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Heba Alhmidi, Sreelatha Koganti, Myreen E Tomas, Jennifer L Cadnum, Annette Jencson, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: Simulations using fluorescent tracers can be useful in understanding the spread of pathogens and in devising effective infection control strategies. METHODS: During simulated patient care interactions in which providers wore gloves and gowns, we evaluated environmental and personnel dissemination of fluorescent lotion and bacteriophage MS2 from a contaminated mannequin. The frequency of skin and clothing contamination after removal of personal protective equipment (PPE) was compared before versus after an intervention that included education and practice in PPE donning and doffing...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Nitzan Samra, Yoav Arava
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in every aspect of RNA metabolism and regulation. Their identification is a major challenge in modern biology. Only a few in vitro and in vivo methods enable the identification of RBPs associated with a particular target mRNA. However, their main limitations are the identification of RBPs in a non-cellular environment (in vitro) or the low efficiency isolation of RNA of interest (in vivo). An RNA-binding protein purification and identification (RaPID) methodology was designed to overcome these limitations in yeast and enable efficient isolation of proteins that are associated in vivo...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jeong-Ann Park, Song-Bae Kim
Antimicrobial electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers were synthesized by impregnating benzyl triethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) as an antimicrobial agent into PVA nanofibers. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were heat-methanol treated during the preparation for various tests. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers became more hydrophilic than the PVA nanofibers due to incorporation of BTEAC. Through heat-methanol treatment, thermal property, crystallinity, and water stability of BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were improved considerably...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Nicole L McLellan, Hung Lee, Marc B Habash
Standardized and rapid assays for viable viral pathogens are needed to inform human health risk assessments. Conventional qPCR is designed to enumerate the gene copies of an organism in a sample, but does not identify those that originated from a viable pathogen. This study was undertaken to evaluate modified qPCR methods as infectivity assays for the enumeration of infectious MS2 coliphage. Propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment coupled with long-amplicon qPCR assays were assessed for their ability to quantify infectious MS2 in pure cultures and following inactivation by a range of UV light exposures and chlorine doses...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Yi Li, Chi Zhang, Danmeng Shuai, Saraschandra Naraginti, Dawei Wang, Wenlong Zhang
The challenge to achieve effective water disinfection of pathogens, especially viruses, with minimized harmful disinfection byproducts calls for a cost-effective and environmentally benign technology. Here, polymeric graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), as a metal-free robust photocatalyst, was explored for the first time for its ability to inactivate viruses under visible light irradiation. MS2 with an initial concentration of 1 × 10(8) PFU/mL was completely inactivated by g-C3N4 with a loading of 150 mg/L under visible light irradiation of 360 min...
October 5, 2016: Water Research
Annewieke J W Verloop, Jean-Paul Vincken, Harry Gruppen
Formation of black tea thearubigins involves at least two of the following oxidation steps: (i) oligomerization, (ii) rearrangement, (iii) hydroxylation. The first two are mainly catalysed by polyphenol oxidase(PPO), whereas the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation has not yet been identified. Two main oxidative activities, peroxidase(POD) and PPO, occur in tea leaves. POD was hypothesized to be responsible for hydroxylation. Model systems with horseradish POD and mushroom tyrosinase were used investigating hydroxylation of theaflavins(TF)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nawras Ghanem, Bärbel Kiesel, Rene Kallies, Hauke Harms, Antonis Chatzinotas, Lukas Y Wick
Although several studies examined the transport of viruses in the terrestrial systems only few studies exist on marine phages (i.e. non-terrestrial viruses infecting marine host bacteria) as sensitively detectable microbial tracers for subsurface colloid transport and water flow. Here, we systematically quantified and compared for the first time the effects of size, morphology and physico-chemical surface properties of six marine phages and two coliphages (MS2, T4) during transport in sand-filled percolated columns...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Yaxiao Guo, Changshuai Shang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Erkang Wang
We established a three-tiered cake-like hybrid (MS2@MoS2/rGO, M = Fe or Ni) with the MS2 nanoparticles distributed over the platform of MoS2 and graphene (MoS2/rGO), which exhibits superior HER electrocatalytic activity as well as excellent electrochemical durability. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity benefits from the unique synergistic effects of graphene sheets enhancing the conductivity of the hybrid, MS2 (M = Fe or Ni) nanoparticles and MoS2 nanosheets providing abundant electrocatalytically active sites...
