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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899228/the-recombinant-n-terminal-domain-of-spike-proteins-is-a-potential-vaccine-against-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-infection
#1
Lan Jiaming, Yao Yanfeng, Deng Yao, Hu Yawei, Bao Linlin, Huang Baoying, Yan Jinghua, George F Gao, Qin Chuan, Tan Wenjie
The persistent public health threat of infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) highlights the need for an effective MERS-CoV vaccine. Previous studies have focused mainly on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) on the spike protein of MERS-CoV. Herein, we investigated the immunogenicity and protective potential of the recombinant N-terminal domain (rNTD) of spike proteins as a vaccine candidate. BALB/c mice vaccinated with 5 or 10μg of rNTD protein demonstrated a significant humoral immune response (serum IgG and neutralizing activity)...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895921/literature-review-of-vaccine-related-adverse-events-reported-from-hpv-vaccination-in-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Mohamed Macki, Ali A Dabaja
BACKGROUND: The human papilloma virus (HPV) infections were addressed with two FDA-approved HPV vaccines: quadrivalent and bivalent vaccine. The objective of this manuscript is to determine the safety of the HPV vaccine. RESULTS: A search of PubMed articles for "human papillomavirus vaccine" was used to identify all-type HPV clinical studies prior to October 2014. A refined search of clinical trials, multicenter studies, and randomized studies were screened for only randomized controlled trials comparing HPV vaccine to controls (saline placebo or aluminum derivatives)...
2016: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895176/the-syk-nfat-il-2-pathway-in-dendritic-cells-is-required-for-optimal-sterile-immunity-elicited-by-alum-adjuvants
#3
Hanif Javanmard Khameneh, Adrian W S Ho, Roberto Spreafico, Heidi Derks, Hazel Q Y Quek, Alessandra Mortellaro
Despite a long history and extensive usage of insoluble aluminum salts (alum) as vaccine adjuvants, the molecular mechanisms underpinning Ag-specific immunity upon vaccination remain unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial initiators of immune responses, but little is known about the molecular pathways used by DCs to sense alum and, in turn, activate T and B cells. In this article, we show that alum adjuvanticity requires IL-2 specifically released by DCs, even when T cell secretion of IL-2 is intact. We demonstrate that alum, as well as other sterile particulates, such as uric acid crystals, induces DCs to produce IL-2 following initiation of actin-mediated phagocytosis that leads to Src and Syk kinase activation, Ca(2+) mobilization, and calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT, the master transcription factor regulating IL-2 expression...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891512/a-de-o-acylated-lipooligosaccharide-based-adjuvant-system-promotes-antibody-and-th1-type-immune-responses-to-h1n1-pandemic-influenza-vaccine-in-mice
#4
Ji In Ryu, Shin Ae Park, Seo Ri Wui, Ara Ko, Ji Eun Han, Jung Ah Choi, Man Ki Song, Kwang Sung Kim, Yang Je Cho, Na Gyong Lee
Vaccine adjuvants are agents that are used to promote immune responses to vaccine antigens and thereby to enhance the protective efficacy of the vaccines. In this study, we investigated the adjuvant activity of CIA06, an adjuvant system that is composed of a toll-like receptor 4 agonist de-O-acylated lipooligosaccharide (dLOS) and aluminum hydroxide, on the H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine Greenflu-S® in mice. CIA06 significantly enhanced influenza-specific serum IgG, hemagglutination-inhibition, and virus-neutralizing antibody titers, which eliminated vaccine dose-dependency in the antibody response...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881702/roles-of-aluminum-hydroxide-and-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-adjuvants-in-overcoming-cd4-t-cell-deficiency-to-induce-isotype-switched-igg-antibody-responses-and-protection-by-t-dependent-influenza-vaccine
#5
Eun-Ju Ko, Young-Tae Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Youri Lee, Yu-Jin Jung, Min-Chul Kim, Yu-Na Lee, Taeuk Kang, Sang-Moo Kang
