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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812907/recommended-reading-from-university-hospital-cleveland-fellows
#1
Amy Attaway, Mirna Ayache, Shrey Velani, Joanne McKell
We review three recent and very interesting articles that have come out in the literature that made us reconsider certain aspects of asthma. These studies ask us whether a biologic is emerging that can be used in patients with normal IgE and no evidence of eosinophilia, if late onset asthma is associated with cardiovascular disease, and finally how different types of environmental exposures can influence the development of asthma in farming cultures.
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804700/abridged-version-of-the-awmf-guideline-for-the-medical-clinical-diagnostics-of-indoor-mould-exposure-s2k-guideline-of-the-german-society-of-hygiene-environmental-medicine-and-preventive-medicine-ghup-in-collaboration-with-the-german-association-of-allergists
#2
Gerhard A Wiesmüller, Birger Heinzow, Ute Aurbach, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Albrecht Bufe, Walter Buzina, Oliver A Cornely, Steffen Engelhart, Guido Fischer, Thomas Gabrio, Werner Heinz, Caroline E W Herr, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Martin Köberle, Herbert Lichtnecker, Thomas Lob-Corzilius, Rolf Merget, Norbert Mülleneisen, Dennis Nowak, Uta Rabe, Monika Raulf, Hans Peter Seidl, Jens-Oliver Steiß, Regine Szewszyk, Peter Thomas, Kerttu Valtanen, Julia Hurraß
This article is an abridged version of the AWMF mould guideline "Medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure" presented in April 2016 by the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin, GHUP), in collaboration with the above-mentioned scientific medical societies, German and Austrian societies, medical associations and experts. Indoor mould growth is a potential health risk, even if a quantitative and/or causal relationship between the occurrence of individual mould species and health problems has yet to be established...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801022/understanding-the-biology-of-disease-in-underserved-children-with-asthma-the-missing-piece-of-the-health-disparity-puzzle
#3
EDITORIAL
Bridgette L Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782314/association-of-environmental-factors-prevalence-of-asthma-and-respiratory-morbidity-in-mumbai-need-of-a-public-health-policy
#4
Amita Athavale, Hariharan Iyer, Aditi D Punwani, Jeenam J Shah, Gita Natraj, Jairaj P Nair, Rakesh Kumar, Lakshmi R Menon, Aparna N Iyer, Sagar J Raiya
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between environmental factors, prevalence of asthma and respiratory morbidity in relation to air quality levels in a mega city. To study modifiable environmental factors in people with diagnosed asthma and increased respiratory morbidity. METHODS: Cross sectional survey of population (N-3233) from 6 localities near air quality stations was done to study prevalence of asthma and respiratory morbidity (n-1006) followed by case control study of environmental factors by air sampling to study biological contamination...
June 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776467/pharmacogenetics-and-the-treatment-of-asthma
#5
María Isidoro-García, Almudena Sánchez-Martín, Asunción García-Sánchez, Catalina Sanz, Belén García-Berrocal, Ignacio Dávila
Heterogeneity defines both the natural history of asthma as well as patient's response to treatment. Pharmacogenomics contribute to understand the genetic basis of drug response and thus to define new therapeutic targets or molecular biomarkers to evaluate treatment effectiveness. This review is initially focused on different genes so far involved in the pharmacological response to asthma treatment. Specific considerations regarding allergic asthma, the pharmacogenetics aspects of polypharmacy and the application of pharmacogenomics in new drugs in asthma will also be addressed...
August 4, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775364/dnp2-ctctla-4-inhibits-german-cockroach-extract-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-and-hyper-responsiveness-via-inhibition-of-th2-responses
#6
Sangho Lim, Jung Ho Sohn, Ja-Hyun Koo, Jung-Won Park, Je-Min Choi
German cockroaches are major household allergens that can trigger allergic airway inflammatory diseases with sensitive T-cell responses. Although the use of immune modulatory biologics, such as antibodies, to mediate allergic responses has recently been examined, only systemic administration is available because of the size limitations on intranasal administration. Here we utilized a cell-permeable peptide, dNP2, to deliver the cytoplasmic domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (ctCTLA-4) through the airway epithelium to modulate Th2 responses in a German cockroach extract (GCE)-induced allergic airway inflammation model...
