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aluminum vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791435/immunogenicity-and-efficacy-following-sequential-parenterally-administered-doses-of-salmonella-enteritidis-cops-flic-glycoconjugates-in-infant-and-adult-mice
#1
Scott M Baliban, Brittany Curtis, Deanna Toema, Sharon M Tennant, Myron M Levine, Marcela F Pasetti, Raphael Simon
In sub-Saharan Africa, invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections with serovars S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and I 4,[5],12:i:- are widespread in children < 5 years old. Development of an efficacious vaccine would provide an important public health tool to prevent iNTS disease in this population. Glycoconjugates of S. Enteritidis core and O-polysaccharide (COPS) coupled to the homologous serovar phase 1 flagellin protein (FliC) were previously shown to be immunogenic and protected adult mice against death following challenge with a virulent Malian S...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773196/reconsideration-of-the-immunotherapeutic-pediatric-safe-dose-levels-of-aluminum
#2
James Lyons-Weiler, Robert Ricketson
FDA regulations require safety testing of constituent ingredients in drugs (21 CFR 610.15). With the exception of extraneous proteins, no component safety testing is required for vaccines or vaccine schedules. The dosing of aluminum in vaccines is based on the production of antibody titers, not safety science. Here we estimate a Pediatric Dose Limit that considers body weight. We identify several serious historical missteps in past analyses of provisional safe levels of aluminum in vaccines, and provide updates relevant to infant aluminum exposure in the pediatric schedule considering pediatric body weight...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755431/outer-membrane-vesicles-current-status-and-future-direction-of-these-novel-vaccine-adjuvants
#3
REVIEW
Kuang Tan, Ruizhen Li, Xiaotian Huang, Qiong Liu
Adjuvants have been of great interest to vaccine formulation as immune-stimulators. Prior to the recent research in the field of immune stimulation, conventional adjuvants utilized for aluminum-based vaccinations dominated the adjuvant market. However, these conventional adjuvants have demonstrated obvious defects, including poor protective efficiency and potential side effects, which hindered their widespread circulation. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) naturally exist in gram-negative bacteria and are capable of engaging innate and adaptive immunity and possess intrinsic adjuvant capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755195/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-a-novel-porcine-circovirus-type-2-synthetic-peptide-vaccine
#4
Jiwoon Jeong, Changhoon Park, Seeun Kim, Su-Jin Park, Ikjae Kang, Kee Hwan Park, Chanhee Chae
A novel porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) peptide vaccine comprised of a consensus capsid (Cap) protein domain encoded by open reading frame 2 was developed to control PCV2 infection. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated against a commercial baculovirus-expressed recombinant PCV2 subunit vaccine based on the Cap protein. The amino acid sequence of this Cap protein was designed based on the alignment of amino acid sequences from different isolates from Europe, North America, and Asia. The vaccine was evaluated in either phosphate-buffered saline or adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, cobalt oxide, or liposome...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751492/aluminum-adjuvant-containing-vaccines-in-the-context-of-the-hygiene-hypothesis-a-risk-factor-for-eosinophilia-and-allergy-in-a-genetically-susceptible-subpopulation
#5
REVIEW
Todd D Terhune, Richard C Deth
There are similarities between the immune response following immunization with aluminum adjuvants and the immune response elicited by some helminthic parasites, including stimulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophilia. Immunization with aluminum adjuvants, as with helminth infection, induces a Th2 type cell mediated immune response, including eosinophilia, but does not induce an environment conducive to the induction of regulatory mechanisms. Helminths play a role in what is known as the hygiene hypothesis, which proposes that decreased exposure to microbes during a critical time in early life has resulted in the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma and atopic disorders over the past few decades, especially in Western countries...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739720/heterologous-prime-boost-vaccination-with-adenoviral-vector-and-protein-nanoparticles-induces-both-th1-and-th2-responses-against-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#6
Seo-Yeon Jung, Kyung Won Kang, Eun-Young Lee, Dong-Won Seo, Hong-Lim Kim, Hak Kim, TaeWoo Kwon, Hye-Lim Park, Hun Kim, Sang-Myeong Lee, Jae-Hwan Nam
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a highly pathogenic and zoonotic virus with a fatality rate in humans of over 35%. Although several vaccine candidates have been developed, there is still no clinically available vaccine for MERS-CoV. In this study, we developed two types of MERS-CoV vaccines: a recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 encoding the MERS-CoV spike gene (Ad5/MERS) and spike protein nanoparticles formulated with aluminum (alum) adjuvant. Next, we tested a heterologous prime-boost vaccine strategy, which compared priming with Ad5/MERS and boosting with spike protein nanoparticles and vice versa, with homologous prime-boost vaccination comprising priming and boosting with either spike protein nanoparticles or Ad5/MERS...
