can be provided. OBJECTIVES: We stratified patients with moderate-to-severe asthma based on clinico-physiological parameters and performed an -omics analysis of sputum. METHODS: Partition-around-medoid clustering was applied to a training set of 266 asthma participants from the European U-BIOPRED adult cohort using 8 pre-specified clinic-physiological variables...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
John Nixon, Paul Newbold, Tomas Mustelin, Gary P Anderson, Roland Kolbeck
Eosinophils have been linked with asthma for more than a century, but their role has been unclear. This review discusses the roles of eosinophils in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and describes therapeutic antibodies that affect eosinophilia. The aims of pharmacologic treatments for pulmonary conditions are to reduce symptoms, slow decline or improve lung function, and reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are important in managing symptoms and exacerbations in asthma and COPD...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
George M Slavich
Life stress is a central construct in many models of human health and disease. The present article reviews research on stress and health, with a focus on (a) how life stress has been conceptualized and measured over time, (b) recent evidence linking stress and disease, and (c) mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Emerging from this body of work is evidence that stress is involved in the development, maintenance, or exacerbation of several mental and physical health conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, anxiety disorders, depression, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, stroke, and certain types of cancer...
October 2016: Teaching of Psychology
Nicolette M Jeanblanc, Philip M Hemken, Maria J Datwyler, Susan E Brophy, T Scott Manetz, Rozanne Lee, Meina Liang, Partha S Chowdhury, Reena Varkey, Ethan P Grant, Katie Streicher, Lydia Greenlees, Koustubh Ranade, Gerard J Davis
BACKGROUND: Periostin is being investigated as a potential biomarker for T-helper-2 (Th2)-driven asthma or eosinophilic inflammation and may help to identify patients more likely to benefit from interleukin-13-targeted treatments. We report the development and analytic performance of the investigational use only Architect Periostin Immunoassay, a new automated assay developed to detect serum periostin concentrations. METHODS: We assessed assay performance in terms of precision, sensitivity, linearity, interference from classical immunoassay interferents and representatives of common asthma medications, specimen handling, and isoform reactivity...
October 14, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Edith Chen, Madeleine U Shalowitz, Rachel E Story, Katherine B Ehrlich, Cynthia S Levine, Robin Hayen, Adam K K Leigh, Gregory E Miller
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate 2 key dimensions of socioeconomic status (SES)-prestige and resources-and their associations with immune, behavioral, and clinical outcomes in childhood asthma. METHODS: Children ages 9 to 17 years with a physician's diagnosis of asthma (N = 150), and one of their parents participated in this study. Children and parents completed interviews and questionnaires about SES (prestige = parent education; resources = family assets), environmental exposures, and clinical asthma measures...
September 30, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Gary P Anderson
In recent years, thousands of publications on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its related biology have entered the world literature, reflecting the increasing scientific and medical interest in this devastating condition. This article is a selective review of several important emerging themes that offer the hope of creating new classes of COPD medicines. Whereas basic science is parsing molecular pathways in COPD, its comorbidities, and asthma COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) with unprecedented sophistication, clinical translation is disappointingly slow...
2016: F1000Research
Laziyan Mahemuti, Qixuan Chen, Melanie C Coughlan, Min Zhang, Maria Florian, Ryan J Mailloux, Xu-Liang Cao, Kylie A Scoggan, William G Willmore, Xiaolei Jin
Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to exert biological effects through estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA may increase the risk of childhood asthma. To investigate the underlying mechanisms in the actions of BPA, human fetal lung fibroblasts (hFLFs) were exposed to varying doses of BPA in culture for 24hr. Effects of BPA on localization and uptake of BPA, cell viability, release of immune and developmental modulators, cellular localization and expression of ERα, ERβ and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30), and effects of ERs antagonists on BPA-induced changes in endothelin-1 (ET-1) release were examined...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Mark Bazett, Agnieszka Biala, Ryan D Huff, Momir Bosiljcic, Hal Gunn, Shirin Kalyan, Jeremy A Hirota
There is an unmet need for effective new and innovative treatments for asthma. It is becoming increasingly evident that bacterial stimulation can have beneficial effects at attenuating allergic airway disease through immune modulation. Our aim was to test the ability of a novel inactivated microbe-derived therapeutic based on Klebsiella (KB) in a model of allergic airway disease in mice. BALB/c mice were exposed intranasally to house dust mite (HDM) for two weeks. Mice were treated prophylactically via subcutaneous route with either KB or placebo for one week prior to HDM exposure and throughout the two week exposure period...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rebecca J Weber, Kenneth D Gadow
The present study aimed to characterize the association of psychopathology with the clinical correlates of epilepsy, asthma, and allergy within and between neurobehavioral syndromes. Participants were consecutively evaluated youth (6-18 years, 75 % male) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 589) and non-ASD outpatient psychiatry referrals (n = 653). Informants completed a background questionnaire (parents) and a psychiatric symptom severity rating scale (parents, teachers). Youth with ASD had higher rates of epilepsy and allergy but not asthma than psychiatry referrals, even when analyses were limited to youth with IQ ≥ 70...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Mariana Matera Veras, Nilmara de Oliveira Alves, Lais Fajersztajn, Paulo Saldiva
Various environmental contaminants are known to impair the growth trajectories of major organs, indirectly (gestational exposure) or directly (postnatal exposure). Evidence associates pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes (e.g., low birth weight, prematurity) and with a wide range of diseases in childhood and later in life. In this review, we explore the way that pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollution affects lung development. We present results in topics underlining epidemiological and toxicological evidence...
