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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343619/quantitative-analysis-of-vaccine-antigen-adsorption-to-aluminum-adjuvant-using-an-automated-high-throughput-method
#1
Patrick L Ahl, Sheng-Ching Wang, Ramesh Chintala, Christopher D Mensch, William J Smith, Marc Wenger, Jeffrey T Blue
Aluminum containing adjuvants have been widely used in vaccine formulations to safely and effectively potentiate the immune response. The examination of the extent of antigen adsorption to aluminum adjuvant is always evaluated during the development of aluminum adjuvant containing vaccines. A rapid automated high throughput assay was developed to measure antigen adsorption in a 96-well plate format using a TECAN Freedom EVO® (TECAN). The antigen adsorption levels at a constant adjuvant concentration for each sample were accurately measured at 12 antigen /adjuvant (w/w) formulation ratios...
January 17, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337646/stability-of-an-aluminum-salt-adjuvanted-protein-d-conjugated-pneumococcal-vaccine-after-exposure-to-subzero-temperatures
#2
Juliette Fortpied, Florence Wauters, Christelle Rochart, Philippe Hermand, Bernard Hoet, Nicolas Moniotte, Ivo Vojtek
Accidental exposure of a vaccine containing an aluminum-salt adjuvant to temperatures below 0°C in the cold chain can lead to freeze damage. Our study evaluated the potential for freeze damage in a licensed aluminum-salt-containing protein-D-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV; Synflorix, GSK) in conditions that included static storage, single subzero-temperature excursions, and simulated air-freight transportation. Several parameters were assessed including freezing at subzero temperatures, aluminum-salt-particle size, antigen integrity and immunogenicity in the mouse...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334279/uric-acid-and-the-vaccine-adjuvant-activity-of-aluminum-oxy-hydroxide-nanoparticles
#3
Sachin G Thakkar, Haiyue Xu, Xu Li, Zhengrong Cui
In an effort to improve the adjuvanticity of insoluble aluminum salts, we discovered that the adjuvant activity of aluminum salt nanoparticles is significantly stronger than aluminum salt microparticles, likely related to nanoparticle's stronger ability to directly activate NLRP3 inflammasome as the nanoparticles are more efficiently taken up by phagocytic cells. Endogenous signals such as uric acid from cell damage or death caused by the cytotoxicity of aluminum salts are thought to indirectly activate inflammasome, prompting us to hypothesize that the potent adjuvant activity of aluminum salt nanoparticles is also related to their ability to stimulate uric acid production...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317357/novel-identified-aluminum-hydroxide-induced-pathways-proof-monocyte-activation-and-pro-inflammatory-preparedness
#4
Sietske Kooijman, Jolanda Brummelman, Cécile A C M van Els, Fabio Marino, Albert J R Heck, Geert P M Mommen, Bernard Metz, Gideon F A Kersten, Jeroen L A Pennings, Hugo D Meiring
Aluminum-based adjuvants are the most widely used adjuvants in human vaccines. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of action of aluminum adjuvants at the molecular level, however, is still elusive. Here, we unravel the effects of aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 by a systems-wide analysis of the Al(OH)3-induced monocyte response. Cell response analysis by cytokine release was combined with (targeted) transcriptome and full proteome analysis. Results from this comprehensive study revealed two novel pathways to become activated upon monocyte stimulation with Al(OH)3: the first pathway was IFNβ signaling possibly induced by DAMP sensing pathways like TLR or NOD1 activation, and second the HLA class I antigen processing and presentation pathway...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315762/effect-of-apoptosis-associated-speck-like-protein-containing-a-caspase-recruitment-domain-on-vaccine-efficacy-overcoming-the-effects-of-its-deficiency-with-aluminum-hydroxide-adjuvant
#5
Deuk-Ki Lee, Eun-Young Lee, Ryoon-Ho Kim, Hye-Won Kwak, Joo Young Kim, Hun Kim, Kyung-Won Kang, Sang-Myeong Lee, Jong-Hwan Park, Jun Chang, Jae-Hwan Nam
Host factors such as nutritional status and immune cell state are important for vaccine efficacy. Inflammasome activation may be important for triggering vaccine-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Formulations with alum as a typical adjuvant to overcome the effects of host factors have recently been shown to induce inflammasome activation, which augments vaccine efficacy. Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is one of main components of inflammasomes, but it is not clear whether ASC affects the vaccine-induced immune response...
