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"Exercise physiology" and "sport"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980345/exercise-physiology-and-nutritional-perspectives-of-elite-soccer-refereeing
#1
REVIEW
Kai Schenk, Mario Bizzini, Hannes Gatterer
Referees are an integral part of soccer and their performance is fundamental for regular match flow, irrespective of the competition level or age classes. So far, scientific interest was mainly limited to aspects of exercise physiology and match performance of soccer referees, whereas recommendations for nutrition were adopted from active professional soccer. In contrast to elite soccer players most referees are non-professional and engaged in different occupations. Furthermore, elite referees and soccer players differ in regard to age, body composition, aerobic capacity and training load...
October 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737585/biomarkers-in-sports-and-exercise-tracking-health-performance-and-recovery-in-athletes
#2
Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Stavros A Kavouras, Robin M Queen, John Luke Pryor, Douglas J Casa
Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Kavouras, SA, Queen, RM, Pryor, JL, and Casa, DJ. Biomarkers in sports and exercise: tracking health, performance, and recovery in athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2920-2937, 2017-Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training...
October 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654051/experimental-protocol-of-a-three-minute-all-out-arm-crank-exercise-test-in-spinal-cord-injured-and-able-bodied-individuals
#3
Joelle L Flueck
Reliable exercise protocols are required to test changes in exercise performance in elite athletes. Performance improvements in these athletes may be small; therefore, sensitive tools are fundamental to exercise physiology. There are currently many exercise tests that allow for the examination of exercise capacity in able-bodied athletes, with protocols mainly for lower-body or whole-body exercise. There is a trend to test athletes in a sport-specific setting that closely resembles the actions that the participants are used to performing...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630575/acute-and-post-exercise-physiological-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-in-endurance-and-sprint-athletes
#4
Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann
The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE)...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474874/poincar%C3%A3-plot-analysis-of-ultra-short-term-heart-rate-variability-during-recovery-from-exercise-in-physically-active-men
#5
Rayana L Gomes, Luiz C Marques Vanderlei, David M Garner, Milana D Ramos Santana, Luiz C de Abreu, Vitor E Valenti
BACKGROUND: Recently there has been increasing interest in the study of ultra-short- term heart rate variability (HRV) in sports performance and exercise physiology. In order to improve standardization of this specific analysis, we evaluated the ultra-short-term HRV analysis through SD1Poincaré index to identify exercise induced responses. METHODS: We investigated 35 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years old. Volunteers performed physical exercise on treadmill with intensity of 6...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188199/back-to-the-future-revisiting-the-physiological-cost-of-negative-work-as-a-team-based-activity-for-exercise-physiology-students
#6
Matthew A Kilgas, Steven J Elmer
We implemented a team-based activity in our exercise physiology teaching laboratory that was inspired from Abbott et al.'s classic 1952 Journal of Physiology paper titled "The physiological cost of negative work." Abbott et al. connected two bicycles via one chain. One person cycled forward (muscle shortening contractions, positive work) while the other resisted the reverse moving pedals (muscle lengthening contractions, negative work), and the cost of work was compared. This study was the first to link human whole body energetics with isolated muscle force-velocity characteristics...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140625/ncaa-football-off-season-training-unanswered-prayers%C3%A2-a-prayer-answered
#7
Scott Anderson
Off-season training in year-round collegiate football is purported to be performance enhancing. Absent principles of exercise physiology, excesses in sport-training regimens pose risk to the participant athletes. Since 2000, 33 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players have died in sport: 27 nontraumatic deaths and 6 traumatic deaths, a ratio of 4.5 nontraumatic deaths for every traumatic death. On average, 2 NCAA football players die per season. Best practices, consensus guidelines, and precautions are ignored, elevating the risk...
February 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903779/exercise-physiology-and-sports-science-must-be-considered-in-evolutionary-theories-regarding-human-performance-a-reply-to-postma-2016
#8
James M Smoliga, Gerald S Zavorsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747843/-aerobic-and-anaerobic-terms-used-in-exercise-physiology-a-critical-terminology-reflection
#9
Karim Chamari, Johnny Padulo
The purpose of this Current Opinion article is to focus on the appropriate use of the terms 'aerobic'- and 'anaerobic'-exercise in sports medicine, in order to try to unify their use across coaches/athletes and sport scientists. Despite the high quality of most of the investigations, the terms aerobic/anaerobic continue to be used inappropriately by some researchers in exercise science. Until late 2014, for instance, 14,883 and 6,136 articles were cited in PubMed, in the field of 'exercise science', using the words 'aerobic' or 'anaerobic', respectively...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692228/beyond-the-bruce-protocol-advanced-exercise-testing-for-the-sports-cardiologist
#10
REVIEW
Satyam Sarma, Benjamin D Levine
Exercise testing is an important tool for determining baseline fitness as well as to diagnose limitations in performance. The Bruce protocol has become the standard for exercise testing protocol in many exercise physiology laboratories, but is rarely a suitable test for athletes who often have complex hemodynamic and metabolic demands during exercise required for practice and competition. We describe the approach for exercise testing beyond the Bruce protocol and focus on strategies to individualize the testing protocol to the metabolic demands of an athlete's sport...
