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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236974/vegf-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-key-regulators-of-vascular-function
#1
Alberto Álvarez-Aznar, Lars Muhl, Konstantin Gaengel
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases are key regulators of vascular development in vertebrates. Their activation is regulated through a family of secreted glycoproteins, the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). Expression, proteolytic processing, and diffusion range of VEGF proteins need to be tightly regulated, due to their crucial roles in development. While some VEGFs form concentration gradients across developing tissues and act as morphogenes, others function as inhibitors of receptor activation and downstream signaling...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236164/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-the-combination-of-autologous-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-platelet-rich-plasma-on-structural-bone-allograft-healing
#2
Chang-Goo Park, Min Wook Joo, Jinyoung Jeong, Yong-Koo Kang, Da-Reum Lee
In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the combination of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for enhancing structural allogenic bone graft healing in rabbits. For these experiments segmental bone defects (1.5-2 cm) were generated on femoral diaphysis of New Zealand white rabbits and reconstructed via structural allogenic bone grafting and additional intramedullary nail fixation. The structural allografts were subsequently wrapped with Gelfoam containing autologous MSCs and PRP, or PRP alone (control)...
February 24, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235714/profiling-of-selected-angiogenesis-related-genes-in-serous-ovarian-cancer-patients
#3
Paweł Kuć, Radosław Charkiewicz, Dagmara Klasa-Mazurkiewicz, Tomasz Milczek, Barbara Mroczko, Jacek Nikliński, Piotr Laudański
PURPOSE: Since angiogenesis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer the aim of the study was to compare the expression of the most relevant angiogenesis-related genes in serous ovarian cancer samples. Genes were divided into 5 subgroups according to their angiogenic potential: growth factors and their receptors; cytokines/chemokines; adhesion molecules and other matrix related proteins; transcriptions factors and signaling molecules; morphogenic factors, and angiogenesis inhibitors...
February 21, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226539/directing-the-spatial-patterning-of-motor-neuron-differentiation-in-engineered-microenvironments
#4
Christopher J Demers, Greg Cox, Scott D Collins, Rosemary L Smith, Christopher J Demers, Greg Cox, Scott D Collins, Rosemary L Smith, Greg Cox, Christopher J Demers, Scott D Collins, Rosemary L Smith
Embryonic development of the spinal cord proceeds through a carefully orchestrated temporal and spatial sequence of chemical cues to provide precise patterning of adult cell types. Recreating this complex microenvironment in a standard cell culture dish is difficult, if not impossible. In this paper, a microfluidic device is used to recapitulate, in vitro, the graded patterning events which occur during early spinal cord development. The microdevice design is developed using COMSOL modeling, with which the spatiotemporal profiles of multiple, diffusible morphogens are simulated...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220493/dawn-of-the-organoid-era-3d-tissue-and-organ-cultures-revolutionize-the-study-of-development-disease-and-regeneration
#5
Ninouk Akkerman, Libert H K Defize
Novel and updated approaches of culturing cells in 3D are rapidly advancing our understanding of development, health, and disease. As tissues have been found to behave more realistically in 3D than in 2D cultures, organoid technology in combination with recent advances in the isolation and generation of stem cells, has rapidly become a promising concept in developmental and regenerative research. The development of all kinds of tissues can now be studied "in a dish," allowing more detailed observations of stem cell maintenance, morphogens, and differentiation...
February 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215529/new-insights-into-the-roles-of-retinoic-acid-signaling-in-nervous-system-development-and-the-establishment-of-neurotransmitter-systems
#6
E Zieger, M Schubert
Secreted chiefly from the underlying mesoderm, the morphogen retinoic acid (RA) is well known to contribute to the specification, patterning, and differentiation of neural progenitors in the developing vertebrate nervous system. Furthermore, RA influences the subtype identity and neurotransmitter phenotype of subsets of maturing neurons, although relatively little is known about how these functions are mediated. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the roles played by RA signaling during the formation of the central and peripheral nervous systems of vertebrates and highlights its effects on the differentiation of several neurotransmitter systems...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214837/efficacy-of-glucosamine-sulphate-in-skin-ageing-results-from-an-ex-vivo-anti-ageing-model-and-a-clinical-trial
#7
Audrey Gueniche, Isabelle Castiel-Higounenc
BACKGROUND: Glucosamine sulphate (GS) is essential in the biosynthesis of glycolipids, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), hyaluronate, and proteoglycans. Connective tissues primarily contain collagen and proteoglycans and play an important role in skin ageing. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to assess ex vivo the impact of GS on skin ageing parameters and in vivo the effect of GS on the skin physiology of mature healthy volunteers after oral intake. METHODS: The impact of GS on skin ageing was assessed ex vivo via different immunohistochemical assays and histology and via a clinical study using biopsies...