September 27, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Qingxia Zhong, Anna Carratala, Sergey Nazarov, Ricardo C Guerrero-Ferreira, Laura Piccinini, Virginie Bachmann, Petr G Leiman, Tamar Kohn
Common water disinfectants like chlorine have been reported to select for resistant viruses, yet little attention has been devoted to characterizing disinfection resistance. Here, we investigated the resistance of MS2 coliphage to inactivation by chlorine dioxide (ClO2). ClO2 inactivates MS2 by degrading its structural proteins, thereby disrupting the ability of MS2 to attach to and infect its host. ClO2-resistant virus populations emerged after repeated cycles of ClO2 disinfection followed by regrowth, but also after dilution-regrowth cycles in the absence of ClO2...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Soroush Rahimi Khoigani, Ahmad Rajaei, Sayed Amir Hossein Goli
The aim of this study was to evaluate phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of Stachys lavandulifolia. Total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), DPPH• assay (IC50), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the methanolic extract were measured. The content of TP, TF, IC50, FRAP and TAC, were obtained as 16.59 gallic acid equiv./g dry matter (DM), 4.48 mg quercetin equiv./g DM, 2.07 (μg/mL), 0.014 (absorbance/mg phenolic) and 14.61 (mg BHT equiv./g DM), respectively...
October 6, 2016: Natural Product Research
Zhe Feng, Ruiqing Lu, Baoling Yuan, Zhenming Zhou, Qingqing Wu, Thanh H Nguyen
MS2 inactivation by UV irradiance was investigated with the focus on how the disinfection efficacy is influenced by bacteriophage MS2 aggregation and adsorption to particles in solutions with different compositions. Kaolinite and Microcystis aeruginosa were used as model inorganic and organic particles, respectively. In the absence of model particles, MS2 aggregates formed in either 1mM NaCl at pH=3 or 50-200mM ionic strength CaCl2 solutions at pH=7 led to a decrease in the MS2 inactivation efficacy because the virions located inside the aggregate were protected from the UV irradiation...
September 22, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Remo Leisi, Marcus Von Nordheim, Carlos Ros, Christoph Kempf
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a small non-enveloped virus and known as the causative agent for the mild childhood disease erythema infectiosum. B19V has an extraordinary narrow tissue tropism, showing only productive infection in erythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow. We recently found that the viral protein 1 unique region (VP1u) contains an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (RBD), which mediates the uptake of the virus into cells of the erythroid lineage. To further investigate the role of the RBD in connection with a B19V-unrelated capsid, we chemically coupled the VP1u of B19V to the bacteriophage MS2 capsid and tested the internalization capacity of the bioconjugate on permissive cells...
2016: Viruses
Wang Shen, Liu Ying, Li Dandan, Zhou Tiezhong, Gao Shenyang, Zha Enhui, Yue Xiqing
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the pathogen of causing hepatitis E (HE). It arouses a global public health concern since its zoonosis. The objective of this letter is to report a cost-effective internal control prepared for monitoring procedures of HEV RT-PCR detection. A selected conserved HEV RNA fragment was integrated into the downstream of the truncated MS2 bacteriophage genome based on Armed RNA technology. The resulting MS2-HEV gene harboring in pET-28b-MS2-HEV plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for expression analysis by SDS-PAGE...
