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Katarzyna Jastrzebska, Anna Florczak, Kamil Kucharczyk, Yinnan Lin, Qin Wang, Andrzej Mackiewicz, David L Kaplan, Hanna Dams-Kozlowska
AIM: Analysis of the properties and chemotherapeutics delivery potential of spheres made of bioengineered spider silks MS1 and MS2. MATERIALS & METHODS: MS1 and MS2 derived from Nephila clavipes dragline silks - MaSp1 and MaSp2, respectively - formed spheres that were compared in terms of physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity and loading/release of chemotherapeutics. RESULTS: MS2 spheres were more dispersed, smaller, of solid core, of higher beta-sheet structure content, and of opposite (negative) charge than MS1 spheres...
January 17, 2018: Nanomedicine
Anže Lošdorfer Božič, Cristian Micheletti, Rudolf Podgornik, Luca Tubiana
Genomes of single-stranded RNA viruses have evolved to optimize several concurrent properties. One of them is the architecture of their genomic folds, which must not only feature precise structural elements at specific positions, but also allow for overall spatial compactness. The latter was shown to be disrupted by random synonymous mutations, a disruption which can consequently negatively affect genome encapsidation. In this study, we use three mutation schemes with different degrees of locality to mutate the genomes of phage MS2 and Brome Mosaic Virus in order to understand the observed sensitivity of the global compactness of their folds...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Blair Schneider, Whitney Weigel, Maryta Sztukowska, Donald R Demuth
Type II toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems contribute to the formation of persister cells and biofilm formation for many organisms. A. actinomycetemcomitans thrives in the complex oral microbial community subjected to continual environmental flux. Little is known regarding the presence and function of type II TA systems in this organism or their contribution to adaptation and persistence in the biofilm. We identified 11 TA systems that are conserved across all seven serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans and represent the RelBE, MazEF and HipAB families of type II TA systems...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Hannah P Sassi, Kelly A Reynolds, Ian L Pepper, Charles P Gerba
BACKGROUND: Past studies have shown that infectious aerosols created during toilet flushing result in surface contamination of the restroom. The goals of this study were to quantify viral contamination of surfaces in restrooms after flushing and the impact of disinfectants added to the toilet bowl prior to flushing on reducing surface contamination. METHODS: The degree of contamination of surfaces in the restroom was assessed with and without the addition of coliphage MS2 to the toilet bowl before flushing...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
SungJun Park, Young-Seon Ko, Haeyong Jung, Cheonghoon Lee, Kyoungja Woo, GwangPyo Ko
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported as an effective alternative for controlling a broad-spectrum of pathogenic viruses. We developed a micrometer-sized silica hybrid composite decorated with AgNPs (AgNP-SiO2) to prevent the inherent aggregation of AgNPs, and facilitated their recovery from environmental media after use. The production process had a high-yield, and fabrication was cost-effective. We evaluated the antiviral capabilities of Ag30-SiO2 particles against two model viruses, bacteriophage MS2 and murine norovirus (MNV), in four different types of water (deionized, tap, surface, and ground)...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ralf W Kessler, Anne Weiss, Stefan Kuegler, Cornelia Hermes, Thomas Wichard
The marine macroalga Ulva mutabilis (Chlorophyta) develops into callus-like colonies consisting of undifferentiated cells and abnormal cell walls under axenic conditions. U. mutabilis is routinely cultured with two bacteria, the Roseovarius sp. MS2 strain and the Maribacter sp. MS6 strain, which release morphogenetic compounds and ensure proper algal morphogenesis. Using this tripartite community as an emerging model system, we tested the hypothesis that the bacterial-algal interactions evolved as a result of mutually taking advantage of signals in the environment...
