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Jaden R Kohn, Joseph M Armstrong, Rachel A Taylor, Diana L Whitney, Anne C Gill
BACKGROUND: Barriers hinder medical students from reporting breaches in professional behaviour, which can adversely impact institutional culture. No studies have reported student perspectives on how to address these barriers successfully. Our study (i) evaluated the likelihood of reporting based on violation severity, (ii) assessed barriers to reporting and (iii) elicited students' proposed solutions. METHODS: Four medical students designed a cross-sectional study in 2015...
April 18, 2017: Medical Education
Miriam Ribas Zambenedetti, Daniela Parada Pavoni, Andreia Cristine Dallabona, Alejandro Correa Dominguez, Celina de Oliveira Poersch, Stenio Perdigão Fragoso, Marco Aurélio Krieger
BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is routinely used to detect viral infections. In Brazil, it is mandatory the use of nucleic acid tests to detect hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus in blood banks because of the immunological window. The use of an internal control (IC) is necessary to differentiate the true negative results from those consequent from a failure in some step of the nucleic acid test. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was the construction of virus-modified particles, based on MS2 bacteriophage, to be used as IC for the diagnosis of RNA viruses...
April 6, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Joanne Mac Mahon, Suresh C Pillai, John M Kelly, Laurence W Gill
The performance of photocatalytic treatment processes were assessed using different photocatalysts against E. coli and bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PR772, in a recirculating continuous flow compound parabolic collector system under real sunlight conditions. Suspended TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticle powders and Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate in solution were tested separately, as well as in combination, using E. coli. For a 3-log reduction of E. coli in distilled water, inactivation rates in terms of cumulative dose were in the order Ru(bpy)3Cl2>(TiO2 & Ru(bpy)3Cl2)>(ZnO & Ru(bpy)3Cl2)>ZnO>TiO2>photolysis...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Karthik R Chamakura, Jennifer S Tran, Ry Young
The L protein of the ssRNA phage MS2 causes lysis of E. coli without inducing a bacteriolytic activity or inhibiting net peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis. To find host genes required for L-mediated lysis, spontaneous Ill ( insensitivity to Llysis) mutants were selected as survivors of L expression and shown to have a missense change of the highly-conserved proline (P330Q) in the C-terminal domain of DnaJ. In the dnaJP330Q host, L-mediated lysis is completely blocked at 30°C without affecting the intracellular levels of L...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Jonathon Witte, Narbe Mardirossian, Jeffrey B Neaton, Martin Head-Gordon
With the aim of improving the utility of the DFT-D3 empirical dispersion correction, we herein generalize the DFT-D3 damping function by optimizing an additional parameter, an exponent, which controls the rate at which the dispersion tail is activated. This method -- DFT-D3(op), shorthand for "optimized power," where power refers to the newly introduced exponent -- is then parameterized for use with ten popular density functional approximations across a small set of non-covalent interactions and isomerization energies; the resulting methods are then evaluated across a large independent test set of 2475 non-covalent binding energies and isomerization energies...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Michael Dau, Paul Marciak, Bial Al-Nawas, Henning Staedt, Abdulmonem Alshiri, Bernhard Frerich, Peer Wolfgang Kämmerer
BACKGROUND: A comparison of panoramic radiography (PAN) alone and PAN together with small field of view cone beam computed tomography (sFOV-CBCT) for diagnosis of symptomatic pathologies of the maxillary sinus was carried out by clinicians of different experience. METHODS: Corresponding radiographic images (PAN/sFOV-CBCT) of 28 patients with symptomatic maxillary sinus pathologies were chosen and analyzed by two general practitioners (GP), two junior maxillofacial surgeons (MS1), and three senior maxillofacial surgeons (MS2) via questionnaire...
December 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
Arnaud Tomasini, Karen Moreau, Johana Chicher, Thomas Geissmann, François Vandenesch, Pascale Romby, Stefano Marzi, Isabelle Caldelari
The virulon of Staphyloccocus aureus is controlled by intricate connections between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators including proteins and small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). Many of the sRNAs regulate gene expression through base-pairings with mRNAs. However, characterization of the direct sRNA targets in Gram-positive bacteria remained a difficult challenge. Here, we have applied and adapted the MS2-affinity purification approach coupled to RNA sequencing (MAPS) to determine the targetome of RsaA sRNA of S...