August 4, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774304/using-omics-approaches-to-understand-pulmonary-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Mengyuan Kan, Maya Shumyatcher, Blanca E Himes
Omics approaches are high-throughput unbiased technologies that provide snapshots of various aspects of biological systems and include: 1) genomics, the measure of DNA variation; 2) transcriptomics, the measure of RNA expression; 3) epigenomics, the measure of DNA alterations not involving sequence variation that influence RNA expression; 4) proteomics, the measure of protein expression or its chemical modifications; and 5) metabolomics, the measure of metabolite levels. Our understanding of pulmonary diseases has increased as a result of applying these omics approaches to characterize patients, uncover mechanisms underlying drug responsiveness, and identify effects of environmental exposures and interventions...
August 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770202/cysteinyl-leukotrienes-in-eosinophil-biology-functional-roles-and-therapeutic-perspectives-in-eosinophilic-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Glaucia A Thompson-Souza, Isabella Gropillo, Josiane S Neves
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), LTC4, and its extracellular metabolites, LTD4 and LTE4, have varied and multiple roles in mediating eosinophilic disorders including host defense against parasitic helminthes and allergic inflammation, especially in the lung and in asthma. CysLTs are known to act through at least 2 receptors termed cysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R) and cysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R). Eosinophils contain a dominant population of cytoplasmic crystalloid granules that store various preformed proteins. Human eosinophils are sources of cysLTs and are known to express the two known cysLTs receptors (CysLTRs)...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769820/inhibition-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-as-a-promising-therapy-for-inflammatory-diseases-a-journey-from-molecular-to-nano-therapeutics
#9
REVIEW
Wei Gao, Ye Xiong, Qiang Li, Hong Yang
The recognition of invading pathogens and endogenous molecules from damaged tissues by toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers protective self-defense mechanisms. However, excessive TLR activation disrupts the immune homeostasis by sustained pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines production and consequently contributes to the development of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), infection-associated sepsis, atherosclerosis, and asthma. Therefore, inhibitors/antagonists targeting TLR signals may be beneficial to treat these disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760498/differences-and-similarities-between-sublingual-immunotherapy-of-allergy-and-oral-tolerance
#10
REVIEW
Philippe Moingeon, Laurent Mascarell
Allergen immunotherapy is the only treatment altering the natural course of IgE-mediated allergies. Whereas the subcutaneous route for immunotherapy (SCIT) has been historically considered as a reference, we discuss herein the relative advantages of the sublingual and oral routes as alternatives to SCIT in order to elicit allergen-specific tolerance. The buccal and gut immune systems are similarly organized to favor immune tolerance to antigens/allergens, due to the presence of tolerogenic dendritic cells and macrophages promoting the differentiation of CD4(+) regulatory T cells...
July 28, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754005/can-early-omega-3-fatty-acid-exposure-reduce-risk-of-childhood-allergic-disease
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations...
July 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751262/do-individuals-with-asthma-experience-airway-hyper-responsiveness-after-exposure-to-nitrogen-dioxide
#12
Julie E Goodman, Erin M Kennedy, Mara Seeley
The current 100 ppb short-term National Ambient Air Quality Standard for NO2, and EPA's determination of a causal association for respiratory effects, are based in part on controlled human exposure studies evaluating airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). A meta-analysis by Goodman et al. (2009) found increased AHR at 100 ppb NO2 but no clear concentration-response relationship up to 600 ppb, and an overall lack of an AHR effect for studies involving exercise or exposure to allergens. Several factors have been suggested to explain why effects on AHR are observed while people are at rest, but not during exercise or after exposure to allergens...
