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Karl Kuntzelman, L Jack Rhodes, Lillian N Harrington, Vladimir Miskovic
There is a broad family of statistical methods for capturing time series regularity, with increasingly widespread adoption by the neuroscientific community. A common feature of these methods is that they permit investigators to quantify the entropy of brain signals - an index of unpredictability/complexity. Despite the proliferation of algorithms for computing entropy from neural time series data there is scant evidence concerning their relative stability and efficiency. Here we evaluated several different algorithmic implementations (sample, fuzzy, dispersion and permutation) of multiscale entropy in terms of their stability across sessions, internal consistency and computational speed, accuracy and precision using a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) and synthetic 1/ƒ noise signals...
March 18, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Xu Zheng, Ali Beyzavi, Joanna Krakowiak, Nikit Patel, Ahmad S Khalil, David Pincus
Clonal populations of cells exhibit cell-to-cell variation in the transcription of individual genes. In addition to this noise in gene expression, heterogeneity in the proteome and the proteostasis network expands the phenotypic diversity of a population. Heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) regulates chaperone gene expression, thereby coupling transcriptional noise to proteostasis. Here we show that cell-to-cell variation in Hsf1 activity is an important determinant of phenotypic plasticity. Budding yeast cells with high Hsf1 activity were enriched for the ability to acquire resistance to an antifungal drug, and this enrichment depended on Hsp90, a known phenotypic capacitor and canonical Hsf1 target...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Quanmao Wei, Zhiguo Jiang, Haopeng Zhang
Automatic component detection of spacecraft can assist in on-orbit operation and space situational awareness. Spacecraft are generally composed of solar panels and cuboidal or cylindrical modules. These components can be simply represented by geometric primitives like plane, cuboid and cylinder. Based on this prior, we propose a robust automatic detection scheme to automatically detect such basic components of spacecraft in three-dimensional (3D) point clouds. In the proposed scheme, cylinders are first detected in the iteration of the energy-based geometric model fitting and cylinder parameter estimation...
March 21, 2018: Sensors
Cui Feng, Di Zhu, Xianlun Zou, Anqin Li, Xuemei Hu, Zhen Li, Daoyu Hu
To investigate the subjective and quantitative image quality and radiation exposure of CT enterography (CTE) examination performed at low tube voltage and low concentration of contrast agent with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm, compared with conventional CTE.One hundred thirty-seven patients with suspected or proved gastrointestinal diseases underwent contrast enhanced CTE in a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner. All cases were assigned to 2 groups. Group A (n = 79) underwent CT with low tube voltage based on patient body mass index (BMI) (BMI < 23 kg/m, 80 kVp; BMI ≥ 23 kg/m, 100 kVp) and low concentration of contrast agent (270 mg I/mL), the images were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and 50% ASIR algorithm...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Seng Bum Michael Yoo, Brianna J Sleezer, Benjamin Y Hayden
Knowing whether core reward regions carry information about the positions of relevant objects is crucial for adjudicating between choice models. One limitation of previous studies, including our own, is that spatial positions can be consistently differentially associated with rewards, and thus, position can be confounded with attention, motor plans, or target identity. We circumvented these problems by using a task in which value-and thus choices-was determined solely by a frequently changing rule, which was randomized relative to spatial position on each trial...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Carlo Polidori, Agustín Pastor, Alberto Jorge, José Pertusa
Polistes paper wasps can be used to monitor trace metal contaminants, but the effects of pollution on the health of these insects are still unknown. We evaluated, in a south-eastern area of Spain, whether workers of Polistes dominula collected at urban and rural sites differ in health of midgut tissue and in fluctuating asymmetry, an estimate of developmental noise. We found that wasps collected at the urban sites had abundant lead (Pb)-containing spherites, which were less visible in wasps from the rural sites...
