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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531182/selection-of-a-biosafety-level-1-bsl-1-surrogate-to-evaluate-surface-disinfection-efficacy-in-ebola-outbreaks-comparison-of-four-bacteriophages
#1
Karin Gallandat, Daniele Lantagne
The 2014 West African Ebola virus disease outbreak was the largest to date, and conflicting, chlorine-based surface disinfection protocols to interrupt disease transmission were recommended. We identified only one study documenting surface disinfection efficacy against the Ebola virus, showing a >6.6 log reduction after 5-minute exposure to 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) based on small-scale tests (Cook et al. (2015)). In preparation for future extensive, large-scale disinfection efficacy experiments, we replicated the Cook et al...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529972/simple-and-versatile-detection-of-viruses-using-anodized-alumina-membranes
#2
Pavan Chaturvedi, Stacy D Rodriguez, Ivan Vlassiouk, Immo A Hansen, Sergei N Smirnov
A simple sensor for viral particles based on ionic conductivity through anodized alumina membranes was demonstrated using MS2 bacteriophage as an example. A facile two-point measuring scheme is geared toward realization using a computer's sound card input/output capabilities suitable for a fast and inexpensive point of care testing. The lowest detection concentration down to ~7 pfu/mL and a large dynamic range up to ~2000 pfu/mL were obtained due to physical optimization that included proper length and diameter for the pores, removing the oxide layer at the electrode, as well as the chemical optimization of covalent binding of antibodies to the pore's walls...
May 27, 2016: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524877/optimized-fragmentation-schemes-and-data-analysis-strategies-for-proteome-wide-cross-link-identification
#3
Fan Liu, Philip Lössl, Richard Scheltema, Rosa Viner, Albert J R Heck
We describe optimized fragmentation schemes and data analysis strategies substantially enhancing the depth and accuracy in identifying protein cross-links using non-restricted whole proteome databases. These include a novel hybrid data acquisition strategy to sequence cross-links at both MS2 and MS3 level and a new algorithmic design XlinkX v2.0 for data analysis. As proof-of-concept we investigated proteome-wide protein interactions in E. coli and HeLa cell lysates, respectively, identifying 1,158 and 3,301 unique cross-links at ∼1% false discovery rate...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520497/lncrna-pvt1-regulates-chondrocyte-apoptosis-in-osteoarthritis-by-acting-as-a-sponge-for-mir-488-3p
#4
Yufei Li, Shuhua Li, Yatong Luo, Yong Liu, Nanhui Yu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been known to be involved in multiple diverse diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). The present study aims at exploring the biological role of lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) in OA and the underlying mechanism. Results showed that the expression of PVT1 was upregulated in OA chondrocytes compared with normal chondrocytes, silencing PVT1 inhibited the apoptosis of OA chondrocytes, and overexpression of PVT1 promoted the apoptosis of normal chondrocytes...
May 18, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520401/identification-of-galnac-conjugated-antisense-oligonucleotide-metabolites-using-an-untargeted-and-generic-approach-based-on-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#5
Christophe Husser, Andreas Brink, Manfred Zell, Martina B Müller, Erich Koller, Simone Schadt
Antisense oligonucleotides linked by phosphorothioates are an important class of therapeutics under investigation in various pharmaceutical companies. Antisense oligonucleotides may be coupled to high-affinity ligands (triantennary N-acetyl ga-lactosamine = GalNAc) for hepatocyte-specific asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) to enhance uptake to hepatocytes and to increase potency. Since disposition and biotransformation of GalNAc-conjugated oligonucleotides is different from unconjugated oligonucleotides, appropriate analytical methods are required to identify main cleavage sites and degradation products of GalNAc conjugated and unconjugated oligonucleotides in target cells...