April 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Mehrdad Dadsetani, Tahereh Nouri, Hajar Nejatipour
This study set out to calculate the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW)-based energy loss near sulfur K and L2,3 edge structures of group V layered transition metal disulfides MS2 (M=Ta, Nb, and V) in octahedral (1T) as well as trigonal prismatic (2H) structures. The calculations showed that, consistent with other calculations, all the studied materials were metallic due to the partially filled d bands in their configurations. Furthermore, the calculated ELNES spectra revealed a good agreement with the available experimental XANES analogues...
March 14, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Kuan-Ting Pan, Chen-Chun Chen, Henning Urlaub, Kay-Hooi Khoo
A hallmark of protein N-glycosylation is extensive heterogeneity associated with each glycosylation site. In human cells, the constituent glycoforms differ mostly in numerous ways of extensions from an invariable trimannosyl core and terminal modifications. The efficient identification of these glycoforms at the glycopeptide level by mass spectrometry (MS) requires a precursor sampling technique that is not dictated by signal intensity or by preset targets during MS2 data acquisition. We show here that the recently developed data-independent acquisition (DIA) approach is best suited to this demanding task...
April 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Christopher J Gray, Baptiste Schindler, Lukasz G Migas, Martina Pičmanová, Abdul R Allouche, Anthony P Green, Santanu Mandal, Mohammed S Motawia, Raquel Sánchez-Pérez, Nanna Bjarnholt, Birger L Møller, Anouk M Rijs, Perdita E Barran, Isabelle Compagnon, Claire E Eyers, Sabine L Flitsch
The lack of robust, high-throughput, and sensitive analytical strategies that can conclusively map the structure of glycans has significantly hampered progress in fundamental and applied aspects of glycoscience. Resolution of the anomeric α/β glycan linkage within oligosaccharides remains a particular challenge. Here, we show that "memory" of anomeric configuration is retained following gas-phase glycosidic bond fragmentation during tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)). These findings allow for integration of MS(2) with ion mobility spectrometry (IM-MS(2)) and lead to a strategy to distinguish α- and β-linkages within natural underivatized carbohydrates...
April 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Jorge Vazquez-Anderson, Mia K Mihailovic, Kevin C Baldridge, Kristofer G Reyes, Katie Haning, Seung Hee Cho, Paul Amador, Warren B Powell, Lydia M Contreras
Current approaches to design efficient antisense RNAs (asRNAs) rely primarily on a thermodynamic understanding of RNA-RNA interactions. However, these approaches depend on structure predictions and have limited accuracy, arguably due to overlooking important cellular environment factors. In this work, we develop a biophysical model to describe asRNA-RNA hybridization that incorporates in vivo factors using large-scale experimental hybridization data for three model RNAs: a group I intron, CsrB and a tRNA. A unique element of our model is the estimation of the availability of the target region to interact with a given asRNA using a differential entropic consideration of suboptimal structures...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Ruiqing Lu, Chang Zhang, Maria Piatkovsky, Mathias Ulbricht, Moshe Herzberg, Thanh H Nguyen
Potable water reuse has been adopted by cities suffering water scarcity in recent years. The microbial safety in water reuse, especially with respect to pathogenic viruses, is still a concern for water consumers. Membrane filtration can achieve sufficient removal of pathogenic viruses without disinfection byproducts, but the required energy is intensive. In this study, we graft-polymerized zwitterionic SPP ([3-(methacryloylamino) propyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) on a 150 kDa ultrafiltration polyethersulfone membrane to achieve a significantly higher virus removal...
March 9, 2017: Water Research
Enrica Matteucci, Andrea Occhipinti, Rosanna Piervittori, Massimo E Maffei, Sergio E Favero-Longo
Lichen secondary metabolites (LSMs) are regarded with interest for valuable biological properties, but chemical variability among/within lichen taxa has been only fragmentarily characterized by advanced analytical techniques. Knowledge of variability at a local geographic scale has been particularly neglected, while it should address the collection of chemically homogeneous materials to test and exploit LSMs. Here we evaluated the chemical variability of 48 Xanthoparmelia specimens from two rock outcrops in Western Italian Alps, representative of nine morphotypes and sixteen rDNA ITS haplotypes...