May 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721353/immunoexcitotoxicity-as-the-central-mechanism-of-etiopathology-and-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-possible-role-of-fluoride-and-aluminum
#7
REVIEW
Anna Strunecka, Russell L Blaylock, Jiri Patocka, Otakar Strunecky
Our review suggests that most autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk factors are connected, either directly or indirectly, to immunoexcitotoxicity. Chronic brain inflammation is known to enhance the sensitivity of glutamate receptors and interfere with glutamate removal from the extraneuronal space, where it can trigger excitotoxicity over a prolonged period. Neuroscience studies have clearly shown that sequential systemic immune stimulation can activate the brain's immune system, microglia, and astrocytes, and that with initial immune stimulation, there occurs CNS microglial priming...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713168/curdlan-sulfate-o-linked-quaternized-chitosan-nanoparticles-potential-adjuvants-to-improve-the-immunogenicity-of-exogenous-antigens-via-intranasal-vaccination
#8
Shu Zhang, Shengshi Huang, Lu Lu, Xinlei Song, Pingli Li, Fengshan Wang
Introduction: The development of ideal vaccine adjuvants for intranasal vaccination can provide convenience for many vaccinations. As an ideal intranasal vaccine adjuvant, it should have the properties of assisting soluble antigens to pass the mucosal barrier and potentiating both systemic and mucosal immunity via nasal administration. Methods: By using the advantages of polysaccharides, which can promote both T-helper 1 and 2 responses, curdlan sulfate (CS)- O -(2-hydroxyl)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride ( O -HTCC) nanoparticles were prepared by interacting CS with O -HTCC, and the adjuvancy of the nanoparticles was investigated...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698406/generation-and-characterization-of-a-bivalent-protein-boost-for-future-clinical-trials-hiv-1-subtypes-cr01_ae-and-b-gp120-antigens-with-a-potent-adjuvant
#9
Yingxia Wen, Hung V Trinh, Christine E Linton, Chiara Tani, Nathalie Norais, DeeAnn Martinez-Guzman, Priyanka Ramesh, Yide Sun, Frank Situ, Selen Karaca-Griffin, Christopher Hamlin, Sayali Onkar, Sai Tian, Susan Hilt, Padma Malyala, Rushit Lodaya, Ning Li, Gillis Otten, Giuseppe Palladino, Kristian Friedrich, Yukti Aggarwal, Celia LaBranche, Ryan Duffy, Xiaoying Shen, Georgia D Tomaras, David C Montefiori, William Fulp, Raphael Gottardo, Brian Burke, Jeffrey B Ulmer, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Hua-Xin Liao, Barton F Haynes, Nelson L Michael, Jerome H Kim, Mangala Rao, Robert J O'Connell, Andrea Carfi, Susan W Barnett
The RV144 Phase III clinical trial with ALVAC-HIV prime and AIDSVAX B/E subtypes CRF01_AE (A244) and B (MN) gp120 boost vaccine regime in Thailand provided a foundation for the future development of improved vaccine strategies that may afford protection against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Results from this trial showed that immune responses directed against specific regions V1V2 of the viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1, were inversely correlated to the risk of HIV-1 infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686670/alum-toll-like-receptor-7-adjuvant-enhances-the-expansion-of-memory-b-cell-compartment-within-the-draining-lymph-node
#10
Hoa Thi My Vo, Barbara Christiane Baudner, Stefano Sammicheli, Matteo Iannacone, Ugo D'Oro, Diego Piccioli
Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective health interventions and, with the exception of water sanitization, no other action has had such a major effect in mortality reduction. Combined with other approaches, such as clean water, better hygiene, and health education, vaccination contributed to prevent millions of cases of deaths among children under 5 years of age. New or improved vaccines are needed to fight some vaccine-preventable diseases that are still a threat for the public health globally, as reported also in the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682589/parenterally-administered-norovirus-gii-4-virus-like-particle-vaccine-formulated-with-aluminum-hydroxide-or-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-adjuvants-induces-systemic-but-not-mucosal-immune-responses-in-mice
#11