July 25, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749975/circulating-micrornas-and-association-with-methacholine-pc20-in-the-childhood-asthma-management-program-camp-cohort
#13
Joshua S Davis, Maoyun Sun, Alvin T Kho, Kip G Moore, Jody M Sylvia, Scott T Weiss, Quan Lu, Kelan G Tantisira
INTRODUCTION: Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are promising biomarkers for human diseases. Our study hypothesizes that circulating miRNA would reveal candidate biomarkers related to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and provide biologic insights into asthma epigenetic influences. METHODS: Serum samples obtained at randomization for 160 children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program were profiled using a TaqMan miRNA array set. The association of the isolated miRNA with methacholine PC20 was assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741144/tobacco-use-and-smoke-exposure-in-children-new-trends-harm-and-strategies-to-improve-health-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
Luv D Makadia, P Jervey Roper, Jeannette O Andrews, Martha S Tingen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Every day in the USA, approximately 4000 adolescents begin smoking and the adolescent brain is particularly susceptible to nicotine addiction. We present current pediatric trends on tobacco use and exposures, various new products used by adolescents, the adverse biological and behavioral effects of tobacco use and exposures, and tobacco control strategies to eliminate tobacco-related illnesses and deaths in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Twelve-20% of women continue to smoke during pregnancy...
August 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740492/patterns-of-early-life-gut-microbial-colonization-during-human-immune-development-an-ecological-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe, Marie-Claire Arrieta
Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735230/granulometry-microbial-composition-and-biological-activity-of-dusts-collected-in-french-dairy-farms
#16
Hugo Pfister, Claudie Morzadec, Pierre Le Cann, Laurent Madec, Valérie Lecureur, Martine Chouvet, Stéphane Jouneau, Laurent Vernhet
BACKGROUND: Dairy working increases the prevalence of lower airway respiratory diseases, especially COPD and asthma. Epidemiological studies have reported that chronic inhalation of organic dusts released during specific daily tasks could represent a major risk factor for development of these pathologies in dairy workers. Knowledge on size, nature and biological activity of such organic dusts remain however limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare size distribution, microbial composition and cellular effects of dusts liberated by the spreading of straw bedding in five French dairy farms located in Brittany...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731127/pidotimod-exacerbates-allergic-pulmonary-infection-in-an-ova-mouse-model-of-asthma
#17
Luo-Qin Fu, Ya-Li Li, Ai-Kun Fu, Yan-Ping Wu, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Sheng-Lan Hu, Wei-Fen Li
Pidotimod is a synthetic dipeptide with biological and immuno‑modulatory properties. It has been widely used for treatment and prevention of recurrent respiratory infections. However, its impact on the regulation of allergic pulmonary inflammation is still not clear. In the current study, an ovalbumin (OVA)‑induced allergic asthma model was used to investigate the immune‑modulating effects of pidotimod on airway eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia and inflammatory factor expression compared with dexamethasone (positive control)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723642/suppression-of-microrna-384-enhances-autophagy-of-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-in-asthmatic-mouse
#18
Zhe Cheng, Xi Wang, Lingling Dai, Liuqun Jia, Xiaogang Jing, Ying Liu, Huan Wang, Pengfei Li, Lin An, Meng Liu
Injury to airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells hallmarks the pathological progression of asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in the development of asthma as well as airway remodeling. Here we studied the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of autophagic survival of ASM cells and airway disorder. We analyzed autophagy-associated factors LC3 and Beclin-1 by RT-qPCR and protein blotting in purified airway smooth muscle cells from ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice...
July 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721017/targeted-therapy-in-severe-asthma-today-focus-on-immunoglobulin-e
#19
REVIEW
Girolamo Pelaia, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Andrea Matucci, Rossella Paolini, Massimo Triggiani, Pierluigi Paggiaro
Asthma is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology. International guidelines increasingly recognize that a standard "one size fits all" approach is no longer an effective approach to achieve optimal treatment outcomes, and a number of disease phenotypes have been proposed for asthma, which has the potential to guide treatment decisions. Among the many asthma phenotypes, allergic asthma represents the widest and most easily recognized asthma phenotype, present in up to two-thirds of adults with asthma...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721009/patient-profiles-and-clinical-utility-of-mepolizumab-in-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#20
REVIEW
Pranabashis Haldar
Mepolizumab (Nucala(®)) is an effective and specific anti-eosinophil molecular therapy that has recently been approved as add-on therapy for the management of severe eosinophilic asthma by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA; European Union) and more recently National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE; UK). It is one of several molecular therapies in development for this indication and is illustrative of the strategic trajectory for pharmaceutical drug development taken over the past decade in several disease areas...
2017: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
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