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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779114/general-sources-of-dopamine-as-a-potential-morphogenic-factor-in-the-developing-striatum-of-rats
#1
A I Kurtova, L K Dil'mukhametova, E R Mingazov, M V Ugrumov
In the striatum of rats at different stages of development, we determined the content of tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acids decarboxylase using double immunohistochemical labeling and estimated the expression level of their transcripts by real-time PCR. We found that, in different periods of development, there are three sources of dopamine in the striatum of rats: bienzymatic nerve fibers (throughout ontogeny), bienzymatic neurons (appear on day 18 of embryonic development), and monoenzymatic neurons (in adult animals)...
March 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775474/the-cryptococcus-neoformans-titan-cell-is-an-inducible-and-regulated-morphotype-underlying-pathogenesis
#2
Ivy M Dambuza, Thomas Drake, Ambre Chapuis, Xin Zhou, Joao Correia, Leanne Taylor-Smith, Nathalie LeGrave, Tim Rasmussen, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Marcel Jaspars, Robin C May, Gordon D Brown, Raif Yuecel, Donna M MacCallum, Elizabeth R Ballou
Fungal cells change shape in response to environmental stimuli, and these morphogenic transitions drive pathogenesis and niche adaptation. For example, dimorphic fungi switch between yeast and hyphae in response to changing temperature. The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans undergoes an unusual morphogenetic transition in the host lung from haploid yeast to large, highly polyploid cells termed Titan cells. Titan cells influence fungal interaction with host cells, including through increased drug resistance, altered cell size, and altered Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern exposure...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767852/membrane-tethered-syntaxin-4-locally-abrogates-e-cadherin-function-and-activates-smad-signals-contributing-to-asymmetric-mammary-epithelial-morphogenesis
#3
Yuina Hirose, Kota Shirai, Yohei Hirai
Spatial and temporal epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event for the generation of asymmetric epithelial architectures. We found that only restricted cell populations in the morphogenic mammary epithelia extrude syntaxin-4, a plasmalemmal t-SNARE protein, and that epithelial cell clusters with artificial heterogenic presentation of extracellular syntaxin-4 undergo asymmetric morphogenesis. A previous study revealed that inducible expression of cell surface syntaxin-4 causes EMT-like cell behaviors in the clonal mammary epithelial cells, where laminin-mediated signals were abolished so that cells readily succumb to initiate EMT...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766758/anti-inflammatory-peptide-attenuates-edema-and-promotes-bmp-2-induced-bone-formation-in-spine-fusion
#4
Juliane D Glaeser, Khosrowdad Salehi, Linda Kanim, Dmitriy Sheyn, Zachary NaPier, Phillip Behrens, Leslie Garcia, Jason M Cuéllar, Hyun W Bae
Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded absorbable collagen sponges (ACS) have been successfully used to enhance bone formation and to induce spinal fusion in humans. However, side effects, such as soft-tissue edema and inflammation, have been reported. NEMO binding domain peptide (NBD) inhibits activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a central regulator of immune response. In this study, we investigated NBD's potential to reduce BMP-2-induced soft-tissue inflammation without affecting BMP-2-mediated spinal fusion in rat...
May 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765108/voltage-dependent-ca-2-channels-promote-branching-morphogenesis-of-salivary-glands-by-patterning-differential-growth
#5
J M Kim, S Choi, S W Lee, K Park
Branching morphogenesis is a crucial part of early developmental processes in diverse organs, but the detailed mechanism of this morphogenic event remains to be elucidated. Here we introduce an unknown mechanism leading to branching morphogenesis using mouse embryonic organotypic cultures with time-lapse live imaging. We found spatially expressed L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) in the peripheral layers of developing epithelial buds and identified the VDCCs as a core signaling mediator for patterning branching architecture...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763457/overlap-in-signaling-between-smoothened-and-the-%C3%AE-subunit-of-the-heterotrimeric-g-protein-g13
#6
Xueshui Guo, Natalia A Riobo-Del Galdo, Eun Ji Kim, Gregory R Grant, David R Manning
The Hedgehog family of morphogens has long been known to utilize, through the 7-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), the heterotrimeric G protein Gi in both canonical and noncanonical forms of signaling. Other G proteins, while not specifically utilized by Smo, may nonetheless provide access to some of the events controlled by it. We reported several years ago that the G protein G13 activates one or more forms of the Gli family of transcription factors. While the Gli transcription factors are well known targets for Smo, the uncertain mechanism of activation by G13 and the identity of the targeted Gli(s) limited predictions as to the extent to which G13 might mimic Smo's actions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760979/non-invasive-in-vivo-quantification-of-the-developing-optical-properties-and-graded-index-of-the-embryonic-eye-lens-using-spim
#7
Laura K Young, Miguel Jarrin, Christopher D Saunter, Roy A Quinlan, John M Girkin