October 10, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Thomas Bieber, Stefan Vieths, Karl Broich
Atopic conditions (atopic dermatitis, rhinitis and asthma) belong to the most common non communicable diseases and are driven by chronic inflammatory reactions. They have a strong impact on the quality of life and represent a substantial and growing socio-economic burden. Interestingly, there is an increasing interest in the development of new therapeutic options with a number of biologics and small molecules targeting potential key mechanisms in atopic conditions. However, besides the safety issue, most of the new active substances are still evaluated according to the traditional efficacy paradigm focusing on the success in treating exacerbations and flares...
October 7, 2016: Allergy
Akiko Honda, Takahiro Sawahara, Tomohiro Hayashi, Kenshi Tsuji, Wataru Fukushima, Mizuki Oishi, Gaku Kitamura, Hitomi Kudo, Sho Ito, Seiichi Yoshida, Takamichi Ichinose, Kayo Ueda, Hirohisa Takano
Epidemiologic studies have revealed that Asian sand dust particles (ASDs) can affect respiratory and immune health represented by asthma. Factors responsible for the exacerbation of asthma remain unclear. The fungus Bjerkandera adusta ( and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) have been identified in ASDs collected from the atmosphere when an ASD event occurred. We investigated the effects of and BaP related to ASDs on respiratory and immune systems. Bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and splenocytes from atopic prone NC/Nga mice and human airway epithelial cells were exposed to the B...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Clairelyne Dupin, Sylvain Marchand-Adam, Olivier Favelle, Romain Costes, Philippe Gatault, Philippe Diot, Leslie Grammatico-Guillon, Laurent Guilleminault
PURPOSE: Little is known about hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) in asthma patients. No data are available on the characteristics of adult patients with asthma and HGG. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective monocentric study between January 2006 and December 2012. Asthma patients with a serum immunoglobulin (Ig) quantitative analysis were included and classified into two groups depending on their serum IgG concentration: presence or absence of HGG. Clinical, biological, functional, and radiologic characteristics were compared in univariate and multivariate analysis, using a logistic regression model...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Donald D Stevenson, Andrew A White
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease is a significant endotype of both asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. The disease demonstrates what seems to be a unified inflammatory mechanism culminating in highly eosinophilic nasal polyp disease and asthma. The rate of polyp recurrence and morbidity from asthma exacerbations are significant and warrant separating this group diagnostically from aspirin-tolerant peers. Given the unique anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and the evolving landscape of new, targeted biologic treatments, it is even more incumbent to consider this diagnosis and offer patients treatment specific for the disease...
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Amal Al-Garawi, Vincent J Carey, Divya Chhabra, Hooman Mirzakhani, Jarrett Morrow, Jessica Lasky-Su, Weiliang Qiu, Nancy Laranjo, Augusto A Litonjua, Scott T Weiss
BACKGROUND: Patterns of gene expression of human pregnancy are poorly understood. In a trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women, peripheral blood transcriptomes were measured longitudinally on 30 women and used to characterize gene co-expression networks. OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that increased maternal Vitamin D levels may reduce the risk of asthma in early life, yet the underlying mechanisms have not been examined. In this study, we used a network-based approach to examine changes in gene expression profiles during the course of normal pregnancy and evaluated their association with maternal Vitamin D levels...
2016: PloS One
Alessandro Tonacci, Lucia Billeci, Liliana Ruta, Gennaro Tartarisco, Giovanni Pioggia, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder represents a burdensome condition in early childhood, with a number of risk factors proposed to explain its pathogenesis, most of which without a reliable scientific basis. Allergic asthma is likely to be one of the possible comorbilities of autism. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In this paper, the relationship between autism and allergic asthma was analyzed through a systematic literature review, conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Hanh Nguyen-Thi-Bich, Huong Duong-Thi-Ly, Vu Thi Thom, Nhung Pham-Thi-Hong, Long Doan Dinh, Huong Le-Thi-Minh, Timothy John Craig, Sy Duong-Quy
INTRODUCTION: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Jatinder Singh, Ramanpreet Shah, Dhandeep Singh
The mast cells are integral part of immune system and they have pleiotropic physiological functions in our body. Any type of abnormal stimuli causes the mast cells receptors to spur the otherwise innocuous mast cells to degranulate and release inflammatory mediators like histamine, cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandins. These mediators are involved in various diseases like allergy, asthma, mastocytosis, cardiovascular disorders, etc. Herein, we describe the receptors involved in degranulation of mast cells and are broadly divided into four categories: G-protein coupled receptors, ligand gated ion channels, immunoreceptors and pattern recognition receptors...
September 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
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