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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340375/enhancement-of-bmp-2-mediated-angiogenesis-and-osteogenesis-by-2-n-6-o-sulfated-chitosan-in-bone-regeneration
#1
Yuanzhong Pan, Jie Chen, Yuanman Yu, Kai Dai, Jing Wang, Changsheng Liu
Sulfated polysaccharides are attractive semi-synthesized materials that can be used as a mimic of heparan sulfate to modulate the protein activity and other physiological processes. In this study, we employed sulfated chitosan to enhance the angiogenic capacity of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured in a combination of BMP-2 and 2-N,6-O-sulfated chitosan (SCS) group exhibited a higher cell viability and sprouting ability. The cells also secreted more VEGF and NO. The expression patterns of angiogenic and osteogenic genes were analyzed, and VEGFR2 signaling was found to play a role in the enhancing effect of SCS...
January 17, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330906/generating-retinoic-acid-gradients-by-local-degradation-during-craniofacial-development-one-cell-s-cue-is-another-cell-s-poison
#2
REVIEW
Aditi Dubey, Rebecca E Rose, Drew R Jones, Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet
Retinoic acid (RA) is a vital morphogen for early patterning and organogenesis in the developing embryo. RA is a diffusible, lipophilic molecule that signals via nuclear RA receptor heterodimeric units that regulate gene expression by interacting with RA response elements in promoters of a significant number of genes. For precise RA signaling, a robust gradient of the morphogen is required. The developing embryo contains regions that produce RA, and specific intracellular concentrations of RA are created through local degradation mediated by Cyp26 enzymes...
January 13, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330055/tissue-geometry-may-govern-lung-branching-mode-selection
#3
Uduak Z George, Sharon R Lubkin
Lung branching morphogenesis proceeds in three stereotyped modes (domain, planar, and orthogonal branching). Much is known about the molecular players, including growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 10 but it is unknown how these signals could actuate the different branching patterns. With the aim of identifying mechanisms that may determine the different branching modes, we developed a computational model of the epithelial lung bud and its surrounding mesenchyme. We studied transport of morphogens and localization of morphogen flux at lobe surfaces and lobe edges...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329716/gelatin-hydroxyapatite-calcium-sulphate-based-biomaterial-for-long-term-sustained-delivery-of-bone-morphogenic-protein-2-and-zoledronic-acid-for-increased-bone-formation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-carrier-properties
#4
Deepak Bushan Raina, David Larsson, Filip Mrkonjic, Hanna Isaksson, Ashok Kumar, Lars Lidgren, Magnus Tägil
In this study, a novel macroporous composite biomaterial consisting of gelatin-hydroxyapatite-calcium sulphate for delivery of bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and zoledronic acid (ZA) has been developed. The biomaterial scaffold has a porous structure and functionalization of the scaffold with rhBMP-2 induces osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-e1 cells seen by a significant increase in biochemical and genetic markers of osteoblastic differentiation. In-vivo muscle pouch experiments showed higher mineralization using scaffold+rhBMP-2 when compared to an approved absorbable collagen sponge (ACS)+rhBMP-2 as verified by micro-CT...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325895/the-vertebrate-limb-an-evolving-complex-of-self-organizing-systems
#5
REVIEW
Stuart A Newman, Tilmann Glimm, Ramray Bhat
The paired appendages (fins or limbs) of jawed vertebrates contain an endoskeleton consisting of nodules, bars and, in some groups, plates of cartilage, or bone arising from replacement of cartilaginous templates. The generation of the endoskeletal elements occurs by processes involving production and diffusion of morphogens, with, variously, positive and negative feedback circuits, adhesion, and receptor dynamics with similarities to the mechanism for chemical pattern formation proposed by Alan Turing. This review presents a unified interpretation of the evolution and functioning of these mechanisms...
January 8, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324456/targeted-knockdown-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-within-neural-progenitors-protects-the-brain-and-improves-motor-function-following-postnatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#6
Robert W Dettman, Derin Birch, Augusta Fernando, John A Kessler, Maria L V Dizon
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal human brain results in myelin loss that, in some children, can manifest as cerebral palsy. Previously, we had found that neuronal overexpression of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin during development increased oligodendroglia and improved motor function in an experimental model of HI utilizing unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. As BMPs are known to negatively regulate oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells and alter differentiation of committed oligodendroglia, BMP signaling is likely an important mechanism leading to myelin loss...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313924/oncogenes-and-morphogens-intricacies-of-targeted-therapy-in-cutaneous-basal-cell-carcinoma
#7
R Villani, K Khosrotehrani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313834/bidirectional-transport-model-of-morphogen-gradient-formation-via-cytonemes
#8
Paul C Bressloff, Hyunjoong Kim
Morphogen protein gradients play an important role in the spatial regulation of patterning during embryonic development. The most commonly accepted mechanism for gradient formation is diffusion from a source combined with degradation. Recently, there has been growing interest in an alternative mechanism, which is based on the direct delivery of morphogens along thin, actin-rich cellular extensions known as cytonemes. In this paper, we develop a bidirectional motor transport model for the flux of morphogens along cytonemes, linking a source cell to a one-dimensional array of target cells...
