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"Exercise physiology" and "performance"

James M Smoliga, Gerald S Zavorsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biology Letters
T George Hornby, Jennifer L Moore, Linda Lovell, Elliot J Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research findings from the fields of motor learning and exercise physiology suggest specific training parameters that can be manipulated during physical rehabilitation profoundly influence skilled task performance. This review details the rationale for some of these training variables and their application in selected intervention studies focused on improving walking function in patients poststroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Basic and applied studies have shown that the amount, intensity, and variability of specific task practice applied during rehabilitation interventions can affect recovery of walking poststroke...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Satyam Sarma, Benjamin D Levine
Exercise testing is an important tool for determining baseline fitness as well as to diagnose limitations in performance. The Bruce protocol has become the standard for exercise testing protocol in many exercise physiology laboratories, but is rarely a suitable test for athletes who often have complex hemodynamic and metabolic demands during exercise required for practice and competition. We describe the approach for exercise testing beyond the Bruce protocol and focus on strategies to individualize the testing protocol to the metabolic demands of an athlete's sport...
November 2016: Cardiology Clinics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Naryana Cristina Mascarin, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Alberto de Castro Pochini, Antonio Carlos da Silva, Marilia Dos Santos Andrade
CONTEXT: Imbalance in shoulder rotator muscles has been considered a risk factor for injuries in handball. Strength training programs (STP) may play an important preventive role. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of an STP by using elastic band on shoulder muscles and ball throwing speed. DESIGN: Randomized and prospective controlled trial. SETTING: Exercise Physiology Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty nine female handball players were randomly assigned to experimental (EG, n=21, 15...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Suzan Tug, Matthias Mehdorn, Susanne Helmig, Sarah Breitbach, Tobias Ehlert, Perikles Simon
PURPOSE: Intensive exercise is known to be accompanied by a rapid release of cell free DNA (cfDNA). The physiological significance of cfDNA release for performance diagnostics has not been studied. Here we analysed the release of cfDNA during bicycle exercise and its correlation with physiological parameters. METHODS: Eleven male athletes performed an incremental cycling test. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after exercise and after 90 minutes of recovery...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Aoife A Donnelly, Tadhg E MacIntyre, Nollaig O'Sullivan, Giles Warrington, Andrew J Harrison, Eric R Igou, Marc Jones, Chris Gidlow, Noel Brick, Ian Lahart, Ross Cloak, Andrew M Lane
This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
John P Thyfault, David C Wright
It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance...
September 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Christine Jorm, Gillian Nisbet, Chris Roberts, Christopher Gordon, Stacey Gentilcore, Timothy F Chen
BACKGROUND: More and better interprofessional practice is predicated to be necessary to deliver good care to the patients of the future. However, universities struggle to create authentic learning activities that enable students to experience the dynamic interprofessional interactions common in healthcare and that can accommodate large interprofessional student cohorts. We investigated a large-scale mandatory interprofessional learning (IPL) activity for health professional students designed to promote social learning...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Goncalo V Mendonca, Pedro Pezarat-Correia, João R Vaz, Luís Silva, Kevin S Heffernan
The portion of society aged ≥60 years is the fastest growing population in the Western hemisphere. Aging is associated with numerous changes to systemic physiology that affect physical function and performance. We present a narrative review of the literature aimed at discussing the age-related changes in various metrics of physical performance (exercise economy, anaerobic threshold, peak oxygen uptake, muscle strength, and power). It also explores aging exercise physiology as it relates to global physical performance...
July 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
Duncan A J Blythe, Franz J Király
We present a novel, quantitative view on the human athletic performance of individual runners. We obtain a predictor for running performance, a parsimonious model and a training state summary consisting of three numbers by application of modern validation techniques and recent advances in machine learning to the thepowerof10 database of British runners' performances (164,746 individuals, 1,417,432 performances). Our predictor achieves an average prediction error (out-of-sample) of e.g. 3.6 min on elite Marathon performances and 0...
2016: PloS One
Atsushi Hiraga, Shigeru Sugano
After publication of the epic report on equine exercise physiology by Matsuba and Shimamura in 1933, papers on exercise physiology of the racehorse in Japan began appearing in scientific journals and increased in number. In 1944, respiration during exercise at a walk, trot, and canter was measured by recording expiratory sounds with a microphone attached near the nostril. Respiratory frequency during cantering was synchronized with stride frequency, and expiratory sounds were found to occur during the stance phase of the trailing forelimb...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
Mark S Tremblay, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Sarah Connor Gorber, Thy Dinh, Mary Duggan, Guy Faulkner, Casey E Gray, Reut Gruber, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Michelle E Kho, Amy E Latimer-Cheung, Claire LeBlanc, Anthony D Okely, Timothy Olds, Russell R Pate, Andrea Phillips, Veronica J Poitras, Sophie Rodenburg, Margaret Sampson, Travis J Saunders, James A Stone, Gareth Stratton, Shelly K Weiss, Lori Zehr
Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period)...