Vaccine adjuvant effects in the CD4-deficient condition largely remain unknown. We investigated the roles of combined monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and aluminum hydroxide (Alum) adjuvant (MPL+Alum) in inducing immunity after immunization of CD4 knockout (CD4KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with T-dependent influenza vaccine. MPL+Alum adjuvant mediated IgG isotype-switched Abs, IgG-secreting cell responses, and protection in CD4KO mice, which were comparable to those in WT mice. In contrast, Alum adjuvant effects were dependent on CD4(+) T cells...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872951/immunogenicity-and-efficacy-of-a-rationally-designed-vaccine-against-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-mouse-solid-tumor-models
#6
Aizhang Xu, Li Zhang, Yangyang Chen, Zhibing Lin, Rongxiu Li
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the progression of various cancers. The VEGF-specific antibody bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy was shown to significantly improve progression-free survival in certain cancers. However, repeated administration is necessary for effective suppression of VEGF, thereby making the therapy expensive and cumbersome. Thus, it is urgent to develop alternative reagents such as VEGF vaccines. Here we report that DTT-VEGF, a VEGF-based antigen consisting of the receptor-binding domain of VEGF and diphtheria toxin T domain (DTT), not only stimulated neutralizing antibody response, but also induced type 1 immune response as well as anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes in mice when administered with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant...
November 21, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847326/adsorption-of-a-synthetic-tlr7-8-ligand-to-aluminum-oxyhydroxide-for-enhanced-vaccine-adjuvant-activity-a-formulation-approach
#7
Christopher B Fox, Mark T Orr, Neal Van Hoeven, Sarah C Parker, Traci J T Mikasa, Tony Phan, Elyse A Beebe, Ghislain I Nana, Sharvari W Joshi, Mark A Tomai, James Elvecrog, Timothy R Fouts, Steven G Reed
For nearly a century, aluminum salts have been the most widely used vaccine adjuvant formulation, and have thus established a history of safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, for extremely challenging disease targets such as tuberculosis or HIV, the adjuvant activity of aluminum salts may not be potent enough to achieve protective efficacy. Adsorption of TLR ligands to aluminum salts facilitates enhanced adjuvant activity, such as in the human papilloma virus vaccine Cervarix®. However, some TLR ligands such as TLR7/8 agonist imidazoquinolines do not efficiently adsorb to aluminum salts...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843062/protection-of-mice-against-gastric-colonization-of-helicobacter-pylori-by-therapeutic-immunization-with-systemic-whole-cell-inactivated-vaccines
#8
K Suganya, A Prem Kumar, B Sekar, B Sundaran
The protective effect of therapeutic immunization with heat inactivated Helicobacter pylori cells administered with aluminum phosphate as an adjuvant was evaluated with "Swiss albino mice" infected with H. pylori Sydney strain 1 (SS1). The presence of bacteria in histological sections of the stomach was evaluated to confirm the colonization of H. pylori. The infection dose was determined to be 1 × 10(8) cells which resulted to be the optimal concentration to sustain infection for required time. Systemic immunization of H...
November 11, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827798/unimpaired-immunogenicity-of-yeast-expressed-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-stored-at-elevated-temperatures
#9
Zhongliang Shen, Yuliang Rao, Shuai Tao, Mengjun Luo, Lijun Ming, Jing Liu, Shaokun Pan, Youhua Xie
Global adoption of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines has greatly reduced new HBV infections. Current HBV vaccines are liquid suspensions containing recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles mixed with aluminum phosphate or aluminum hydroxide. Refrigeration (2-8°C) as recommended for vaccine transport and storage may be unachievable in certain HBV-prevalent developing countries or regions. In this study, we stored yeast-expressed HBsAg and aluminum hydroxide separately at the standard (4°C) and elevated temperature (25, 37, or 45°C) for 14, 23, and 30 days, then mixed them and used the mixture to vaccinate mice with a prime-boost program...
