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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916168/scripting-a-place-in-time
#1
Thomas B Kornberg
Evidence in many experimental systems supports the idea that non-uniform distributions of morphogen proteins encode positional information in developing tissues. There is also strong evidence that morphogen dispersal is mediated by cytonemes and that morphogen proteins transfer from producing to receiving cells at morphogenetic synapses that form at sites of cytoneme contacts. This essay considers some implications of this mechanism and its relevance to various contexts including large single cells such as the pre-cellular Drosophila embryo and the ciliate Stentor...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911317/generation-of-ips-derived-model-cells-for-analyses-of-hair-shaft-differentiation
#2
Takumi Kido, Tomoatsu Horigome, Minori Uda, Naoki Adachi, Yohei Hirai
Biological evaluation of hair growth/differentiation activity in vitro has been a formidable challenge, primarily due to the lack of relevant model cell systems. To solve this problem, we generated a stable model cell line in which successive differentiation via epidermal progenitors to hair components is easily inducible and traceable. Mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells were selected to stably express a tetracycline (Tet)-inducible bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP4) expression cassette and a luciferase reporter driven by a hair-specific keratin 31 gene (krt31) promoter (Tet-BMP4-KRT31-Luc iPS)...
September 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902198/total-synthesis-and-functional-analysis-of-microbial-signalling-molecules
#3
REVIEW
D Leichnitz, L Raguž, C Beemelmanns
Communication is essential for all domains of life. Bacteria use a plethora of small molecules to sense and orchestrate intra- and interspecies communication. Within this review, we will discuss different groups of signalling molecules, including autoinducers, virulence factors and morphogenic substances. On selected examples, we will shortly discuss their ecological roles and biosynthetic proposals. The major part of this review will focus on a systematic overview of the different synthetic methods applied towards the synthesis of signalling molecules and derivatives thereof...
September 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900135/hedgehog-signalling-is-required-for-cell-survival-in-drosophila-wing-pouch-cells
#4
Juan Lu, Dan Wang, Jie Shen
An appropriate balance between cell survival and cell death is essential for correct pattern formation in the animal tissues and organs. Previous studies have shown that the short-range signalling molecule Hedgehog (Hh) is required for cell proliferation and pattern formation in the Drosophila central wing discs. Signal transduction by one of the Hh targets, the morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp), is required for not only cell proliferation, but also cell survival in the pouch cells. However, Hh function in cell survival and cell death has not been revealed...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898676/developmental-erk-signaling-goes-digital
#5
Coralie Dessauges, Olivier Pertz
Reporting in Developmental Cell, de la Cova et al. (2017) present a biosensor to measure ERK activity dynamics in C. elegans larvae. They find that fate decision signaling involves frequency-modulated, digital ERK activity pulses. These findings may explain how graded morphogen signals are converted into precise and robust cell fate patterns.
September 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893872/targeting-bone-morphogenic-protein-receptor-2-bmpr2-signalling-to-treat-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#6
EDITORIAL
Lewis J Rubin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893599/natural-products-and-morphogenic-activity-of-%C3%AE-proteobacteria-associated-with-the-marine-hydroid-polyp-hydractinia-echinata
#7
Huijuan Guo, Maja Rischer, Martin Sperfeld, Christiane Weigel, Klaus Dieter Menzel, Jon Clardy, Christine Beemelmanns
Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to profile the associated bacterial community of the marine hydroid Hydractinia echinata, a long-standing model system in developmental biology. 56 associated bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Three strains were selected for further in-depth chemical analysis leading to the identification of 17 natural products. Several γ-Proteobacteria were found to induce settlement of the motile larvae, but only six isolates induced the metamorphosis to the primary polyp stage within 24h...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893348/overexpression-of-glypican-5-gpc5-inhibits-prostate-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-via-suppressing-sp1-mediated-emt-and-activation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#8
Yu Sun, Kai Xu, Miao He, Guilian Fan, Hongming Lu
Glypican 5 (GPC5) belongs to the family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). It was initially known as a regulatorof growth factors and morphogens. Recently, there have been reports on its correlation with the tumorigenic process in the development of some cancers. However, little is known about its precise role in prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study, we explored the expression pattern and biological functions of GPC5 in PCa cells. Our results showed that GPC5 was lowly expressed in PCa cell lines...
