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"Exercise physiology" and "sport"

Matthew A Kilgas, Steven J Elmer
We implemented a team-based activity in our exercise physiology teaching laboratory that was inspired from Abbott et al.'s classic 1952 Journal of Physiology paper titled "The physiological cost of negative work." Abbott et al. connected two bicycles via one chain. One person cycled forward (muscle shortening contractions, positive work) while the other resisted the reverse moving pedals (muscle lengthening contractions, negative work), and the cost of work was compared. This study was the first to link human whole body energetics with isolated muscle force-velocity characteristics...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
Scott Anderson
Off-season training in year-round collegiate football is purported to be performance enhancing. Absent principles of exercise physiology, excesses in sport-training regimens pose risk to the participant athletes. Since 2000, 33 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players have died in sport: 27 nontraumatic deaths and 6 traumatic deaths, a ratio of 4.5 nontraumatic deaths for every traumatic death. On average, 2 NCAA football players die per season. Best practices, consensus guidelines, and precautions are ignored, elevating the risk...
February 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
James M Smoliga, Gerald S Zavorsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biology Letters
Karim Chamari, Johnny Padulo
The purpose of this Current Opinion article is to focus on the appropriate use of the terms 'aerobic'- and 'anaerobic'-exercise in sports medicine, in order to try to unify their use across coaches/athletes and sport scientists. Despite the high quality of most of the investigations, the terms aerobic/anaerobic continue to be used inappropriately by some researchers in exercise science. Until late 2014, for instance, 14,883 and 6,136 articles were cited in PubMed, in the field of 'exercise science', using the words 'aerobic' or 'anaerobic', respectively...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Satyam Sarma, Benjamin D Levine
Exercise testing is an important tool for determining baseline fitness as well as to diagnose limitations in performance. The Bruce protocol has become the standard for exercise testing protocol in many exercise physiology laboratories, but is rarely a suitable test for athletes who often have complex hemodynamic and metabolic demands during exercise required for practice and competition. We describe the approach for exercise testing beyond the Bruce protocol and focus on strategies to individualize the testing protocol to the metabolic demands of an athlete's sport...
November 2016: Cardiology Clinics
Aoife A Donnelly, Tadhg E MacIntyre, Nollaig O'Sullivan, Giles Warrington, Andrew J Harrison, Eric R Igou, Marc Jones, Chris Gidlow, Noel Brick, Ian Lahart, Ross Cloak, Andrew M Lane
This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Duncan A J Blythe, Franz J Király
We present a novel, quantitative view on the human athletic performance of individual runners. We obtain a predictor for running performance, a parsimonious model and a training state summary consisting of three numbers by application of modern validation techniques and recent advances in machine learning to the thepowerof10 database of British runners' performances (164,746 individuals, 1,417,432 performances). Our predictor achieves an average prediction error (out-of-sample) of e.g. 3.6 min on elite Marathon performances and 0...
2016: PloS One
Shawn R Simonson
Undergraduate exercise physiology is a ubiquitous course in undergraduate kinesiology/exercise science programs with a broad scope and depth of topics. It is valuable to explore what is taught within this course. The purpose of the present study was to facilitate an understanding of what instructors teach in undergraduate exercise physiology, how it compares with various guidelines, and to continue the conversation regarding what should be taught. A survey was created using course outcomes from the American Society of Exercise Physiologists, National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Ivy's 2007 Quest article, the National Athletic Training Association, the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, and 36 undergraduate exercise physiology course syllabi...
December 2015: Advances in Physiology Education
Mildred A Opondo, Satyam Sarma, Benjamin D Levine
Athletes represent the extremes of human performance. Many of their remarkable abilities stem from a cardiovascular system that has adapted to meet the metabolic needs of exercising muscle. A large and compliant heart is a hallmark feature of athletes who engage in highly aerobic events. Despite high fitness levels, athletes may present with symptoms that limit performance. Understanding and dissecting these limitations requires a strong background in sports science and the factors that determine sports capabilities...
July 2015: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Neil Armstrong, Alan R Barker, Alison M McManus
AIM: To provide an evidence-based review of muscle metabolism changes with sex-, age- and maturation with reference to the development of youth sport performance. METHODS: A narrative review of data from both invasive and non-invasive studies, from 1970 to 2015, founded on personal databases supported with computer searches of PubMed and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Youth sport performance is underpinned by sex-, age- and maturation-related changes in muscle metabolism...
July 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Bradley J Cardinal, Eugene A Park, MooSong Kim, Marita K Cardinal
BACKGROUND: This study provides an update on the amount and type of physical activity education occurring in medical education in the United States in 2013. It is the first study to do so since 2002. METHODS: Applying content analysis methodology, we reviewed all accessible accredited doctor of medicine and doctor of osteopathic medicine institutions' websites for physical activity education related coursework (N = 118 fully accessible; 69.41%). RESULTS: The majority of institutions did not offer any physical activity education-related courses...