January 9, 2018: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295518/species-and-sex-differences-in-the-morphogenic-response-of-primary-rodent-neurons-to-3-3-dichlorobiphenyl-pcb-11
#9
Sunjay Sethi, Kimberly P Keil, Pamela J Lein
PCB 11 is an emerging global pollutant that we recently showed promotes axonal and dendritic growth in primary rat neuronal cell cultures. Here, we address the influence of sex and species on neuronal responses to PCB 11. Neuronal morphology was quantified in sex-specific primary hippocampal and cortical neuron-glia co-cultures derived from neonatal C57BL/6J mice and Sprague Dawley rats exposed for 48 h to vehicle (0.1% DMSO) or PCB 11 at concentrations ranging from 1 fM to 1 nM. Total axonal length was quantified in tau-1 immunoreactive neurons at day in vitro (DIV) 2; dendritic arborization was assessed by Sholl analysis at DIV 9 in neurons transfected with MAP2B-FusRed...
December 23, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290584/crispr-screens-uncover-genes-that-regulate-target-cell-sensitivity-to-the-morphogen-sonic-hedgehog
#10
Ganesh V Pusapati, Jennifer H Kong, Bhaven B Patel, Arunkumar Krishnan, Andreas Sagner, Maia Kinnebrew, James Briscoe, L Aravind, Rajat Rohatgi
To uncover regulatory mechanisms in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, we conducted genome-wide screens to identify positive and negative pathway components and validated top hits using multiple signaling and differentiation assays in two different cell types. Most positive regulators identified in our screens, including Rab34, Pdcl, and Tubd1, were involved in ciliary functions, confirming the central role for primary cilia in Hh signaling. Negative regulators identified included Megf8, Mgrn1, and an unannotated gene encoding a tetraspanin protein we named Atthog...
December 26, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286116/bambi-promotes-macrophage-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-gliomas
#11
Dan Wang, Xiaolai Chen, Ran Zhang
The present study investigated the capacity of Bone morphogenic protein and activin membrane‑bound inhibitor homolog (BAMBI) to regulate the migration and differentiation of macrophages in gliomas. Using a migration assay, it was determined that BAMBI stimulated monocytes migration in a dose‑dependent effect. When induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) the monocytes differentiated into macrophages, and BAMBI also increased the migration of PMA‑induced macrophages compared with control cells. The expression of CD68 and BAMBI protein and mRNA in glioma and normal specimens were detected using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279116/structural-characterization-and-osteogenic-bioactivity-of-a-sulfated-polysaccharide-from-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai-ino
#12
Shuang Song, Bao Zhang, Sufeng Wu, Lu Huang, Chunqing Ai, Jinfeng Pan, Yi-Cheng Su, Zhongfu Wang, Chengrong Wen
Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) is known to promote osteogenesis. To find novel adjuvants to enhance the activity of BMP-2, the present study investigated the structure BMP-2-induced osteogenic activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from the gonad of pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) named AGSP. Through analysis of aldobiouronic acids released from AGSP, monosaccharide composition comparison of AGSP and its reduced product, and methylation analysis and NMR analysis of AGSP and its desulfated derivative, the main structure residue of AGSP was determined as →3)-GlcA(1→3)-Gal(1→ with sulfated branches comprised of prevelant Gal and minor Glc, and →4)-β-GlcA(1→2)-α-Man(1→ residue was also found...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276737/neural-egf-like-protein-1-nell-1-signaling-crosstalk-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-applications-in-regenerative-medicine
#13
Mikhail Pakvasa, Alex Alverdy, Sami Mostafa, Eric Wang, Lucy Fu, Alexander Li, Leonardo Oliveira, Aravind Athiviraham, Michael J Lee, Jennifer Moriatis Wolf, Tong-Chuan He, Guillermo A Ameer, Russell R Reid
Bone tissue regeneration holds the potential to solve both osteoporosis and large skeletal defects, two problems associated with significant morbidity. The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteogenic lineage requires a specific microenvironment and certain osteogenic growth factors. Neural EGF Like-Like molecule 1 (NELL-1) is a secreted glycoprotein that has proven, both in vitro and in vivo, to be a potent osteo-inductive factor. Furthermore, it has been shown to repress adipogenic differentiation and inflammation...