December 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Dongqing Cheng, Songyan Zou, Ningbo Liao, Xiaofeng Shi, Jiang Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Liang Sun, Ronghua Zhang
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a major foodborne virus causing gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. Salad products can be vectors of transmission for foodborne viruses such as HuNoV when these products are contaminated naturally or through unsanitary food handling. Therefore, development of simple, reliable and sensitive techniques for the detection of HuNoV in salad products is needed to ensure food safety. The purpose of our study was to optimize a method for the detection of HuNoV in artificially contaminated salad products...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Food Science
James E Sharman, Pierre Boutouyrie, Marie-Cécile Perier, Frédérique Thomas, Catherine Guibout, Hakim Khettab, Bruno Pannier, Stéphane Laurent, Xavier Jouven, Jean-Philippe Empana
Aims: People with exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) have adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Mechanisms are unknown but could be explained through impaired neural baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and/or large artery stiffness. This study aimed to determine the associations of carotid BRS and carotid stiffness with exaggerated exercise BP. Methods and results: Blood pressure was recorded at rest and following an exercise step-test among 8976 adults aged 50 to 75 years from the Paris Prospective Study III...
December 21, 2017: European Heart Journal
Samuel R King, Elizabeth S Hecht, David C Muddiman
The INLIGHT™ strategy for N-linked glycan derivatization has been shown to overcome many of the challenges associated with glycan analysis. The hydrazide tag reacts efficiently with the glycans, increasing their non-polar surface area, allowing for reversed-phase separations and increased ionization efficiency. We have taken the INLIGHT™ strategy and adopted it for use with O-linked glycans. A central composite design was utilized to find optimized tagging conditions (45% acetic acid, 0.1 μg/μL tag concentration, 37 C, 1...
December 26, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Chi Zhang, Yi Li, Wenlong Zhang, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang
Waterborne viruses with a low infectious dose and a high pathogenic potential pose a serious risk for humans all over the world, calling for a cost-effective and environmentally-friendly inactivation method. Optimizing operational parameters during the disinfection process is a facile and efficient way to achieve the satisfactory viral inactivation efficiency. Here, the antiviral effects of a metal-free visible-light-driven graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) photocatalyst were optimized by varying operating parameters with response surface methodology (RSM)...
December 20, 2017: Chemosphere
Lisa Emhofer, Markus Himmelsbach, Wolfgang Buchberger, Christian W Klampfl
The metabolization of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by cress ((Lepidium sativum) was investigated using a HPLC-MS2 method. Cress was grown hydroponically in water containing 0.1 mg L-1 of each drug for investigations on the kinetics of drug uptake and metabolization over a growing period of 12 days. It could be shown that the parent drugs are metabolized and the abundance of both the parent drug and the metabolites formed, varies over time. Furthermore the distribution of the investigated substances within the different plant parts changed throughout the duration of the experiment due to translocation...
December 18, 2017: Electrophoresis
Laurent Schmitt, Sarah J Willis, Anthony Fardel, Nicolas Coulmy, Gregoire P Millet
PURPOSE: To analyze if live high-train low (LHTL) effectiveness is improved when daily training is guided by heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: Twenty-four elite Nordic skiers took part in a 15-day LHTL study and were randomized into a HRV-guided training hypoxic group (H-HRV, n = 9, sleeping in normobaric hypoxia, FiO2 = 15.0%) and two predefined training groups sleeping either in hypoxia (H, n = 9, FiO2 = 15.0%) or normoxia (N, n = 6). HRV and training loads (TL) were recorded daily...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Stephanie Loeb, Chuanhao Li, Jae-Hong Kim
A simple heat treatment, perhaps the most globally recognized point-of-use water sterilization method, is seemingly effective against all major pathogens of concern, but bulk water boiling is not energy efficient or sustainable. Herein, we present the first application of solar-to-thermal converting nanomaterials for the direct inactivation of bacteria and viruses in drinking water through the application of Au nanorods, carbon black, and Au nanorod-carbon black composite materials as light absorbers. With broad absorption bands spanning the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, at sufficient concentrations, these nanoparticles induce multiple scattering events, increasing photon absorption probability and concentrating the light within a small spatial domain, leading to localized, intense heating that inactivates microorganisms in close proximity...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Pavel Mikel, Petra Vasickova, Petr Kralik
MS2 phage-like particles (MS2 PLP) are artificially constructed pseudo-viral particles derived from bacteriophage MS2. They are able to carry a specific single stranded RNA (ssRNA) sequence of choice inside their capsid, thus protecting it against the effects of ubiquitous nucleases. Such particles are able to mimic ssRNA viruses and, thus, may serve as the process control for molecular detection and quantification of such agents in several kinds of matrices, vaccines and vaccine candidates, drug delivery systems, and systems for the display of immunologically active peptides or nanomachines...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Leah V Schaffer, Michael R Shortreed, Anthony J Cesnik, Brian L Frey, Stefan K Solntsev, Mark Scalf, Lloyd M Smith
In top-down proteomics, intact proteins are analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and proteoforms, which are defined forms of a protein with specific sequences of amino acids and localized post-translational modifications, are identified using precursor mass and fragmentation data. Many proteoforms that are detected in the precursor scan (MS1) are not selected for fragmentation by the instrument, and therefore remain unidentified in typical top-down proteomic workflows. Our laboratory has developed the open source software program Proteoform Suite to analyze MS1-only intact proteoform data...