Graded refractive index lenses are inherent to advanced visual systems in animals. By understanding their formation and local optical properties, significant potential for improved ocular healthcare may be realized. We report a novel technique measuring the developing optical power of the eye lens, in a living animal, by exploiting the orthogonal imaging modality of a selective plane illumination microscope (SPIM). We have quantified the maturation of the lenticular refractive index at three different visible wavelengths using a combined imaging and ray tracing approach...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760957/simulated-microgravity-induces-a-cellular-regression-of-the-mature-phenotype-in-human-primary-osteoblasts
#8
Magda Gioia, Anna Michaletti, Manuel Scimeca, Mario Marini, Umberto Tarantino, Lello Zolla, Massimo Coletta
Decreased mechanical loading on bones, such as prolonged bed rest and microgravity during space flights, leads to the development of an osteoporotic-like phenotype. Although osteoblast hypo-functionality is reported to be involved in the progression of bone pathological conditions, the cellular mechanisms of this process remain largely unknown. The combined application of mass spectrometry "-omics" and histochemical and ultrastructural approaches have been employed to investigate the effects of the gravitational unloading on human bone-cell biology...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746183/msx2-marks-spatially-restricted-populations-of-mesenchymal-precursors
#9
N Sakagami, Y Matsushita, S Syklawer-Howle, H M Kronenberg, W Ono, N Ono
Craniofacial development requires a set of patterning codes that define the identities of postmigratory mesenchymal cells in a region-specific manner, in which locally expressed morphogens, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide instructive cues. Msx2, a bona fide target of BMP signaling, is a transcription factor regulating Runx2 and osterix (Osx), whose mutations are associated with cranial deformities in humans. Here we show that Msx2 defines osteo-chondro precursor cells in specific regions of the craniofacial mesenchyme at the postmigratory stage, particularly in the mandibular process and the posterior cranial vault...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740265/transcriptional-profiling-of-ligand-expression-in-cell-specific-populations-of-the-adult-mouse-forebrain-that-regulates-neurogenesis
#10
Kasum Azim, Rainer Akkermann, Martina Cantone, Julio Vera, Janusz J Jadasz, Patrick Küry
In the adult central nervous system (CNS), the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain is the largest and most active source of neural stem cells (NSCs) that generates mainly neurons and few glial cells lifelong. A large body of evidence has shed light on the distinct families of signaling ligands (i.e., morphogens, growth factors, secreted molecules that alter signaling pathways) in regulating NSC biology. However, most of the research has focused on the mRNA expression of individual or few signaling ligands and their pathway components in specific cell types of the CNS in the context of neurogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739620/a-threshold-model-for-polydactyly
#11
Axel Lange, Hans L Nemeschkal, Gerd B Müller
We present a cellular automaton-based model for threshold behaviors in vertebrate digit patterning and polydactyly formation. The rules of the model follow classical reactor-diffusion algorithms. Yet it is not physical diffusion that is taken as the required natural agent but the propagation of cellular states, which can be represented by the same differential equations. The bistable cellular states in the model correspond to mesenchymal limb bud cells that can be either "on" or "off" for the cartilage differentiation pathway...
April 25, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727442/robust-stochastic-turing-patterns-in-the-development-of-a-one-dimensional-cyanobacterial-organism
#12
Francesca Di Patti, Laura Lavacchi, Rinat Arbel-Goren, Leora Schein-Lubomirsky, Duccio Fanelli, Joel Stavans
Under nitrogen deprivation, the one-dimensional cyanobacterial organism Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 develops patterns of single, nitrogen-fixing cells separated by nearly regular intervals of photosynthetic vegetative cells. We study a minimal, stochastic model of developmental patterns in Anabaena that includes a nondiffusing activator, two diffusing inhibitor morphogens, demographic fluctuations in the number of morphogen molecules, and filament growth. By tracking developing filaments, we provide experimental evidence for different spatiotemporal roles of the two inhibitors during pattern maintenance and for small molecular copy numbers, justifying a stochastic approach...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722151/specifying-neural-crest-cells-from-chromatin-to-morphogens-and-factors-in-between
#13
REVIEW
Crystal D Rogers, Shuyi Nie
Neural crest (NC) cells are a stem-like multipotent population of progenitor cells that are present in vertebrate embryos, traveling to various regions in the developing organism. Known as the "fourth germ layer", these cells originate in the ectoderm between the neural plate (NP), which will become the brain and spinal cord, and nonneural tissues that will become the skin and the sensory organs. NC cells can differentiate into more than 30 different derivatives in response to the appropriate signals including, but not limited to, craniofacial bone and cartilage, sensory nerves and ganglia, pigment cells, and connective tissue...