September 2017: Genes & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275993/long-range-signaling-activation-and-local-inhibition-separate-the-mesoderm-and-endoderm-lineages
#14
Antonius L van Boxtel, Andrew D Economou, Claire Heliot, Caroline S Hill
Specification of the three germ layers by graded Nodal signaling has long been seen as a paradigm for patterning through a single morphogen gradient. However, by exploiting the unique properties of the zebrafish embryo to capture the dynamics of signaling and cell fate allocation, we now demonstrate that Nodal functions in an incoherent feedforward loop, together with Fgf, to determine the pattern of endoderm and mesoderm specification. We show that Nodal induces long-range Fgf signaling while simultaneously inducing the cell-autonomous Fgf signaling inhibitor Dusp4 within the first two cell tiers from the margin...
December 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259041/paeonol-attenuates-lps-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-bmp4-and-tlr4-signalling-simultaneously-but-independently
#15
Ker Woon Choy, Yeh Siang Lau, Dharmani Murugan, Paul M Vanhoutte, Mohd Rais Mustafa
Inflammatory injury of the endothelium leads to apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction. The current study explored the effect and mechanisms of paeonol in inflammation-induced apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The effects of paeonol on LPS-induced inflammatory injury were assessed by Western blotting, flow cytometry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and C57BL/6J mice. Vascular reactivity of isolated mouse aortae was examined using wire myographs...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240243/fabrication-and-evaluation-of-3d-printed-bcp-scaffolds-reinforced-with-zro2-for-bone-tissue-applications
#16
Min-Woo Sa, Bao-Ngoc B Nguyen, Rebecca A Moriarty, Timur Kamalitdinov, John P Fisher, Jong Young Kim
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a promising 3D printing and manufacturing step to create well interconnected porous scaffold designs from the computer-aided design (CAD) models for the next generation of bone scaffolds. The purpose of this study was to fabricate and evaluate a new biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffold reinforced with zirconia (ZrO2 ) by a FDM system for bone tissue engineering. The 3D slurry foams with blending agents were successfully fabricated by a FDM system. Blending materials were then removed after the sintering process at high temperature to obtain a targeted BCP/ZrO2 scaffold with the desired pore characteristics, porosity, and dimension...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226950/syndecans-in-chronic-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-diseases-pathological-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#17
REVIEW
Solomon A Agere, Eugene Y Kim, Nahid Akhtar, Salahuddin Ahmed
Syndecans (SDCs) are a family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) glycoproteins ubiquitously expressed on the cell surfaces and extracellular matrix of all mammalian tissues. There are four mammalian syndecans, SDC-1 thorough 4, which play a critical role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis through independent and growth factor mediated signaling. An altered expression of SDCs is often observed in autoimmune disorders, cancer, HIV infection, and many other pathological conditions...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218481/concepts-for-a-therapeutic-prolongation-of-nephrogenesis-in-preterm-and-low-birth-weight-babies-must-correspond-to-structural-functional-properties-in-the-nephrogenic-zone
#18
REVIEW
Will W Minuth
Numerous investigations are dealing with anlage of the mammalian kidney and primary development of nephrons. However, only few information is available about the last steps in kidney development leading at birth to a downregulation of morphogen activity in the nephrogenic zone and to a loss of stem cell niches aligned beyond the organ capsule. Surprisingly, these natural changes in the developmental program display similarities to processes occurring in the kidneys of preterm and low-birth-weight babies. Although those babies are born at a time with a principally intact nephrogenic zone and active niches, a high proportion of them suffers on impairment of nephrogenesis resulting in oligonephropathy, formation of atypical glomeruli, and immaturity of parenchyma...
December 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215396/outcomes-of-corneal-cross-linking-correlate-with-cone-specific-lysyl-oxidase-expression-in-patients-with-keratoconus
#19
Rohit Shetty, Nimisha Rajiv Kumar, Natasha Pahuja, Rashmi Deshmukh, KrishnaPoojita Vunnava, Valsala Gopalakrishnan Abilash, Abhijit Sinha Roy, Arkasubhra Ghosh
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation of visual and keratometry outcomes after corneal cross-linking (CXL) in patients with keratoconus with cone epithelium-specific gene expression levels. METHODS: Corneal epithelium was obtained from 35 eyes that underwent accelerated CXL (KXLII, 9 mW/cm for 10 min). Using corneal topography, epithelium over the cone and periphery was obtained separately from each subject. The ratio of gene expression for lysyl oxidase (LOX), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), bone morphogenic protein 7, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, collagen, type I, alpha 1, and collagen, type IV, alpha 1 (COL IVA1) from the cone and peripheral cornea was correlated with the outcome of cross-linking surgery...
December 5, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207270/plant-development-keeping-on-the-straight-and-narrow-and-flat
#20
Michael Lenhard
Plant leaves have functionally specialized upper and lower sides. Two recent studies show that these opposite identities are derived from a pre-pattern in the shoot meristem and the border between them is maintained by mobile small RNAs with morphogen-like properties.
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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