September 6, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891464/concentration-dependent-chromatin-states-induced-by-the-bicoid-morphogen-gradient
#9
Colleen E Hannon, Shelby A Blythe, Eric F Wieschaus
In Drosophila, graded expression of the maternal transcription factor Bicoid (Bcd) provides positional information to activate target genes at different positions along the anterior-posterior axis. We have measured the genome-wide binding profile of Bcd using ChIP-seq in embryos expressing single, uniform levels of Bcd protein, and grouped Bcd-bound targets into four classes based on occupancy at different concentrations. By measuring the biochemical affinity of target enhancers in these classes in vitro and genome-wide chromatin accessibility by ATAC-seq, we found that the occupancy of target sequences by Bcd is not primarily determined by Bcd binding sites, but by chromatin context...
September 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891097/ventral-neural-patterning-in-the-absence-of-a-shh-activity-gradient-from-the-floorplate
#10
Angelo Iulianella, Daisuke Sakai, Hiroshi Kurosaka, Paul Trainor
BACKGROUND: Vertebrate spinal cord development requires Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling from the floorplate and notochord, where it is thought to act in concentration dependent manner to pattern distinct cell identities along the ventral-to-dorsal axis. While in vitro experiments demonstrate naïve neural tissues are sensitive to small changes in Shh levels, genetic studies illustrate that some degree of ventral patterning can occur despite significant perturbations in Shh signaling. Consequently, the mechanistic relationship between Shh morphogen levels and acquisition of distinct cell identities remains unclear...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888686/fibroblast-derived-hgf-drives-acinar-lung-cancer-cell-polarization-through-integrin-dependent-rhoa-rock1-inhibition
#11
Anirban Datta, Emma Sandilands, Keith E Mostov, David M Bryant
The formation of lumens in epithelial tissues requires apical-basal polarization of cells, and the co-ordination of this individual polarity collectively around a contiguous lumen. Signals from the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) instruct epithelia as to the orientation of where basal, and thus consequently apical, surfaces should be formed. We report that this pathway is normally absent in Calu-3 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in 3-Dimensional culture, but that paracrine signals from MRC5 lung fibroblasts can induce correct orientation of polarity and acinar morphogenesis...
September 6, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875454/roles-of-retinoic-acid-signaling-in-shaping-the-neuronal-architecture-of-the-developing-amphioxus-nervous-system
#12
Elisabeth Zieger, Simona Candiani, Greta Garbarino, Jenifer C Croce, Michael Schubert
The morphogen retinoic acid (RA) patterns vertebrate nervous systems and drives neurogenesis, but how these functions evolved remains elusive. Here, we show that RA signaling plays stage- and tissue-specific roles during the formation of neural cell populations with serotonin, dopamine, and GABA neurotransmitter phenotypes in amphioxus, a proxy for the ancestral chordate. Our data suggest that RA signaling restricts the specification of dopamine-containing cells in the ectoderm and of GABA neurons in the neural tube, probably by regulating Hox1 and Hox3 gene expression, respectively...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871656/fabrication-of-a-biomimetic-zeinpda-nanofibrous-scaffold-impregnated-with-bmp-2-peptide-conjugated-tio2-nanoparticle-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#13
Babitha Sekar, Meenakshi Annamalai, Michal Marcin Dykas, Surajit Saha, Kingshuk Poddar, Jayarama Reddy Venugopal, Seeram Ramakrishna, Thirumalai Venkatesan, Purna Sai Korrapati
A biomimetic Zein polydopamine (PDA) based nanofiber scaffold was fabricated to deliver bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) peptide conjugated titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles in a sustained manner for investigating its osteogenic differentiation potential. To prolong its retention time at the target site, BMP-2 peptide has been conjugated to TiO2 nanoparticles owing to its high surface to volume ratio. The effect of biochemical cues from BMP-2 peptide and nano topographical stimulation of electrospun Zein PDA nanofibers were examined for its enhanced osteogenic expression of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869588/activation-of-pluripotent-genes-in-hepatic-progenitor-cells-in-the-transition-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-to-pre-malignant-lesions
#14
Gang Xu, Juan Ye, Xue-Jing Liu, Ning-Ping Zhang, Yi-Ming Zhao, Jia Fan, Xiu-Ping Liu, Jian Wu
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is considered as a precancerous condition. However, hepatic carcinogenesis from NASH is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the activation of pluripotent genes (c-Myc, Oct-4, KLF-4, and Nanog) and morphogenic gene (Gli-1) in hepatic progenitor cells from patient specimens and in an animal model to determine the possibility of normal stem/progenitor cells becoming the origin of NASH-HCC. In this study, expression of pluripotent and morphogenic genes in human NASH-HCC tissues was significantly upregulated compared to adjacent non-tumor liver tissues...