December 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Madhura Shettigar, Sahil Balotra, David Cahill, Andrew C Warden, Michael J Lacey, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Daniel Rentsch, John G Oakeshott, Gunjan Pandey
Pinoresinol is a dimer of two β-β' linked coniferyl alcohol molecules. It is both a plant defence molecule synthesized from the shikimic acid pathway and a representative of several β-β linked dimers produced during the microbial degradation of lignin in dead plant material. Until now little has been known about the bacterial catabolism of such dimers. Here we report the isolation of an efficient (+)-pinoresinol mineralizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SG-MS2 and its catabolic pathway. Degradation of pinoresinol in this strain is inducible and proceeds via a novel oxidative route which is in contrast to the previously reported reductive transformation by other bacteria...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jiayu Zhang, Shifeng Wang, Lulu Xu, Qiao Zhang, Zhanpeng Shang, Yanling Zhang, Qinghua Wu, Shiyou Li, Yanjiang Qiao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The complexity of ingredients in traditional Chinese medical formulas and the limited consideration of toxicological responses are fundamental issues that hamper prognostic information of drug quality control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary approach for quality control of Qingkailing injection (QKL) regarding drug induced liver toxicity was described for the first time. High content image analysis (HCA) was combined with reverse-phase chromatographic separation and high-resolution MS detection technologies to provide the dynamic responses of HepG2 cell injury...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Rihab Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Hichem Ben Salah, Saber Abdelkader Saidi, Noureddine Allouche, Hafedh Belghith, Karima Belghith
BACKGROUND: Nutritional fact study has prime importance to make the species edible and commercially viable to the food consumers. This is the first report that indicates the chemical characterization, functional, antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Cymodocea nodosa to evaluate its nutritional status. METHODS: Physico-chemical determination was determined by colorimetric and spectroscopic analysis. The functional and texture properties were evaluated since a desirable texture should be retained...
December 8, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Dusan Velickovic, Rosalie K Chu, Alyssa A Carrell, Mathew Thomas, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, David J Weston, Christopher R Anderton
One critical aspect of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is the need to confidently identify detected analytes. While orthogonal tandem MS (e.g., LC-MS2) experiments from sample extracts can assist in annotating ions, the spatial information about these molecules is lost. Accordingly, this could cause mislead conclusions, especially in cases where isobaric species exhibit different distributions within a sample. In this Technical Note, we employed a multimodal imaging approach, using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI and liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA)-MS2I, to confidently annotate and localize a broad range of metabolites involved in a tripartite symbiosis system of moss, cyanobacteria, and fungus...
December 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Karyn Schmidt, Frank Buquicchio, Johanna S Carroll, Robert J Distel, Carl D Novina
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate critical cellular processes and their dysregulation contributes to multiple diseases. Although only a few lncRNAs have defined mechanisms, many of these characterized lncRNAs interact with transcription factors to regulate gene expression, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Identifying RNA-bound transcription factors is especially challenging due to inefficient RNA immunoprecipitation and low abundance of many transcription factors. Here we describe a highly sensitive, user-friendly, and inexpensive technique called RATA (RNA-associated transcription factor array), which utilizes a MS2-aptamer pulldown strategy coupled with transcription factor activation arrays for identification of transcription factors associated with a nuclear RNA of interest...
2017: Journal of Biological Methods
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