May 3, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718288/the-pathogenesis-of-lysosomal-storage-disorders-beyond-the-engorgement-of-lysosomes-to-abnormal-development-and-neuroinflammation
#14
Maria Teresa Fiorenza, Enrico Moro, Robert P Erickson
There is growing evidence that the complex clinical manifestations of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are not fully explained by the engorgement of the endosomal-autophagic-lysosomal system. In this review, we explore current knowledge of common pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for the early onset of tissue abnormalities of two LSDs, Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII) and Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) diseases. In particular, perturbations of the homeostasis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and cholesterol (Chol) in MPSII and NPC diseases, respectively, affect key biological processes, including morphogen signaling...
April 28, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714689/temporospatial-induction-of-homeodomain-gene-cut-dictates-natural-lineage-reprogramming
#15
Ke Xu, Xiaodan Liu, Yuchun Wang, Chouin Wong, Yan Song
Understanding how cellular identity naturally interconverts with high efficiency and temporospatial precision is crucial for regenerative medicine. Here we revealed a natural midgut-to-renal lineage conversion event during Drosophila metamorphosis and identified the evolutionarily-conserved homeodomain protein Cut as a master switch in this process. A steep Wnt/Wingless morphogen gradient intersects with a pulse of steroid hormone ecdysone to induce cut expression in a subset of midgut progenitors and reprogram them into renal progenitors...
May 1, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695974/plant-secondary-metabolites-modulate-insect-behavior-steps-toward-addiction
#16
REVIEW
Michael Wink
Plants produce a diversity of secondary metabolites (PSMs) that serve as defense compounds against herbivores and microorganisms. In addition, some PSMs attract animals for pollination and seed dispersal. In case of pollinating insects, PSMs with colors or terpenoids with fragrant odors attract pollinators in the first place, but when they arrive at a flower, they are rewarded with nectar, so that the pollinators do not feed on flowers. In order to be effective as defense chemicals, PSMs evolved as bioactive substances, that can interfere with a large number of molecular targets in cells, tissues and organs of animals or of microbes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695607/timing-of-gene-expression-in-a-cell-fate-decision-system
#17
Delphine Aymoz, Carme Solé, Jean-Jerrold Pierre, Marta Schmitt, Eulàlia de Nadal, Francesc Posas, Serge Pelet
During development, morphogens provide extracellular cues allowing cells to select a specific fate by inducing complex transcriptional programs. The mating pathway in budding yeast offers simplified settings to understand this process. Pheromone secreted by the mating partner triggers the activity of a MAPK pathway, which results in the expression of hundreds of genes. Using a dynamic expression reporter, we quantified the kinetics of gene expression in single cells upon exogenous pheromone stimulation and in the physiological context of mating...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688404/heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-sulfation-regulates-uterine-differentiation-and-signaling-during-embryo-implantation
#18
Yan Yin, Adam Wang, Li Feng, Yu Wang, Hong Zhang, Ivy Zhang, Brent Bany, Liang Ma
To prepare for embryo implantation, uterus must undergo a series of reciprocal interactions between the uterine epithelium and the underlying stroma, which are orchestrated by ovarian hormones. During this process, multiple signaling pathways are activated to direct cell proliferation and differentiation, which render the uterus receptive to the implanting blastocysts. One important modulator of these signaling pathways is the cell surface and extracellular matrix macromolecules, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs)...
April 23, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686106/embryonic-regeneration-by-relocalization-of-the-spemann-organizer-during-twinning-in-xenopus
#19
Yuki Moriyama, Edward M De Robertis
The formation of identical twins from a single egg has fascinated developmental biologists for a very long time. Previous work had shown that Xenopus blastulae bisected along the dorsal-ventral (D-V) midline (i.e., the sagittal plane) could generate twins but at very low frequencies. Here, we have improved this method by using an eyelash knife and changing saline solutions, reaching frequencies of twinning of 50% or more. This allowed mechanistic analysis of the twinning process. We unexpectedly observed that the epidermis of the resulting twins was asymmetrically pigmented at the tailbud stage of regenerating tadpoles...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682876/soybean-lecithin-mediated-nanoporous-plga-microspheres-with-highly-entrapped-and-controlled-released-bmp-2-as-a-stem-cell-platform
#20
Daixu Wei, Ruirui Qiao, Jinwei Dao, Jing Su, Chengmin Jiang, Xichang Wang, Mingyuan Gao, Jian Zhong
Injectable polymer microsphere-based stem cell delivery systems have a severe problem that they do not offer a desirable environment for stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation because it is difficult to entrap a large number of hydrophilic functional protein molecules into the core of hydrophobic polymer microspheres. In this work, soybean lecithin (SL) is applied to entrap hydrophilic bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) into nanoporous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microspheres by a two-step method: SL/BMP-2 complexes preparation and PLGA/SL/BMP-2 microsphere preparation...
April 22, 2018: Small
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