December 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824918/skin-vaccination-against-rotavirus-using-microneedles-proof-of-concept-in-gnotobiotic-piglets
#10
Yuhuan Wang, Anastasia Vlasova, Daniel E Velasquez, Linda J Saif, Sukumar Kandasamy, Efrat Kochba, Yotam Levin, Baoming Jiang
Live-attenuated oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines have lower efficacy in low income countries, and additionally are associated with a rare but severe adverse event, intussusception. We have been pursuing the development of an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) using the human rotavirus strain CDC-9 (G1P[8]) through parenteral immunization and previously demonstrated dose sparing and enhanced immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) unadjuvanted IRV using a coated microneedle patch in comparison with intramuscular (IM) administration in mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798373/prolongation-of-cardiac-allograft-survival-by-endometrial-regenerative-cells-focusing-on-b-cell-responses
#11
Xiaoxi Xu, Xiaochun Li, Xiangying Gu, Bai Zhang, Weijun Tian, Hongqiu Han, Peng Sun, Caigan Du, Hao Wang
: : Endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs) have been recently evaluated as an attractive candidate source for emerging stem cell therapies in immunosuppression, but their role in immunoregulation is not fully understood. The present study was designed to investigate their effects, especially on B-cell responses in heart transplantation. In this study, ERCs were noninvasively obtained from menstrual blood. Heart transplantation was performed between C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donor mice and BALB/c (H-2(d)) recipients...
October 26, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797937/induction-of-humoural-and-cellular-immunity-by-immunisation-with-hcv-particle-vaccine-in-a-non-human-primate-model
#12
Hiroshi Yokokawa, Atsunori Higashino, Saori Suzuki, Masaki Moriyama, Noriko Nakamura, Tomohiko Suzuki, Ryosuke Suzuki, Koji Ishii, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Takaji Wakita, Hirofumi Akari, Takanobu Kato
OBJECTIVE: Although HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, there is currently no prophylactic vaccine for this virus. Thus, the development of an HCV vaccine that can induce both humoural and cellular immunity is urgently needed. To create an effective HCV vaccine, we evaluated neutralising antibody induction and cellular immune responses following the immunisation of a non-human primate model with cell culture-generated HCV (HCVcc). DESIGN: To accomplish this, 10 common marmosets were immunised with purified, inactivated HCVcc in combination with two different adjuvants: the classically used aluminum hydroxide (Alum) and the recently established adjuvant: CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) wrapped by schizophyllan (K3-SPG)...
October 26, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793484/real-time-stability-of-a-hepatitis-e-vaccine-hecolin%C3%A2-demonstrated-with-potency-assays-and-multifaceted-physicochemical-methods
#13
Xiao Zhang, Minxi Wei, Guang Sun, Xin Wang, Min Li, Zhijie Lin, Zhongyi Li, Yufang Li, Mujin Fang, Jun Zhang, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia, Qinjian Zhao
The first prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis E virus (HEV), Hecolin®, was licensed in China. Recombinant p239 virus-like particle (VLP) is its active component with dimeric protein as the basic building block harboring the immuno dominant and neutralizing epitopes. The real time and real condition stability of the prefilled syringes for the vaccine was demonstrated using both in vivo mouse potency and in vitro antigenicity assays. A total of 12 lots of Hecolin® were assessed with a set of assays after storage at 2-8°C for 24months...
October 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787625/immunization-of-rhesus-macaques-with-echinococcus-multilocularis-recombinant-14-3-3-antigen-leads-to-specific-antibody-response
#14
Karen Lampe, B Gottstein, T Becker, C Stahl-Hennig, F-J Kaup, K Mätz-Rensing
E. multilocularis (Em) is the etiologic agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a severe and potentially fatal disease, primarily affecting the liver of and occurring in aberrant intermediate hosts, e.g., humans and non-human primates. Due to increasing numbers of spontaneous cases of AE in the Old World monkey colonies of the German Primate Center, the question arose as to whether vaccination of non-human primates may represent a useful prophylactic approach. In this pilot study, the recombinant antigen Em14-3-3, which has provided a 97 % protection against E...