September 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Jarosław Zawadzki, Marcin Szuszkiewicz, Piotr Fabijańczyk, Tadeusz Magiera
The primary goal of this work was to distinguish between soil pollution from long-range and local transport of atmospheric pollutants using soil magnetometry supported by geochemical analyses. The study area was located in the Izery region of Poland (within the "Black Triangle" region, which is the nickname for one of Europe's most polluted areas, where Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic meet). One site of the study area was situated in the Forest Glade and was exposed to anthropogenic pollution from a former glasswork...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Simanta De, Somnath Bhattacharyya, Partha P Gopmandal
The impact of the volumetric charged density of the dielectric rigid core on the electrophoresis of a soft particle is analyzed numerically. The volume charge density of the inner core of a soft particle can arise for a dendrimer structure or bacteriophage MS2. We consider the electrokinetic model based on the conservation principles, thus no conditions for Debye length or applied electric field is imposed. The fluid flow equations are coupled with the ion transport equations and the equation for the electric field...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
Dalton T Snyder, Patrick W Fedick, R Graham Cooks
There are many cases in which limited information is obtained from a single stage of tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2) or MS/MS). For example, isomeric cathinones give similar product ion MS(2) spectra, but they can be differentiated by their unique MS(3) fragments. Other drugs such as oxycodone and noroxycodone lose water in a single-stage tandem mass spectrometry experiment but give rich structural information in subsequent stages, as do many peptides. Here we utilize multigenerational collision-induced dissociation (CID) on a miniature mass spectrometer and emphasize useful applications...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Ioana Laura Aanei, Adel M ElSohly, Michelle E Farkas, Chawita Netirojjanakul, Melanie Regan, Stephanie Taylor Murphy, James P O'Neil, Youngho Seo, Matthew B Francis
A variety of nanoscale scaffolds, including virus-like particles (VLPs), are being developed for biomedical applications; however, little information is available about their in vivo behavior. Targeted nanoparticles are particularly valuable as diagnostic and therapeutic carriers because they can increase the signal-to-background ratio of imaging agents, improve the efficacy of drugs, and reduce adverse effects by concentrating the therapeutic molecule in the region of interest. The genome-free capsid of bacteriophage MS2 has several features that make it well-suited for use in delivery applications, such as facile production and modification, the ability to display multiple copies of targeting ligands, and the capacity to deliver large payloads...
September 9, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Hirokazu Yagi, Chu-Wei Kuo, Takayuki Obayashi, Satoshi Ninagawa, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Koichi Kato
Dystroglycanopathy is a major class of congenital muscular dystrophy caused by a deficiency of functional glycans on α-dystroglycan (αDG) with laminin-binding activity. Recent advances have led to identification of several causative gene products of dystroglycanopathy and characterization of their in vitro enzymatic activities. However, the in vivo functional roles remain equivocal for enzymes such as ISPD, FKTN, FKRP, and TMEM5 that are supposed to be involved in post-phosphoryl modifications linking the GalNAc-β3-GlcNAc-β34-Man-6-phosphate core and the outer laminin-binding glycans...
September 6, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
B N Roberts, R H Bailey, M R McLaughlin, J P Brooks
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to establish inactivation decay constants of foodborne pathogens and coliphage in clay and sandy soils for future "downstream" analyses such as quantitative microbial risk analysis and to compare cultivation-dependent and -independent (e.g. qPCR) methods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Clostridium perfringens, were seeded together with MS2 and ØX174 phages, into three waste matrices (Class B biosolids, swine lagoon effluent, cattle manure), and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as a control, and applied to two soil types (sandy loam, clay loam) using two management practices (incorporated, surface applied)...
August 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Nowaki Hijikata, Rui Tezuka, Shinobu Kazama, Masahiro Otaki, Ken Ushijima, Ryusei Ito, Satoshi Okabe, Daisuke Sano, Naoyuki Funamizu
In the present study, the bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost with calcium lime and ash were investigated. Two indicator microorganisms, Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage, were used as surrogates for enteric pathogens. The alkaline-treated compost with calcium oxide (CaO) or ash resulted primarily in damage to the outer membrane and enzyme activities of E. coli. The alkaline treatment of compost also led to the infectivity loss of the coliphage because of the partial capsid damage and RNA exteriorization due to a raised pH, which is proportional to the amount of alkaline agents added...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
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