June 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
P Clarys, R Clijsen, A O Barel, R Schouteden, B van Olst, D Aerenhouts
BACKGROUND/AIM: Knowledge of local sweating patterns is of importance in occupational and exercise physiology settings. The recently developed closed chamber condenser technology (Biox Aquaflux(®) ) allows the measurement of evaporative skin water loss with a greater measurement capacity (up to 1325 g/h/m(2) ) compared to traditional evaporimeters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the Biox Aquaflux(®) to estimate sweat production during exercise. METHODS: Fourteen healthy subjects performed a 20-min cycle ergometer trial at respectively 55% heart rate (HRreserve and 75% HRreserve ...
June 8, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
Michael Inzlicht, Samuele M Marcora
Self-control is considered broadly important for many domains of life. One of its unfortunate features, however, is that it tends to wane over time, with little agreement about why this is the case. Recently, there has been a push to address this problem by looking to the literature in exercise physiology, specifically the work on the central governor model of physical fatigue. Trying to explain how and why mental performance wanes over time, the central governor model suggests that exertion is throttled by some central nervous system mechanism that receives information about energetic bodily needs and motivational drives to regulate exertion and, ultimately, to prevent homeostatic breakdown, chiefly energy depletion...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Brenno Cabella, Gustavo Henrique Frigieri Vilela, Sérgio Mascarenhas, Marek Czosnyka, Peter Smielewski, Celeste Dias, Danilo Augusto Cardim, Charles Chenwei Wang, Paulo Mascarenhas, Rodrigo Andrade, Koji Tanaka, Luiza Silva Lopes, Benedicto Oscar Colli
The search for a completely noninvasive intracranial pressure (ICPni) monitoring technique capable of real-time digitalized monitoring is the Holy Grail of brain research. If available, it may facilitate many fundamental questions within the range of ample applications in neurosurgery, neurosciences and translational medicine, from pharmaceutical clinical trials, exercise physiology, and space applications. In this work we compare invasive measurements with noninvasive measurements obtained using the proposed new noninvasive method...
2016: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Edward L Petsonk, Robert C Stansbury, Lu-Ann Beeckman-Wagner, Joshua L Long, Mei Lin Wang
RATIONALE: Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. METHODS: Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing...
July 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Thomas W Storer, Shalender Bhasin, Thomas G Travison, Karol Pencina, Renee Miciek, Jennifer McKinnon, Shehzad Basaria
CONTEXT: Testosterone increases skeletal muscle mass and strength, but the effects of testosterone on aerobic performance in mobility-limited older men have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of testosterone supplementation on aerobic performance, assessed as peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) and gas exchange lactate threshold (V̇O2θ), during symptom-limited incremental cycle ergometer exercise. DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of the Testosterone in Older Men with Mobility Limitations Trial...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
David C Poole, Mark Burnley, Anni Vanhatalo, Harry B Rossiter, Andrew M Jones
: The hyperbolic form of the power-duration relationship is rigorous and highly conserved across species, forms of exercise, and individual muscles/muscle groups. For modalities such as cycling, the relationship resolves to two parameters, the asymptote for power (critical power [CP]) and the so-called W' (work doable above CP), which together predict the tolerable duration of exercise above CP. Crucially, the CP concept integrates sentinel physiological profiles-respiratory, metabolic, and contractile-within a coherent framework that has great scientific and practical utility...
November 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Richard A Lafountain, Juliana Serafim da Silveira, Juliet Varghese, Georgeta Mihai, Debbie Scandling, Jason Craft, Carmen B Swain, Veronica Franco, Subha V Raman, Steven T Devor, Orlando P Simonetti
Maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]max) measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is the gold standard for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard for quantification of cardiac function. The combination of CPX and CMR may offer unique insights into cardiopulmonary pathophysiology; however, the MRI-compatible equipment needed to combine these tests has not been available to date. We sought to determine whether CPX testing in the MRI environment, using equipment modified for MRI yields results equivalent to those obtained in standard exercise physiology (EP) lab...
April 2016: Physiological Measurement
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