March 11, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Peiwu Qin, Mahmut Parlak, Cem Kuscu, Jigar Bandaria, Mustafa Mir, Karol Szlachta, Ritambhara Singh, Xavier Darzacq, Ahmet Yildiz, Mazhar Adli
Imaging chromatin dynamics is crucial to understand genome organization and its role in transcriptional regulation. Recently, the RNA-guidable feature of CRISPR-Cas9 has been utilized for imaging of chromatin within live cells. However, these methods are mostly applicable to highly repetitive regions, whereas imaging regions with low or no repeats remains as a challenge. To address this challenge, we design single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) integrated with up to 16 MS2 binding motifs to enable robust fluorescent signal amplification...
March 14, 2017: Nature Communications
Do-Kyun Kim, Soo-Ji Kim, Dong-Hyun Kang
In order to assure the microbial safety of drinking water, UVC-LED treatment has emerged as a possible technology to replace the use of conventional low pressure (LP) mercury vapor UV lamps. In this investigation, inactivation of Human Enteric Virus (HuEV) surrogates with UVC-LEDs was investigated in a water disinfection system, and kinetic model equations were applied to depict the surviving infectivities of the viruses. MS2, Qβ, and ΦX 174 bacteriophages were inoculated into sterile distilled water (DW) and irradiated with UVC-LED printed circuit boards (PCBs) (266nm and 279nm) or conventional LP lamps...
January 2017: Food Research International
Yu Fu, Guojing Wang, Qisheng Wu, Xin Yang, Rui Zhang, Kuo Zhang, Guigao Lin, Yanxi Han, Lihua Bao, Ziyang Li, Jinming Li
To quantify dengue virus (DENV) and evaluate the performance of clinical laboratories using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays, we constructed high-efficiency expression systems to produce DENV-1 to 4 nanoparticles and assessed their suitability as standard and control materials in 20 laboratories across China. Targeted gene sequences of DENV-1 to 4 were synthesized and inserted into pACYC-Duet 1-MS2 recombinant plasmids to generate corresponding nanoparticle expression systems...
March 10, 2017: Virus Research
Qing Chang, Yue'e Peng, Lifen Yun, Qingxin Zhu, Shenghong Hu, Qin Shuai
A new method for rapid screening of unknown organic iodine (OI) in small-volume complex biological samples was developed using in-tube solid phase microextraction (SPME) nanospray mass spectrometry (MS). The method proposed a new identification scheme for OI based on nanospray high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). The mass ranges of OI ions were confirmed using the t-MS(2) scan mode first; then, the possible precursor ions of OI were selected and identified orderly in full MS/ddMS(2) and t-MS(2) scan modes...
March 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Vasiliki I Syngouna, Constantinos V Chrysikopoulos
Virus inactivation by nanoparticles (NPs) is hypothesized to affect virus fate and transport in the subsurface. This study examines the interactions of viruses with titanium dioxide (TiO2) anatase NPs, which is a good disinfectant with unique physiochemical properties. The bacteriophage MS2 was used as a model virus. A series of batch experiments of MS2 inactivation by TiO2 NPs were conducted at room temperature (25°C), in the presence and absence of quartz sand, with and without ambient light. Three sets of experiments were performed in phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS) and one in distilled deionized water (ddH2O)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
N Shirasaki, T Matsushita, Y Matsui, K Murai
Here, we evaluated the efficacy of direct microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) to remove three representative human enteric viruses (i.e., adenovirus [AdV] type 40, coxsackievirus [CV] B5, and hepatitis A virus [HAV] IB), and one surrogate of human caliciviruses (i.e., murine norovirus [MNV] type 1). Eight different MF membranes and three different UF membranes were used. We also examined the ability of coagulation pretreatment with high-basicity polyaluminum chloride (PACl) to enhance virus removal by MF...
February 24, 2017: Water Research
S Lee, M Ihara, N Yamashita, H Tanaka
Reclaimed water (i.e., reused advanced-treated wastewater) offers an alternative water resource. To reduce the health risks associated with its use, efficient virus removal such as with advanced wastewater treatment processes is important. Virus removal by coagulation followed by ultrafiltration (UF) for the treatment of drinking water has been well examined. But its efficacy in wastewater reclamation purpose using secondary treated effluent (SE) from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) as feed water is unclear...
February 9, 2017: Water Research
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