March 21, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Jiajie Peng, Xuanshuo Zhang, Weiwei Hui, Junya Lu, Qianqian Li, Shuhui Liu, Xuequn Shang
BACKGROUND: Gene Ontology (GO) is one of the most popular bioinformatics resources. In the past decade, Gene Ontology-based gene semantic similarity has been effectively used to model gene-to-gene interactions in multiple research areas. However, most existing semantic similarity approaches rely only on GO annotations and structure, or incorporate only local interactions in the co-functional network. This may lead to inaccurate GO-based similarity resulting from the incomplete GO topology structure and gene annotations...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Xiaoqin Zhong, Liang Qiao, Géraldine Stauffer, Baohong Liu, Hubert H Girault
A polyimide microfluidic chip with a microhole emitter (Ø 10-12 μm) created on top of a microchannel by scanning laser ablation has been designed for nanoelectrospray ionization (spyhole-nanoESI) to couple microfluidics with mass spectrometry. The spyhole-nanoESI showed higher sensitivity compared to standard ESI and microESI from the end of the microchannel. The limits of detection (LOD) for peptide with the spyhole-nanoESI MS reached 50 pM, which was 600 times lower than that with standard ESI. The present microchip emitter allows the analysis of small volumes of samples...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Sadreddin Mahmoodkalayeh, Hossein Z Jooya, Ali Hariri, Yang Zhou, Qiuyun Xu, Mohammad A Ansari, Mohammad R N Avanaki
We study the temperature dependence of the underlying mechanisms related to the signal strength and imaging depth in photoacoustic imaging. The presented theoretical and experimental results indicate that imaging depth can be improved by lowering the temperature of the intermediate medium that the laser passes through to reach the imaging target. We discuss the temperature dependency of optical and acoustic properties of the intermediate medium and their changes due to cooling. We demonstrate that the SNR improvement of the photoacoustic signal is mainly due to the reduction of Grüneisen parameter of the intermediate medium which leads to a lower level of background noise...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
S E de Graaf, L Faoro, J Burnett, A A Adamyan, A Ya Tzalenchuk, S E Kubatkin, T Lindström, A V Danilov
Noise and decoherence due to spurious two-level systems located at material interfaces are long-standing issues for solid-state quantum devices. Efforts to mitigate the effects of two-level systems have been hampered by a lack of knowledge about their chemical and physical nature. Here, by combining dielectric loss, frequency noise and on-chip electron spin resonance measurements in superconducting resonators, we demonstrate that desorption of surface spins is accompanied by an almost tenfold reduction in the charge-induced frequency noise in the resonators...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
David Elkouss, David Pérez-García
Most communication channels are subjected to noise. One of the goals of information theory is to add redundancy in the transmission of information so that the information is transmitted reliably and the amount of information transmitted through the channel is as large as possible. The maximum rate at which reliable transmission is possible is called the capacity. If the channel does not keep memory of its past, the capacity is given by a simple optimization problem and can be efficiently computed. The situation of channels with memory is less clear...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Yaniv Mama, Leah Fostick, Michal Icht
The presence of background noise has been previously shown to disrupt cognitive performance, especially memory. The amount of interference is derived from the acoustic characteristics of the noise; energetic vs. informational, steady-state vs. fluctuating. However, the literature is inconsistent concerning the effects of different types of noise on long-term memory free recall. In the present study, we tested the impact of different noises on recall of items that were learned under two conditions - silent or aloud reading, a Production Effect (PE) paradigm...
March 17, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Hideaki Ikeda, Toru Aonishi
The motion detection mechanism of insects has been attracted attention of many researchers. Several motion-detection models have been proposed on the basis of insect visual system studies. Here, we examine two models, the Hassenstein-Reichardt (HR) model and the two-detector (2D) model. We analytically obtain the mean and variance of the stationary responses of the HR and the 2D models to white noise, and we derive the signal-to-fluctuation-noise ratio (SFNR) to evaluate encoding abilities of the two models...