Suvi Heinimäki, Maria Malm, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Norovirus (NoV) is a main cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. NoV vaccine candidates currently in clinical trials are based on noninfectious highly immunogenic virus-like particles (VLPs) delivered intramuscularly (IM). Since NoV is an enteric pathogen, it is likely that mucosal immunity has a significant role in protection from infection in the intestine. Due to the fact that IM delivery of NoV VLPs does not generate mucosal immunity, we investigated whether NoV genotype GII.4 VLPs coadministered with aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3 ) or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) would induce mucosal antibodies in mice...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669838/effects-of-adjuvants-on-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-sosip-trimers-in-vitro
#12
Gabriel Ozorowski, Albert Cupo, Michael Golabek, Michelle LoPiccolo, Thomas A Ketas, Matt Cavallary, Christopher A Cottrell, P J Klasse, Andrew B Ward, John P Moore
Native-like, soluble, recombinant SOSIP trimers of various designs and based on several env genes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are being tested as immunogens in different animal models. These experiments almost always involve co-formulating the trimers with an adjuvant to boost the magnitude of the immune responses. One factor relevant to the choice of an adjuvant is that it should not physically damage the immunogen or impede its ability to present relevant epitopes. As examples, an adjuvant formulation that includes harsh detergents could disrupt the structural integrity of a trimer, and any charged compounds in the formulation could bind to counter-charged regions of the trimer and physically occlude nearby epitopes...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660190/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-hbai20-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-healthy-na%C3%A3-ve-and-non-responding-adults
#13
Özgür M Koc, Paul H M Savelkoul, Inge H M van Loo, Andrea Peeters, Astrid M L Oude Lashof
Approximately 5% of the healthy adult population respond inadequately to the commercial recombinant hepatitis B vaccines. As the recombinant vaccines all have an aluminum-based adjuvant, we tried to enhance the immune response by adding a cytokine-based adjuvant. This new adjuvant AI20, containing 20μg recombinant human IL-2 attached to 20μg aluminum hydroxide, was added to HBVaxPro©-10μg (HBAI20). In a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), 24 naïve subjects were randomized to receive either HBAI20 or commercial HBVaxPro©-10μg vaccine...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657407/intranasal-administration-of-inactivated-avian-influenza-virus-of-h5n1-subtype-vaccine-induced-systemic-immune-response-in-chicken-and-mice
#14
I N Suartha, G A A Suartini, I W Wirata, N M A R K Dewi, G N N Putra, G A Y Kencana, G N Mahardika
Aim: The need for non-parenteral administration of inactivated avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (AIV-H5N1) vaccine is paramount. Here, we provide preliminary data on the immune response of chicken and mice after intranasal administration of AIV-H5N1-inactivated vaccine with ISCOMS, Inmunair (INM), and combined ISCOMS and INM as an adjuvant. Materials and Methods: The AIV isolate of A/Chicken/Denpasar/01/2004 (H5N1) was cultivated in specific pathogen-free chicken eggs and inactivated with formaldehyde...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610257/comparison-of-immunogenicity-and-protection-of-two-pneumococcal-protein-vaccines-based-on-psaa-and-pspa
#15
Jinfei Yu, Bo Li, Xiaorui Chen, Jingcai Lu, Dandan Wang, Tiejun Gu, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of invasive pneumococcal disease, septicemia, and meningitis that can result in high morbidity rates in children under 5 years old. The current polysaccharide-based vaccines can provide type-specific immunity, but a broad-spectrum vaccine would provide greater coverage. Therefore, developing pneumococcal-protein-based vaccines that can extend to more serum types is highly important. In this study, we vaccinated mice via the subcutaneous (s.c.) route with a systemic vaccine that is a mixture of fusion protein PsaA-PspA23 and a single protein, PspA4, with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant...