May 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513742/structural-stability-and-intriguing-electronic-properties-of-two-dimensional-transition-metal-dichalcogenide-alloys
#6
Xiao Yuan, Mingye Yang, Lu Wang, Youyong Li
Based on the first-principles calculations, we systematically studied the structures and electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) alloys with half-to-half mixing of S and Se. Using the chemical potentials of S and Se, the energetic phase diagrams for both single phases and mixed phases of TMD were constructed. A new heterolayer structure (for Sc and Ti) and alternating structure (for Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Mo, and W) were proposed for the first time, which were thermodynamically stable for MSSe alloys under the S-poor (relatively low chemical potential of S) and Se-rich (relatively high chemical potential of Se) conditions, and further compared with the disordered structures...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513688/solution-processed-two-dimensional-layered-heterostructure-thin-film-with-optimized-thermoelectric-performance
#7
Tongzhou Wang, Congcong Liu, Fengxing Jiang, Zhaofen Xu, Xiaodong Wang, Xia Li, Changcun Li, Jingkun Xu, Xiaowei Yang
Graphene-based two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures have ignited intensive interest in recent years because of their excellent physical performance. However, the most common method to prepare them uses chemical vapor deposition, which has the drawback of a complex process unsuitable for large-scale production. In this respect, reduced graphene oxide and transitional metal dichalcogenides (rGO-TMDs) composite thin-films were fabricated by a simple solution-processing method and their thermoelectric performance was investigated systematically...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497807/a-trim-insertion-in-the-promoter-of-ms2-causes-male-sterility-in-wheat
#8
Chuan Xia, Lichao Zhang, Cheng Zou, Yongqiang Gu, Jialei Duan, Guangyao Zhao, Jiajie Wu, Yue Liu, Xiaohua Fang, Lifeng Gao, Yuannian Jiao, Jiaqiang Sun, Yinghong Pan, Xu Liu, Jizeng Jia, Xiuying Kong
The male-sterile ms2 mutant has been known for 40 years and has become extremely important in the commercial production of wheat. However, the gene responsible for this phenotype has remained unknown. Here we report the map-based cloning of the Ms2 gene. The Ms2 locus is remarkable in several ways that have implications in basic biology. Beyond having no functional annotation, barely detectable transcription in fertile wild-type wheat plants, and accumulated destructive mutations in Ms2 orthologs, the Ms2 allele in the ms2 mutant has acquired a terminal-repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) element in its promoter...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493132/phosphopeptide-enrichment-and-lc-ms-ms-analysis-to-study-the-phosphoproteome-of-recombinant-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#9
Michael Henry, Orla Coleman, Prashant, Martin Clynes, Paula Meleady
The reversible phosphorylation of proteins on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues is one of the most important post-translational modifications that regulates many biological processes. The phosphoproteome has not been studied in any great detail in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to date despite phosphorylation playing a crucial role in regulating many molecular and cellular processes relevant to bioprocess phenotypes including, for example, transcription, translation, growth, apoptosis, and signal transduction...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488852/structure-and-dynamics-of-the-tetra-a-loop-and-a-a-u-sequence-motif-within-the-coliphage-ga-replicase-rna-operator
#10
Andrew T Chang, Michelle Tran, Edward P Nikonowicz
The three-dimensional structure of an RNA hairpin containing the RNA operator binding site for bacteriophage GA coat protein is presented. The phage GA operator contains the asymmetric (A-A)-U sequence motif and is capped by a four-adenine (tetra-A) loop. The uridine of the (A-A)-U motif preferentially pairs with the 5' proximal cross-strand adenine and the 3' proximal adenine stacks into the helix. The tetra-A loop is well-ordered with adenine residues 2-4 forming a 3' stack. This loop conformation stands in contrast to the structure of the 5'-AUUA loop of the related phage MS2 operator in which residues 1 and 2 form a 5' stack...
May 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472401/wig1-is-crucial-for-ago2-mediated-acot7-mrna-silencing-via-mirna-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#11
Hyung Chul Lee, Seung Hee Jung, Hyun Jung Hwang, Donghee Kang, Supriyo De, Dawood B Dudekula, Jennifer L Martindale, Byungkyu Park, Seung Kuk Park, Eun Kyung Lee, Jeong-Hwa Lee, Sunjoo Jeong, Kyungsook Han, Heon Joo Park, Young-Gyu Ko, Myriam Gorospe, Jae-Seon Lee
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved in mRNA splicing, maturation, transport, translation, storage and turnover. Here, we identified ACOT7 mRNA as a novel target of human WIG1. ACOT7 mRNA decay was triggered by the microRNA miR-9 in a WIG1-dependent manner via classic recruitment of Argonaute 2 (AGO2). Interestingly, AGO2 was also recruited to ACOT7 mRNA in a WIG1-dependent manner in the absence of miR-9, which indicates an alternative model whereby WIG1 controls AGO2-mediated gene silencing. The WIG1-AGO2 complex attenuated translation initiation via an interaction with translation initiation factor 5B (eIF5B)...