November 2016: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540370/environmental-influences-on-elite-sport-athletes-well-being-from-gold-silver-and-bronze-to-blue-green-and-gold
#11
Aoife A Donnelly, Tadhg E MacIntyre, Nollaig O'Sullivan, Giles Warrington, Andrew J Harrison, Eric R Igou, Marc Jones, Chris Gidlow, Noel Brick, Ian Lahart, Ross Cloak, Andrew M Lane
This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336162/prediction-and-quantification-of-individual-athletic-performance-of-runners
#12
Duncan A J Blythe, Franz J Király
We present a novel, quantitative view on the human athletic performance of individual runners. We obtain a predictor for running performance, a parsimonious model and a training state summary consisting of three numbers by application of modern validation techniques and recent advances in machine learning to the thepowerof10 database of British runners' performances (164,746 individuals, 1,417,432 performances). Our predictor achieves an average prediction error (out-of-sample) of e.g. 3.6 min on elite Marathon performances and 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26628652/establishing-common-course-objectives-for-undergraduate-exercise-physiology
#13
Shawn R Simonson
Undergraduate exercise physiology is a ubiquitous course in undergraduate kinesiology/exercise science programs with a broad scope and depth of topics. It is valuable to explore what is taught within this course. The purpose of the present study was to facilitate an understanding of what instructors teach in undergraduate exercise physiology, how it compares with various guidelines, and to continue the conversation regarding what should be taught. A survey was created using course outcomes from the American Society of Exercise Physiologists, National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Ivy's 2007 Quest article, the National Athletic Training Association, the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, and 36 undergraduate exercise physiology course syllabi...
December 2015: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26100417/the-cardiovascular-physiology-of-sports-and-exercise
#14
REVIEW
Mildred A Opondo, Satyam Sarma, Benjamin D Levine
Athletes represent the extremes of human performance. Many of their remarkable abilities stem from a cardiovascular system that has adapted to meet the metabolic needs of exercising muscle. A large and compliant heart is a hallmark feature of athletes who engage in highly aerobic events. Despite high fitness levels, athletes may present with symptoms that limit performance. Understanding and dissecting these limitations requires a strong background in sports science and the factors that determine sports capabilities...
July 2015: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25940635/muscle-metabolism-changes-with-age-and-maturation-how-do-they-relate-to-youth-sport-performance
#15
REVIEW
Neil Armstrong, Alan R Barker, Alison M McManus
AIM: To provide an evidence-based review of muscle metabolism changes with sex-, age- and maturation with reference to the development of youth sport performance. METHODS: A narrative review of data from both invasive and non-invasive studies, from 1970 to 2015, founded on personal databases supported with computer searches of PubMed and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Youth sport performance is underpinned by sex-, age- and maturation-related changes in muscle metabolism...
July 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25459966/if-exercise-is-medicine-where-is-exercise-in-medicine-review-of-u-s-medical-education-curricula-for-physical-activity-related-content
#16
REVIEW
Bradley J Cardinal, Eugene A Park, MooSong Kim, Marita K Cardinal
BACKGROUND: This study provides an update on the amount and type of physical activity education occurring in medical education in the United States in 2013. It is the first study to do so since 2002. METHODS: Applying content analysis methodology, we reviewed all accessible accredited doctor of medicine and doctor of osteopathic medicine institutions' websites for physical activity education related coursework (N = 118 fully accessible; 69.41%). RESULTS: The majority of institutions did not offer any physical activity education-related courses...
September 2015: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25353080/how-can-bioinformatics-and-toxicogenomics-assist-the-next-generation-of-research-on-physical-exercise-and-athletic-performance
#17
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, A Wallace Hayes, Ioannis Kafantaris, Dimitrios Kouretas
The past 2-3 decades have seen an explosion in analytical areas related to "omic" technologies. These advancements have reached a point where their application can be and are being used as a part of exercise physiology and sport performance research. Such advancements have drastically enabled researchers to analyze extremely large groups of data that can provide amounts of information never before made available. Although these "omic" technologies offer exciting possibilities, the analytical costs and time required to complete the statistical approaches are substantial...
January 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25141359/the-physiological-responses-to-bikram-yoga-in-novice-and-experienced-practitioners
#18
Jessica L Pate, Michael J Buono
CONTEXT: Bikram yoga has gained a large following, possibly because of widespread claims boasting energy expenditure of up to 1000 calories per session. However, these claims are unfounded because no scientific study has investigated the metabolic response to a complete, standardized Bikram yoga class. OBJECTIVES: This study intends to determine energy expenditure, heart rate, and sweat rate in novice and experienced practitioners from a standardized Bikram yoga class...
July 2014: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24950117/a-consideration-of-the-paradigm-of-exercise-physiology
#19
J L Kilgore, J S Baker, B Davies
Exercise physiology, in terms of the history of biological sciences, is quite young and has a rather tumultuous history - as it spans physical education, health & medicine, sport science, and biology. This has led to the development of differing definitions, research approaches, practices and goals. This is easily seen in the presence of competing and non-universally adopted definitions of fitness. Such internal inconsistencies portray to the outside world a discipline experiencing the problems associated with a changing paradigm...
2014: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23846840/pulmonary-rehabilitation-exercise-prescription-in-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease-us-survey-and-review-of-guidelines-and-clinical-practices
#20
REVIEW
Chris Garvey, M Dot Fullwood, Julia Rigler
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common, progressive disorder associated with disabling symptoms, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and substantial morbidity and mortality. Current national guidelines recommend pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) to improve dyspnea, functional capacity, and quality of life. Many PR exercise programs are based on guidelines from the American College of Sports Medicine. Recommendations have also been published by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the American Thoracic Society...
September 2013: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
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