February 18, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214472/bmp-12-activates-tenogenic-pathway-in-human-adipose-stem-cells-and-affects-their-immunomodulatory-and-secretory-properties
#8
Weronika Zarychta-Wiśniewska, Anna Burdzinska, Agnieszka Kulesza, Kamila Gala, Beata Kaleta, Katarzyna Zielniok, Katarzyna Siennicka, Marek Sabat, Leszek Paczek
BACKGROUND: Cell-based therapy is a treatment method in tendon injuries. Bone morphogenic protein 12 (BMP-12) possesses tenogenic activity and was proposed as a differentiating factor for stem cells directed to transplantation. However, BMPs belong to pleiotropic TGF-β superfamily and have diverse effect on cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if BMP-12 induces tenogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and how it affects other features of this population...
February 18, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205287/upstream-regulation-for-initiation-of-restricted-shh-expression-in-the-chick-limb-bud
#9
Haruka Matsubara, Daisuke Saito, Gembu Abe, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Takayuki Suzuki, Koji Tamura
Background The organizing center, which serves as a morphogen source, has crucial functions in morphogenesis in animal development. The center is necessarily located in a certain restricted area in the morphogenetic field, and there are several ways in which an organizing center can be restricted. The organizing center for limb morphogenesis, the ZPA (zone of polarizing activity), specifically expresses the Shh gene and is restricted to the posterior region of the developing limb bud. Results The prepattern along the limb antero-posterior axis, provided by anterior Gli3 expression and posterior Hand2 expression, seems insufficient for the initiation of Shh expression restricted to a narrow, small spot in the posterior limb field...
February 16, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192468/matrix-metalloproteinases-are-required-for-membrane-motility-and-lumenogenesis-during-drosophila-heart-development
#10
Qanber S Raza, Jessica L Vanderploeg, J Roger Jacobs
Matrix Metalloproteinases (Mmps) degrade glycoproteins and proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or cell surface and are crucial for morphogenesis. Mmps and their inhibitors are expressed during early stages of cardiac development in vertebrates and expression is altered in multiple congenital cardiomyopathies such as cardia bifida. Drosophila genome encodes two copies of Mmps, Mmp1 and Mmp2 whereas in humans up to 25 Mmps have been identified with overlapping functions. We investigated the role of Mmps during embryonic heart development in Drosophila, a process which is morphogenetically similar to early heart tube formation in vertebrates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192166/detailed-expression-profile-of-the-six-glypicans-and-their-modifying-enzyme-notum-during-chick-limb-and-feather-development
#11
Kawakeb Saad, Susanne Theis, Anthony Otto, Graham Luke, Ketan Patel
The development of vertebrate appendages, especially the limb and feather buds are orchestrated by numerous secreted signalling molecules including Sonic Hedgehog, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Fibroblast Growth Factors and Wnts. These proteins coordinate the growth and patterning of ectodermal and mesenchymal cells. The influence of signalling molecules is affected over large distances by their concentration (morphogen activity) but also at local levels by the presence of proteins that either attenuate or promote their activity...
February 10, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188237/first-identification-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-2-mutation-in-heritable-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
Christina A Eichstaedt, Jie Song, Rebecca Rodríguez Viales, Zixuan Pan, Nicola Benjamin, Christine Fischer, Marius Hoeper, Silvia Ulrich, Katrin Hinderhofer, Ekkehard Grünig
Heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease caused by mutations in the bone morphogenic protein receptor 2 gene and/or genes of its signalling pathway in about 85% of patients. We clinically and genetically analysed a HPAH family without mutations in previously described PAH genes. Clinical assessment included electrocardiogram, lung function, blood gas analysis, chest X-ray, laboratory testing, echocardiography and right heart catheterisation in case of suspected disease...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188131/momelotinib-inhibits-acvr1-alk2-decreases-hepcidin-production-and-ameliorates-anemia-of-chronic-disease-in-rodents
#13
Malte Asshoff, Verena Petzer, Matthew R Warr, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Egon Demetz, Markus Seifert, Wilfried Posch, Manfred Nairz, Pat Maciejewski, Peter Fowles, Christopher J Burns, Gregg Smith, Kay-Uwe Wagner, Guenter Weiss, J Andrew Whitney, Igor Theurl
Patients with myelofibrosis (MF) often develop anemia and frequently become dependent on red blood cell transfusions. Results from a phase 2 study for the treatment of MF with the Janus kinase1/2 (JAK1/2) inhibitor momelotinib (MMB) demonstrated that MMB treatment ameliorated anemia, unexpected for a JAK1/2 inhibitor, as erythropoietin-mediated JAK2 signaling is essential for erythropoiesis. Using a rat model of anemia of chronic disease (ACD), we now demonstrate that MMB treatment can normalize hemoglobin and red blood cell numbers...