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314223/delayed-type-hypersensitivity-to-vaccine-aluminum-adjuvant-causing-subcutaneous-leg-mass-and-urticaria-in-a-child
#6
Samantha C Gordon, Diana W Bartenstein, Shahein H Tajmir, Johanna S Song, Elena B Hawryluk
A 3-year-old girl presented with a 7-month history of a waxing and waning left thigh mass associated with pruritus and erythema at the site of two previous DTaP-HepB-IPV vaccinations. Patch testing was positive to aluminum chloride, supporting a diagnosis of vaccine granuloma secondary to aluminum allergy; her symptoms had been well controlled with antihistamines and topical steroids. Injection site granulomas are a benign but potentially bothersome reaction to aluminum-containing immunizations that can be supportively managed, and we encourage strict adherence to the recommended vaccine schedule in this setting...
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296883/innate-transcriptional-effects-by-adjuvants-on-the-magnitude-quality-and-durability-of-hiv-envelope-responses-in-nhps
#7
Joseph R Francica, Daniel E Zak, Caitlyn Linde, Emilio Siena, Carrie Johnson, Michal Juraska, Nicole L Yates, Bronwyn Gunn, Ennio De Gregorio, Barbara J Flynn, Nicholas M Valiante, Padma Malyala, Susan W Barnett, Pampi Sarkar, Manmohan Singh, Siddhartha Jain, Margaret Ackerman, Munir Alam, Guido Ferrari, Georgia D Tomaras, Derek T O'Hagan, Alan Aderem, Galit Alter, Robert A Seder
Adjuvants have a critical role for improving vaccine efficacy against many pathogens, including HIV. Here, using transcriptional RNA profiling and systems serology, we assessed how distinct innate pathways altered HIV-specific antibody responses in nonhuman primates (NHPs) using 8 clinically based adjuvants. NHPs were immunized with a glycoprotein 140 HIV envelope protein (Env) and insoluble aluminum salts (alum), MF59, or adjuvant nanoemulsion (ANE) coformulated with or without Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and 7 agonists...
November 28, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251618/-evaluation-of-adjuvant-effects-of-fucoidane-from-brown-seaweed-fucus-evanescens-and-its-structural-analogues-for-the-strengthening-vaccines-effectiveness
#8
T A Kuznetsova, L A Ivanushko, E V Persiyanova, A L Shutikova, S P Ermakova, M Yu Khotimchenko, N N Besednova
The use of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed Fucus evanescens as adjuvants (native fucoidan in combination with polyphenols, fucoidan without polyphenols, a product of enzymatic hydrolysis of fucoidan) stimulated the formation of specific antibodies to the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBs-AG). Immunization of mice with vaccine compositions containing HBs-AG and fucoidan samples resulted in increasing the serum level of the pro-inflammatory (TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-2) cytokines. Increased production of these cytokines was detected in the culture of splenocytes additionally stimulated in vitro by fucoidans or phytohemagglutinin...
November 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224339/immobilization-of-aluminum-hydroxide-particles-on-quartz-crystal-microbalance-sensors-to-elucidate-antigen-adjuvant-interaction-mechanisms-in-vaccines
#9
Jean-François Art, Aurélien Vander Straeten, Christine C Dupont-Gillain
Aluminum hydroxide (AH) salts are the most widely used adjuvants in vaccine formulation. They trigger immunogenicity from antigenic subunits that would otherwise suffer from a lack of efficiency. Previous studies focusing on antigen-AH interaction mechanisms, performed with model proteins, suggested that electrostatic interactions and phosphate-hydroxyl ligand exchanges drive protein adsorption on AH. We however recently evidenced that NaCl, used in vaccine formulation, provokes AH particle aggregation. This must be taken into account to interpret data related to protein adsorption on AH...