September 2015: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Chad M Kerksick, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, A Wallace Hayes, Ioannis Kafantaris, Dimitrios Kouretas
The past 2-3 decades have seen an explosion in analytical areas related to "omic" technologies. These advancements have reached a point where their application can be and are being used as a part of exercise physiology and sport performance research. Such advancements have drastically enabled researchers to analyze extremely large groups of data that can provide amounts of information never before made available. Although these "omic" technologies offer exciting possibilities, the analytical costs and time required to complete the statistical approaches are substantial...
January 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jessica L Pate, Michael J Buono
CONTEXT: Bikram yoga has gained a large following, possibly because of widespread claims boasting energy expenditure of up to 1000 calories per session. However, these claims are unfounded because no scientific study has investigated the metabolic response to a complete, standardized Bikram yoga class. OBJECTIVES: This study intends to determine energy expenditure, heart rate, and sweat rate in novice and experienced practitioners from a standardized Bikram yoga class...
July 2014: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
J L Kilgore, J S Baker, B Davies
Exercise physiology, in terms of the history of biological sciences, is quite young and has a rather tumultuous history - as it spans physical education, health & medicine, sport science, and biology. This has led to the development of differing definitions, research approaches, practices and goals. This is easily seen in the presence of competing and non-universally adopted definitions of fitness. Such internal inconsistencies portray to the outside world a discipline experiencing the problems associated with a changing paradigm...
2014: Research in Sports Medicine
Chris Garvey, M Dot Fullwood, Julia Rigler
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common, progressive disorder associated with disabling symptoms, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and substantial morbidity and mortality. Current national guidelines recommend pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) to improve dyspnea, functional capacity, and quality of life. Many PR exercise programs are based on guidelines from the American College of Sports Medicine. Recommendations have also been published by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the American Thoracic Society...
September 2013: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Teri R McCabe, Matthew Wyon, Jatin P Ambegaonkar, Emma Redding
DanceSport is the competitive form of ballroom dancing, and even though it has more participants worldwide than ballet and modern dance, there is less peer-reviewed research. A review was conducted to identify all relevant literature to help researchers and clinicians gain an enhanced understanding of dancesport. Eight databases were searched, with 34 articles found in topics including participation motives, psychology, exercise physiology, fitness training, injuries and injury prevention, biomechanics, menstrual dysfunction, and substance use...
June 2013: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
Ewa Szczepanowska, Zbigniew Czapla, Joachim Cieślik
The aim of this study is to attempt to determine the relationship between the degree of the EMN index and the depth of changes of selected hormones and metabolic parameters as an effect of intensive physical exercise during the training process in male rowers. Juniors (N = 62; chronological age 16.4 y.o. SD = 1.14 y.; training experience 3.0 y.o. SD = 1.05 y.) and seniors (N = 27; chronological age 21.4 y. SD = 1.73 y.; training experience 5.5 y.o. SD = 1.10 y.), in the preparatory period of the training process, performed physical exercise of maximum intensity on a rowing ergometer...
December 2012: Collegium Antropologicum
Tobias Ehlert, Perikles Simon, Dirk A Moser
The heritability of specific phenotypical traits relevant for physical performance has been extensively investigated and discussed by experts from various research fields. By deciphering the complete human DNA sequence, the human genome project has provided impressive insights into the genomic landscape. The hope that this information would reveal the origin of phenotypical traits relevant for physical performance or disease risks has proven overly optimistic, and it is still premature to refer to a 'post-genomic' era of biological science...
February 2013: Sports Medicine
Charles Delagardelle
This review will mainly focus the last 10 years of the society's history because several important changes occurred during this relatively short period. The most important was the creation of the first clinical sports medicine department in Luxembourg in 2004. This modern new infrastructure was made possible by the recruitment of 2 highly competent sports physicians, the excellent collaboration of the governing board of the Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg (CHL) and the support of the sports minister. In 2008 the new department received the label "Medical Olympic Centre of Luxembourg"...
2012: Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Médicales du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Hein Heidbuchel, Michael Papadakis, Nicole Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, François Carré, Dorian Dugmore, Klaus-Peter Mellwig, Hanne Kruuse Rasmusen, Erik E Solberg, Mats Borjesson, Domenico Corrado, Antonio Pelliccia, Sanjay Sharma
Sports cardiology is a new and rapidly evolving subspecialty. It aims to elucidate the cardiovascular effects of regular exercise and delineate its benefits and risks, so that safe guidance can be provided to all individuals engaging in sports and/or physical activity in order to attain the maximum potential benefit at the lowest possible risk. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) advocates systematic preparticipation cardiovascular screening in an effort to identify competitive athletes at risk of exercise-related cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death...
October 2013: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
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