February 10, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171748/antagonistic-self-organizing-patterning-systems-control-maintenance-and-regeneration-of-the-anteroposterior-axis-in-planarians
#14
Tom Stückemann, James Patrick Cleland, Steffen Werner, Hanh Thi-Kim Vu, Robert Bayersdorf, Shang-Yun Liu, Benjamin Friedrich, Frank Jülicher, Jochen Christian Rink
Planarian flatworms maintain their body plan in the face of constant internal turnover and can regenerate from arbitrary tissue fragments. Both phenomena require self-maintaining and self-organizing patterning mechanisms, the molecular mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. We show that a morphogenic gradient of canonical Wnt signaling patterns gene expression along the planarian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. Our results demonstrate that gradient formation likely occurs autonomously in the tail and that an autoregulatory module of Wnt-mediated Wnt expression both shapes the gradient at steady state and governs its re-establishment during regeneration...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170441/cerebrospinal-fluid-from-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-inhibits-sonic-hedgehog-function
#15
Anna Drannik, Joan Martin, Randy Peterson, Xiaoxing Ma, Fan Jiang, John Turnbull
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a morphogen essential to the developing nervous system that continues to play an important role in adult life by contributing to cell proliferation and differentiation, maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity, and being cytoprotective against oxidative and excitotoxic stress, all features of importance in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a fatal disease characterized by selective loss of motor neurons due to poorly understood mechanisms. Evidence indicates that Shh might play an important role in ALS, and that Shh signaling might be also adversely affected in ALS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170437/morphogene-adsorption-as-a-turing-instability-regulator-theoretical-analysis-and-possible-applications-in-multicellular-embryonic-systems
#16
Alexey M Nesterenko, Maxim B Kuznetsov, Daria D Korotkova, Andrey G Zaraisky
The Turing instability in the reaction-diffusion system is a widely recognized mechanism of the morphogen gradient self-organization during the embryonic development. One of the essential conditions for such self-organization is sharp difference in the diffusion rates of the reacting substances (morphogens). In classical models this condition is satisfied only for significantly different values of diffusion coefficients which cannot hold for morphogens of similar molecular size. One of the most realistic explanations of the difference in diffusion rate is the difference between adsorption of morphogens to the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169110/-role-of-g-protein-alpha-sub-units-in-the-morphogenic-processes-of-filamentous-ascomycota-fungi
#17
Ramón O García-Rico, Francisco Fierro
The phylum Ascomycota comprises about 75% of all the fungal species described, and includes species of medical, phytosanitary, agricultural, and biotechnological importance. The ability to spread, explore, and colonise new substrates is a feature of critical importance for this group of organisms. In this regard, basic processes such as conidial germination, the extension of hyphae and sporulation, make up the backbone of development in most filamentous fungi. These processes require specialised morphogenic machinery, coordinated and regulated by mechanisms that are still being elucidated...
February 3, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166538/single-cell-spatial-reconstruction-reveals-global-division-of-labour-in-the-mammalian-liver
#18
Keren Bahar Halpern, Rom Shenhav, Orit Matcovitch-Natan, Beáta Tóth, Doron Lemze, Matan Golan, Efi E Massasa, Shaked Baydatch, Shanie Landen, Andreas E Moor, Alexander Brandis, Amir Giladi, Avigail Stokar-Avihail, Eyal David, Ido Amit, Shalev Itzkovitz
The mammalian liver consists of hexagon-shaped lobules that are radially polarized by blood flow and morphogens. Key liver genes have been shown to be differentially expressed along the lobule axis, a phenomenon termed zonation, but a detailed genome-wide reconstruction of this spatial division of labour has not been achieved. Here we measure the entire transcriptome of thousands of mouse liver cells and infer their lobule coordinates on the basis of a panel of zonated landmark genes, characterized with single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization...
February 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161524/john-saunders-zpa-sonic-hedgehog-and-digit-identity-how-does-it-really-all-work
#19
REVIEW
Jianjian Zhu, Susan Mackem
Among John Saunders' many seminal contributions to developmental biology, his discovery of the limb 'zone of polarizing activity' (ZPA) is arguably one of the most memorable and ground-breaking. This discovery introduced the limb as a premier model for understanding developmental patterning and promoted the concept of patterning by a morphogen gradient. In the 50 years since the discovery of the ZPA, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been identified as the ZPA factor and the basic components of the signaling pathway and many aspects of its regulation have been elucidated...
February 2, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159972/role-of-id-proteins-in-bmp4-inhibition-of-profibrotic-effects-of-tgf-%C3%AE-2-in-human-tm-cells
#20
Avani A Mody, Robert J Wordinger, Abbot F Clark
Purpose: Increased expression of TGF-β2 in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) aqueous humor (AH) and trabecular meshwork (TM) causes deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the TM and elevated IOP. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate TGF-β2-induced ECM production. The underlying mechanism for BMP4 inhibition of TGF-β2-induced fibrosis remains undetermined. Bone morphogenic protein 4 induces inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (ID1, ID3), which suppress transcription factor activities to regulate gene expression...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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