December 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221615/is-exposure-to-aluminium-adjuvants-associated-with-social-impairments-in-mice-a-pilot-study
#10
Sneha K S Sheth, Yongling Li, Christopher A Shaw
BACKGROUND: Our group has shown that significant correlations exist between rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and total aluminum adjuvants given to children through vaccines in several Western countries. These correlations satisfied eight out of nine Hill criteria for causality. Experimental studies have demonstrated a range of behavioural abnormalities in young mice after postnatal exposure to aluminium. To build on our previous work, the current study will investigate the effect of aluminium adjuvants on social behaviour in mice...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206191/the-metal-neurotoxins-an-important-role-in-current-human-neural-epidemics
#11
REVIEW
Keith Schofield
Many published studies have illustrated that several of the present day neurological epidemics (autism, attention deficit disorder, Alzheimer's) cannot be correlated to any single neurotoxicant. However, the present scientific examination of the numerous global blood monitoring databases for adults that include the concentrations of the neurotoxic elements, aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) clearly indicate that, when considered in combination, for some, the human body may become easily over-burdened...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192493/biodegradable-metal-ions-doped-mesoporous-silica-nanospheres-stimulate-anti-cancer-th1-immune-response-in-vivo
#12
Xiupeng Wang, Xia Li, Atsuo Ito, Yu Sogo, Yohei Watanabe, Noriko Tsuji, Tadao Ohno
Modern vaccines usually require accompanying adjuvants to increase the immune response to antigens. Aluminum compounds (alum) are the most commonly used adjuvants in human vaccinations for infection diseases. However, alum adjuvants are non-degradable, cause side effects due to the persistence of alum at injection sites, and are rather ineffective for cancer immunotherapy, which requires the Th1 immune response. Recently, we have shown that a plain mesoporous silica (MS) adjuvant can stimulate Th1 anti-cancer immunity for cancer vaccines...
December 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171990/development-of-nanoparticle-adjuvants-to-potentiate-the-immune-response-against-diphtheria-toxoid
#13
Fatimah M Alshanqiti, Saad Berki Al-Masaudi, Ahmed M Al-Hejin, Nawal Abd El-Baky, Elrashdy M Redwan
BACKGROUND: Over the years, diphtheria was known as contagious fatal infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria that affects upper respiratory system. The spread of diphtheria epidemic disease is best prevented by vaccination with diphtheria toxoid vaccine. Aluminum adjuvants were reported to stimulate the immune responses to killed and subunit vaccines. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to minimize adjuvant particles size, to gain insight of resulting immunity titer and impact on immune response antibody subtypes...
June 30, 2017: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136861/quality-by-design-approach-in-the-development-of-an-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method-for-bexsero-meningococcal-group-b-vaccine
#14
Luca Nompari, Serena Orlandini, Benedetta Pasquini, Cristiana Campa, Michele Rovini, Massimo Del Bubba, Sandra Furlanetto
Bexsero is the first approved vaccine for active immunization of individuals from 2 months of age and older to prevent invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. The active components of the vaccine are Neisseria Heparin Binding Antigen, factor H binding protein, Neisseria adhesin A, produced in Escherichia coli cells by recombinant DNA technology, and Outer Membrane Vesicles (expressing Porin A and Porin B), produced by fermentation of Neisseria meningitidis strain NZ98/254. All the Bexsero active components are adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide and the unadsorbed antigens content is a product critical quality attribute...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112895/polyactin-a-is-a-novel-and-potent-immunological-adjuvant-for-peptide-based-cancer-vaccine
#15
Wei Wang, Yanqin Li, Yawen Wang, Shuting Ren, Yiping Li, Bing Wang
Synthetic peptide cancer vaccines are poorly immunogenic sub-unit vaccines and thus essentially need adjuvants in their formulations to increase the efficacy by enhancing the peptide-specific immune response. However, aluminum-based compounds are almost dependent for clinical use at present. Therefore, the increasing use of peptide-based vaccines makes the need for novel and potent adjuvants. Polyactin A (PAA) has been used for the clinical treatment of impaired immunity in China for over 30years. To figure out the adjuvant effects of PAA for E75 peptide breast cancer vaccine (Her2 p369-p377), the generation of mature dendritic cells (DCs) from peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) cultured with PAA, IL-4 and TNF-α was assessed by morphologic features and the expressions of special surface markers using flow cytometry...