September 4, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864168/liuweiwuling-tablets-attenuate-bdl-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-via-modulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#15
Huimin Liu, Fang Dong, Guangquan Li, Ming Niu, Congen Zhang, Yanzhong Han, Lanzhi He, Ping Yin, Bin Wang, Xiuxiu Sang, Ruishen Li, Jiabo Wang, Zhaofang Bai, Xiaohe Xiao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Liuweiwuling (LWWL) tablets contain a six-herb Chinese formula and are commonly prescribed to facilitate nourishment of the liver and kidneys, clear away toxic materials and activate blood circulation. Administration of LWWL is well known for its protective effects on the liver and its capacity to confer long-term stability in patients exhibiting reduced transaminase levels. Clinical studies have reported that LWWL can also be used for the treatment of liver fibrosis with associated treatment regimens resulting in a concomitant reduction in transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) levels in the serum of patients with hepatic fibrosis...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856108/high-frequency-regeneration-of-plants-from-cotyledon-and-hypocotyl-cultures-in-brassica-oleracea-cv-pride-of-india
#16
Geetika Gambhir, Pankaj Kumar, D K Srivastava
Morphogenic potential of cabbage cv. Pride of India, for multiple shoot induction was tested under in vitro conditions using cotyledon and hypocotyl explants. Aseptically grown seven to nine days old seedlings of cabbage were used as source of explants for reproducible plant regeneration studies. Forty different concentrations and combinations of TDZ (alone), TDZ with adenine, TDZ with NAA and TDZ with IAA were tried. Maximum shoot regeneration response from cotyledon explants (91.11%) and hypocotyl (94.40%) was obtained on MS medium containing 0...
September 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852936/down-regulation-of-pax2-promotes-in-vitro-differentiation-of-podocytes-from-human-cd34-cells
#17
Manne Mudhu Sunitha, Lokanathan Srikanth, Pasupuleti Santhosh Kumar, Chodimella Chandrasekhar, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna Sarma
Podocytes are major kidney cells that help in glomerular filtration and any damage or loss is a major event in the progression of kidney diseases. Understanding podocytes development will help in designing therapeutic strategies against these renal diseases. Therefore, in vitro generation of podocytes from adult hematopoietic CD34(+) stem cells is explored in the present study. Apheretically, isolated human HSCs from peripheral blood showed the presence of CD34 surface glycoprotein through immunocytochemistry (ICC) and flowcytometry...
August 29, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852327/dynamic-fixation-of-humeral-shaft-fractures-using-active-locking-plates-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
Steven M Madey, Stanley Tsai, Daniel C Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Earley, Michael Lutsch, Michael Bottlang
BACKGROUND: Rigid locked plating constructs can suppress fracture healing by inhibiting interfragmentary motion required to stimulate natural bone healing by callus formation. Dynamic fixation with active locking plates reduces construct stiffness, enables controlled interfragmentary motion, and has been shown to induce faster and stronger bone healing in vivo compared to rigid locking plates. This prospective observational study represents the first clinical use of active locking plates...
2017: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846435/structure-of-ralsolamycin-the-interkingdom-morphogen-from-the-crop-plant-pathogen-ralstonia-solanacearum
#19
Florian Baldeweg, Hirokazu Kage, Sebastian Schieferdecker, Caitilyn Allen, Dirk Hoffmeister, Markus Nett
Ralsolamycin, an inducer of chlamydospore formation in fungi, was recently reported from the plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. Although interpretation of tandem mass data and bioinformatics enabled a preliminary chemical characterization, the full structure of ralsolamycin was not resolved. We now report the recovery of this secondary metabolite from an engineered R. solanacearum strain. The structure of ralsolamycin was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Chemical derivatization as well as bioinformatics were used to assign the absolute stereochemistry...
August 28, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844842/cerebral-vein-malformations-result-from-loss-of-twist1-expression-and-bmp-signaling-from-skull-progenitor-cells-and-dura
#20
Max A Tischfield, Caroline D Robson, Nicole M Gilette, Shek Man Chim, Folasade A Sofela, Michelle M DeLisle, Alon Gelber, Brenda J Barry, Sarah MacKinnon, Linda R Dagi, Jeremy Nathans, Elizabeth C Engle
Dural cerebral veins (CV) are required for cerebrospinal fluid reabsorption and brain homeostasis, but mechanisms that regulate their growth and remodeling are unknown. We report molecular and cellular processes that regulate dural CV development in mammals and describe venous malformations in humans with craniosynostosis and TWIST1 mutations that are recapitulated in mouse models. Surprisingly, Twist1 is dispensable in endothelial cells but required for specification of osteoprogenitor cells that differentiate into preosteoblasts that produce bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
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