March 5, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Magdalena Ewa Król
We investigated the effect of auditory noise added to speech on patterns of looking at faces in 40 toddlers. We hypothesised that noise would increase the difficulty of processing speech, making children allocate more attention to the mouth of the speaker to gain visual speech cues from mouth movements. We also hypothesised that this shift would cause a decrease in fixation time to the eyes, potentially decreasing the ability to monitor gaze. We found that adding noise increased the number of fixations to the mouth area, at the price of a decreased number of fixations to the eyes...
2018: PloS One
Khurram Ashfaq Qazi, Tabassam Nawaz, Zahid Mehmood, Muhammad Rashid, Hafiz Adnan Habib
Recent research on speech segregation and music fingerprinting has led to improvements in speech segregation and music identification algorithms. Speech and music segregation generally involves the identification of music followed by speech segregation. However, music segregation becomes a challenging task in the presence of noise. This paper proposes a novel method of speech segregation for unlabelled stationary noisy audio signals using the deep belief network (DBN) model. The proposed method successfully segregates a music signal from noisy audio streams...
2018: PloS One
Duona Zhang, Wenrui Ding, Baochang Zhang, Chunyu Xie, Hongguang Li, Chunhui Liu, Jungong Han
Deep learning has recently attracted much attention due to its excellent performance in processing audio, image, and video data. However, few studies are devoted to the field of automatic modulation classification (AMC). It is one of the most well-known research topics in communication signal recognition and remains challenging for traditional methods due to complex disturbance from other sources. This paper proposes a heterogeneous deep model fusion (HDMF) method to solve the problem in a unified framework...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Ali Hassan Sodhro, Arun Kumar Sangaiah, Gul Hassan Sodhro, Sonia Lohano, Sandeep Pirbhulal
Rapid progress and emerging trends in miniaturized medical devices have enabled the un-obtrusive monitoring of physiological signals and daily activities of everyone's life in a prominent and pervasive manner. Due to the power-constrained nature of conventional wearable sensor devices during ubiquitous sensing (US), energy-efficiency has become one of the highly demanding and debatable issues in healthcare. This paper develops a single chip-based wearable wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system by adopting analog front end (AFE) chip model ADS1292R from Texas Instruments...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Ethan Phillip M LaRochelle, Jennifer R Shell, Jason R Gunn, Scott C Davis, Brian W Pogue
During external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), in vivo Cherenkov optical emissions can be used as a dosimetry tool or to excite luminescence, termed Cherenkov-excited luminescence (CEL) with microsecond-level time-gated cameras. The goal of this work was to develop a complete theoretical foundation for the detectable signal strength, in order to provide guidance on optimization of the limits of detection and how to optimize near real time imaging. The key parameters affecting photon production, propagation and detection were considered and experimental validation with both tissue phantoms and a murine model are shown...
March 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jason A Brant, Steven J Eliades, Hannah Kaufman, Jinbo Chen, Michael J Ruckenstein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate high-performing cochlear implant patients' performance on AzBio sentence testing. METHODS: Retrospective review of prospectively collected database at a tertiary care hospital. Unilateral cochlear implant patients with AzBio testing were included. The primary outcome of interest was AzBio performance scores in quiet and at +10 and +5 decibels signal to noise (dB S/N). RESULTS: One hundred eighty five subjects met inclusion criteria with scores for AzBio in quiet, 114 at +10 dB S/N, and 66 at +5 dB S/N...
March 19, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Sam Denys, Michael Hofmann, Heleen Luts, Cécile Guérin, Ann Keymeulen, Katelijne Van Hoeck, Astrid van Wieringen, Karel Hoppenbrouwers, Jan Wouters
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the large-scale applicability of the Digit Triplet test (DTT) for school-age hearing screening in fifth grade elementary (5E) (9 to 12 years old) and third grade secondary (3S) (13 to 16 years old) school children. The reliability of the test is investigated as well as whether pass/fail criteria need to be corrected for training and/or age, and whether these criteria have to be refined with respect to referral rates and pure-tone audiometry results...
March 19, 2018: Ear and Hearing
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