May 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462431/total-staphylococci-as-performance-surrogate-for-greywater-treatment
#12
David C Shoults, Nicholas J Ashbolt
Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are commonly used as water quality indicators; implying faecal contamination and therefore the potential presence of pathogenic enteric bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Hence in wastewater treatment, the most commonly used treatment process measures (surrogates) are total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci. However, greywater potentially contains skin pathogens unrelated to faecal load, and E. coli and other FIB may grow within greywater unrelated to pathogens...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457866/rapid-rates-of-pol-ii-elongation-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#13
Takashi Fukaya, Bomyi Lim, Michael Levine
Elongation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is thought to be an important mechanism for regulating gene expression [1]. We measured the first wave of de novo transcription in living Drosophila embryos using dual-fluorescence detection of nascent transcripts containing 5' MS2 and 3' PP7 RNA stem loops. Pol II elongation rates of 2.4-3.0 kb/min were observed, approximately twice as fast as earlier estimates [2-6]. The revised rates permit substantial levels of zygotic gene activity prior to the mid-blastula transition...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455611/evaluation-of-virus-reduction-by-ultrafiltration-with-coagulation-sedimentation-in-water-reclamation
#14
Suntae Lee, Akihiko Hata, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
The evaluation of virus reduction in water reclamation processes is essential for proper assessment and management of the risk of infection by enteric viruses. Ultrafiltration (UF) with coagulation-sedimentation (CS) is potentially effective for efficient virus removal. However, its performance at removing indigenous viruses has not been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the reduction of indigenous viruses by UF with and without CS in a pilot-scale water reclamation plant in Okinawa, Japan, by measuring the concentration of viruses using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
April 28, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452349/wheat-ms2-encodes-for-an-orphan-protein-that-confers-male-sterility-in-grass-species
#15
Fei Ni, Juan Qi, Qunqun Hao, Bo Lyu, Ming-Cheng Luo, Yan Wang, Fengjuan Chen, Shuyun Wang, Chaozhong Zhang, Lynn Epstein, Xiangyu Zhao, Honggang Wang, Xiansheng Zhang, Cuixia Chen, Lanzhen Sun, Daolin Fu
Male sterility is a valuable trait for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. The dominant male-sterile gene Ms2 in common wheat has facilitated the release of hundreds of breeding lines and cultivars in China. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the Ms2 gene and show that Ms2 confers male sterility in wheat, barley and Brachypodium. MS2 appears as an orphan gene within the Triticinae and expression of Ms2 in anthers is associated with insertion of a retroelement into the promoter. The cloning of Ms2 has substantial potential to assemble practical pipelines for recurrent selection and hybrid seed production in wheat...
April 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450173/a-method-for-the-improved-detection-of-aerosolized-influenza-viruses-and-the-male-specific-f-rna-coliphage-ms2
#16
J C Chandler, J W Schaeffer, M Davidson, S L Magzamen, A Pérez-Méndez, S J Reynolds, L D Goodridge, J Volckens, A B Franklin, S A Shriner, B Bisha
The detection of aerosolized viruses can serve as an important surveillance and control tool in agriculture, human health, and environmental settings. Here, we adapted an anion exchange resin-based method, initially developed to concentrate negatively charged viruses from water, to liquid impingement-based bioaerosol sampling. In this method, aerosolized viruses are collected in a 20ml liquid sample contained within widely used impingers, BioSamplers (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA), and further concentrated via adsorption to an anion exchange resin that is suspended within this liquid...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445822/identification-of-the-inactivating-factors-and-mechanisms-exerted-on-ms2-coliphage-in-concentrated-synthetic-urine
#17
Wakana Oishi, Daisuke Sano, Loic Decrey, Syunsuke Kadoya, Tamar Kohn, Naoyuki Funamizu
Volume reduction (condensation) is a key for the practical usage of human urine as a fertilizer because it enables the saving of storage space and the reduction of transportation cost. However, concentrated urine may carry infectious disease risks resulting from human pathogens frequently present in excreta, though the survival of pathogens in concentrated urine is not well understood. In this study, the inactivation of MS2 coliphage, a surrogate for single-stranded RNA human enteric viruses, in concentrated synthetic urine was investigated...
April 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443958/sensitivity-specificity-and-predictive-value-of-heart-rate-variability-indices-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Anne Kastelianne França da Silva, Diego Giuliano Destro Christofaro, Aline Fernanda Barbosa Bernardo, Franciele Marques Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) indices may detect autonomic changes with good diagnostic accuracy. Type diabetes mellitus (DM) individuals may have changes in autonomic modulation; however, studies of this nature in this population are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To compare HRV indices between and assess their prognostic value by measurements of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values in young individuals with type 1 DM and healthy volunteers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, physical and clinical assessment was performed in 39 young patients with type 1 DM and 43 young healthy controls...
March 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418106/student-derived-solutions-to-address-barriers-hindering-reports-of-unprofessional-behaviour
#19
Jaden R Kohn, Joseph M Armstrong, Rachel A Taylor, Diana L Whitney, Anne C Gill
BACKGROUND: Barriers hinder medical students from reporting breaches in professional behaviour, which can adversely impact institutional culture. No studies have reported student perspectives on how to address these barriers successfully. Our study (i) evaluated the likelihood of reporting based on violation severity, (ii) assessed barriers to reporting and (iii) elicited students' proposed solutions. METHODS: Four medical students designed a cross-sectional study in 2015...
April 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403327/internal-control-for-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-on-ms2-bacteriophage-for-rna-viruses-diagnostics
#20
Miriam Ribas Zambenedetti, Daniela Parada Pavoni, Andreia Cristine Dallabona, Alejandro Correa Dominguez, Celina de Oliveira Poersch, Stenio Perdigão Fragoso, Marco Aurélio Krieger
BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is routinely used to detect viral infections. In Brazil, it is mandatory the use of nucleic acid tests to detect hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus in blood banks because of the immunological window. The use of an internal control (IC) is necessary to differentiate the true negative results from those consequent from a failure in some step of the nucleic acid test. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was the construction of virus-modified particles, based on MS2 bacteriophage, to be used as IC for the diagnosis of RNA viruses...
April 6, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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