November 4, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106986/intraperitoneal-administration-of-a-novel-chimeric-immunogen-rop-elicits-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-12p70-protective-immune-response-in-balb-c-mice-against-virulent-brucella
#16
Ganesh Tadepalli, Balakrishna Konduru, Harishchandra Sripathy Murali, Harsh Vardhan Batra
Recombinant engineering of immunologically active chimeric protein consisting of Omp19 and P39 domains of B. abortus (rOP), was purified under denaturing conditions upon expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and refolded to dynamic form. The immuno-protective efficacy of rOP was evaluated by challenging the BALB/c mice intraperitoneally (I.P) with the infective species of Brucella in the absence or presence of adjuvants, such as Aluminum hydroxide gel (Al), or Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA)/Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA)...
October 26, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103998/tlr8-combined-withtlr3-or-tlr4-agonists-enhances-dc-nk-driven-effector-tc1-cells
#17
Mahyar Nouri-Shirazi, Saba Tamjidi, Erika Nourishirazi, Elisabeth Guinet
BACKGROUND: Most current prophylactic vaccines confer protection primarily through humoral immunity. Indeed, aluminum salts which have been widely used as adjuvants in vaccines primarily enhance Th2-driven antibody responses. Therefore, new vaccines formulation is moving toward a careful selection of adjuvants that also elicit significant Th1 or Tc1 responses. Several TLR agonists have been tested as potential new adjuvants in clinical and preclinical studies with some efficacy. These studies suggest that combining more than one of TLR ligands enhances the magnitude of immune responses to cancer and infectious disease...
November 2, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089195/superior-immunogenicity-of-hcv-envelope-glycoproteins-when-adjuvanted-with-cyclic-di-amp-a-sting-activator-or-archaeosomes
#18
A Landi, J Law, D Hockman, M Logan, K Crawford, C Chen, J Kundu, T Ebensen, C A Guzman, L Deschatelets, L Krishnan, D L J Tyrrell, M Houghton
Three decades after the discovery, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is still the leading cause of liver transplantation and poses a major threat to global health. In spite of recent advances in the development of direct acting antivirals, there is still a need for a prophylactic vaccine to limit the virus spread and protect at-risk populations, especially in developing countries, where the cost of the new treatments may severely limit access. The use of recombinant HCV glycoproteins E1E2 (rE1E2) in combination with the MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion-based adjuvant, has previously been shown to reduce the rate of chronicity in chimpanzees and to induce production of cross-neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses in human volunteers...
October 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052227/adjuvant-pretreatment-with-alum-protects-neonatal-mice-in-sepsis-through-myeloid-cell-activation
#19
Jaimar C Rincon, Angela L Cuenca, Steven L Raymond, Brittany Mathias, Dina C Nacionales, Ricardo Ungaro, Philip A Efron, James L Wynn, Lyle L Moldawer, Shawn D Larson
The high mortality in neonatal sepsis has been related to both quantitative and qualitative differences in host protective immunity. Especially in the premature neonate where outcomes from sepsis are so dismal, pretreatment strategies to prevent sepsis have received inadequate consideration. Aluminum-based adjuvants (alum) are currently used in many pediatric vaccines, but their use as an innate immune stimulant alone has not been well studied. We asked whether pre-treatment with alum adjuvant alone could improve outcome and host innate immunity in neonatal mice given polymicrobial sepsis...
October 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034866/the-health-effects-of-aluminum-exposure
#20
Katrin Klotz, Wobbeke Weistenhöfer, Frauke Neff, Andrea Hartwig, Christoph van Thriel, Hans Drexler
BACKGROUND: Aluminum is regularly taken up with the daily diet. It is also used in antiperspirants, as an adjuvant for vaccination, and in desensitization procedures. In this review, we present the scientifically documented harmful effects of aluminum on health and the threshold values associated with them. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and SCOPUS databases on the topic of aluminum in connection with neurotoxicity, Alzheimer's disease, and breast cancer, as well as on the authors' personal experience in occupational and environmental medicine...
September 29, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
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