June 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601940/novel-intranasal-pertussis-vaccine-based-on-bacterium-like-particles-as-a-mucosal-adjuvant
#16
Wei Shi, Yiming Kou, Hao Jiang, Feng Gao, Wei Kong, Weiheng Su, Fei Xu, Chunlai Jiang
Pertussis, or whooping cough, has recently reemerged as a major public health threat despite high levels of vaccination. The development of a novel pertussis vaccine, especially an intranasal (i.n.) vaccine is undoubtedly necessary, and mucosal adjuvants have been explored to enhance the immune response. In the present study, bacterium-like particles (BLPs) were adopted as a mucosal adjuvant for an i.n. pertussis vaccine and evaluated on the ability to induce serum and mucosal antibodies as well as potency against i...
March 27, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592962/microcrystalline-tyrosine-and-aluminum-as-adjuvants-in-allergen-specific-immunotherapy-protect-from-ige-mediated-reactivity-in-mouse-models-and-act-independently-of-inflammasome-and-tlr-signaling
#17
Deborah S Leuthard, Agathe Duda, Sandra N Freiberger, Sina Weiss, Isabella Dommann, Gabriele Fenini, Emmanuel Contassot, Matthias F Kramer, Murray A Skinner, Thomas M Kündig, Matthew D Heath, Pål Johansen
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only modality that can modify immune responses to allergen exposure, but therapeutic coverage is low. One strategy to improve AIT safety and efficacy is the use of new or improved adjuvants. This study investigates immune responses produced by microcrystalline tyrosine (MCT)-based vaccines as compared with conventional aluminum hydroxide (alum). Wild-type, immune-signaling-deficient, and TCR-transgenic mice were treated with different Ags (e.g., OVA and cat dander Fel d 1), plus MCT or alum as depot adjuvants...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577957/aluminum-is-a-powerful-adjuvant-in-teleost-fish-despite-failing-to-induce-interleukin-1%C3%AE-release
#18
Diego Angosto, Azucena López-Muñoz, Alicia García-Alcazar, José Meseguer, María P Sepulcre, Victoriano Mulero
Although Aluminum salts (Alum) have been extensively used in human vaccination for decades, its mechanism of action is controversial. In fish, the use of Alum as a vaccine adjuvant is scarce and there are no studies aimed at identifying its mechanism of action. In the present study we report that Alum is a powerful adjuvant in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., Sparidae) and the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. Moronidae). Thus, Alum increased the specific antibody titers to the model antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin as the commonly used Freund's adjuvant did in both species...
March 22, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555220/expression-and-characterization-of-a-novel-truncated-rotavirus-vp4-for-the-development-of-a-recombinant-rotavirus-vaccine
#19
Yijian Li, Miaoge Xue, Linqi Yu, Guoxing Luo, Han Yang, Lianzhi Jia, Yuanjun Zeng, Tingdong Li, Shengxiang Ge, Ningshao Xia
The outer capsid protein VP4 is an important target for the development of a recombinant rotavirus vaccine because it mediates the attachment and penetration of rotavirus. Due to the poor solubility of full-length VP4, VP8 was explored as candidate rotavirus vaccines in the past years. In previous studies, it has been found that the N-terminal truncated VP8 protein, VP8-1 (aa26-231), could be expressed in soluble form with improved immunogenicity compared to the core of VP8 (aa65-223). However, this protein stimulated only a weak immune response when aluminum hydroxide was used as an adjuvant...
April 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554479/aluminum-hydroxide-colloid-vaccine-encapsulated-in-yeast-shells-with-enhanced-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses
#20
Hui Liu, Zhenghu Jia, Chengmao Yang, Mei Song, Zhe Jing, Yapu Zhao, Zhenzhou Wu, Liqing Zhao, Dongsheng Wei, Zhinan Yin, Zhangyong Hong
Aluminum salt (Alum) is one of the most important immune adjuvants approved for use in humans, however it is not suitable for vaccination against various chronic infectious diseases and cancers for not being able to induce cell-mediated (Th1) immunity. Here, we encapsulated an Alum colloid inside β-glucan particles (GPs), which are a type of natural particles derived from the yeast glucan shells, to prepare hybrid GP-Alum (GP-Al) adjuvant particles with a very uniform size of 2-4 μm. These hybrid particles can be used to load antigen proteins through a simple mixing procedure, and can be highly specifically targeted to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and strongly activate dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and cytokine secretion...
June 2018: Biomaterials
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