October 27, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783610/-vaccines-history-and-stories-between-reality-and-imagination
#15
Elisa Terracciano, Ermanno Zorzoli, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
Vaccinations and the controversy around them always go in parallel. We identified four categories blending in various amounts of truth and imagination: history, myths, shams and frauds. Over the years, they have alternated and sometimes transformed into one another. This sharp separation into categories is certainly academic and forced. In fact, the line between these aspects is not clear enough to allow a rigid and well-defined division. Our work starts from the category containing the most truthfulness: history, and goes on to analyze two categories that add fantasy to facts: myths and shams (or better, "old wives' tales")...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781036/modulation-of-primary-immune-response-by-different-vaccine-adjuvants
#16
Annalisa Ciabattini, Elena Pettini, Fabio Fiorino, Gabiria Pastore, Peter Andersen, Gianni Pozzi, Donata Medaglini
Adjuvants contribute to enhancing and shaping the vaccine immune response through different modes of action. Here early biomarkers of adjuvanticity after primary immunization were investigated using four different adjuvants combined with the chimeric tuberculosis vaccine antigen H56. C57BL/6 mice were immunized by the subcutaneous route with different vaccine formulations, and the modulation of primary CD4(+) T cell and B cell responses was assessed within draining lymph nodes, blood, and spleen, 7 and 12 days after priming...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771017/subcutaneous-lymphoid-follicular-hyperplasia-secondary-to-vaccination-correlation-of-ultrasound-findings-with-clinical-and-histological-findings
#17
M C Castro Copete, C Crespo Martínez, C Martínez García, J Calbo Maiques
In recent years, the use of vaccines has been standardized within vaccination programs. Adverse effects at the puncture site are usually mild and transient. Nevertheless, in some cases, persistence subcutaneous nodules can develop; these are often underdiagnosed because they are so rare and because of the long time that can transpire between the vaccination and their appearance. Histologically, they consist of a lymphoid follicular hyperplasia that occurs as a reaction to the aluminum particles usually used as an adjuvant in some vaccines...
October 19, 2016: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761933/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-iron-superoxide-dismutase-protein-from-bordetella-pertussis-in-mice-models
#18
Çiğdem Yılmaz, Aycan Apak, Erkan Özcengiz, Gülay Özcengiz
Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis. Although availability of effective pertussis vaccines reportedly decreases the incidence of the disease, B. pertussis circulation in populations has not been eliminated. Thus, it is necessary to find new protein candidates with greater immune protective capacities than the currently available acellular pertussis vaccines. In this study, iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) gene (sodB) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant FeSOD protein thence purified...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718200/determination-of-protein-content-in-alhydrogel-%C3%A2-based-vaccines-by-o-phthalaldehyde-assay
#19
Kelly M Rausch, Daming Zhu
The quantification of antigens adsorbed to aluminum-based adjuvants (alum) typically involves a method that first extracts antigen from the alum followed by the quantification of the antigen available in the extract. Extraction procedures often result in less than 100 % desorption of the antigen from the alum adjuvant and may alter the conformation of the antigen, reducing the accuracy of the subsequent method used for quantification. There is no generic method available for directly assessing the protein content when formulated on alum...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718194/methods-to-prepare-aluminum-salt-adjuvanted-vaccines
#20
Sachin G Thakkar, Zhengrong Cui
Many human vaccines contain certain insoluble aluminum salts such as aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate as vaccine adjuvants to boost the immunogenicity of the vaccines. Aluminum salts have been used as vaccine adjuvants for decades and have an established, favorable safety profile. However, preparing aluminum salts and aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines in a consistent manner remains challenging. This chapter discusses methods to prepare aluminum salts and aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines, factors to consider during preparation, and methods to characterize the vaccines after preparation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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