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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980345/exercise-physiology-and-nutritional-perspectives-of-elite-soccer-refereeing
#1
REVIEW
Kai Schenk, Mario Bizzini, Hannes Gatterer
Referees are an integral part of soccer and their performance is fundamental for regular match flow, irrespective of the competition level or age classes. So far, scientific interest was mainly limited to aspects of exercise physiology and match performance of soccer referees, whereas recommendations for nutrition were adopted from active professional soccer. In contrast to elite soccer players most referees are non-professional and engaged in different occupations. Furthermore, elite referees and soccer players differ in regard to age, body composition, aerobic capacity and training load...
October 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967843/children-s-aerobic-trainability-and-related-questions
#2
Raffy Dotan
In response to Armstrong's recent Special Topics review of "Top 10 Research Questions Related to Youth Aerobic Fitness," this commentary revisits some of the points raised, particularly in relation to the question of whether a child‒adult trainability difference does indeed exist. Discussed are the validity of much of the existing pediatric maximal oxygen consumption data upon which trainability conclusions are drawn, why differential trainability is likely a fact rather than a doubt, a reasoned novel approach to explaining the phenomenon, and how that explanation can bear upon and answer several of the other raised questions...
October 2, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925073/role-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-clinical-stratification-in-heart-failure-a-position-paper-from-the-committee-on-exercise-physiology-and-training-of-the-heart-failure-association-of-the-european-society-of-cardiology
#3
REVIEW
Ugo Corrà, Pier Giuseppe Agostoni, Stefan D Anker, Andrew J S Coats, Maria G Crespo Leiro, Rudolph A de Boer, Veli-Pekka Hairola, Loreena Hill, Mitja Lainscak, Lars H Lund, Marco Metra, Piotr Ponikowski, Jillian Riley, Petar M Seferović, Massimo F Piepoli
Traditionally, the main indication for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in heart failure (HF) was for the selection of candidates to heart transplantation: CPET was mainly performed in middle-aged male patients with HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Today, CPET is used in broader patients' populations, including women, elderly, patients with co-morbidities, those with preserved ejection fraction, or left ventricular assistance device recipients, i.e. individuals with different responses to incremental exercise and markedly different prognosis...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859409/the-ecology-of-exercise-mechanisms-underlying-individual-variation-in-behavior-activity-and-performance-an-introduction-to-symposium
#4
Shaun S Killen, Ryan Calsbeek, Tony D Williams
Wild animals often engage in intense physical activity while performing tasks vital for their survival and reproduction associated with foraging, avoiding predators, fighting, providing parental care, and migrating. In this theme issue we consider how viewing these tasks as "exercise"-analogous to that performed by human athletes-may help provide insight into the mechanisms underlying individual variation in these types of behaviors and the importance of physical activity in an ecological context. In this article and throughout this issue, we focus on four key questions relevant to the study of behavioral ecology that may be addressed by studying wild animal behavior from the perspective of exercise physiology: (1) How hard do individual animals work in response to ecological (or evolutionary) demands?; (2) Do lab-based studies of activity provide good models for understanding activity in free-living animals and individual variation in traits?; (3) Can animals work too hard during "routine" activities?; and (4) Can paradigms of "exercise" and "training" be applied to free-living animals? Attempts to address these issues are currently being facilitated by rapid technological developments associated with physiological measurements and the remote tracking of wild animals, to provide mechanistic insights into the behavior of free-ranging animals at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737585/biomarkers-in-sports-and-exercise-tracking-health-performance-and-recovery-in-athletes
#5
Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Stavros A Kavouras, Robin M Queen, John Luke Pryor, Douglas J Casa
Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs...
October 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683290/cry1-2-selectively-repress-ppar%C3%AE-and-limit-exercise-capacity
#6
Sabine D Jordan, Anna Kriebs, Megan Vaughan, Drew Duglan, Weiwei Fan, Emma Henriksson, Anne-Laure Huber, Stephanie J Papp, Madelena Nguyen, Megan Afetian, Michael Downes, Ruth T Yu, Anastasia Kralli, Ronald M Evans, Katja A Lamia
Cellular metabolite balance and mitochondrial function are under circadian control, but the pathways connecting the molecular clock to these functions are unclear. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) enables preferential utilization of lipids as fuel during exercise and is a major driver of exercise endurance. We show here that the circadian repressors CRY1 and CRY2 function as co-repressors for PPARδ. Cry1(-/-);Cry2(-/-) myotubes and muscles exhibit elevated expression of PPARδ target genes, particularly in the context of exercise...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654051/experimental-protocol-of-a-three-minute-all-out-arm-crank-exercise-test-in-spinal-cord-injured-and-able-bodied-individuals
#7
Joelle L Flueck
Reliable exercise protocols are required to test changes in exercise performance in elite athletes. Performance improvements in these athletes may be small; therefore, sensitive tools are fundamental to exercise physiology. There are currently many exercise tests that allow for the examination of exercise capacity in able-bodied athletes, with protocols mainly for lower-body or whole-body exercise. There is a trend to test athletes in a sport-specific setting that closely resembles the actions that the participants are used to performing...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630575/acute-and-post-exercise-physiological-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-in-endurance-and-sprint-athletes
#8
Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann
The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE)...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474874/poincar%C3%A3-plot-analysis-of-ultra-short-term-heart-rate-variability-during-recovery-from-exercise-in-physically-active-men
#9
Rayana L Gomes, Luiz C Marques Vanderlei, David M Garner, Milana D Ramos Santana, Luiz C de Abreu, Vitor E Valenti
BACKGROUND: Recently there has been increasing interest in the study of ultra-short- term heart rate variability (HRV) in sports performance and exercise physiology. In order to improve standardization of this specific analysis, we evaluated the ultra-short-term HRV analysis through SD1Poincaré index to identify exercise induced responses. METHODS: We investigated 35 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years old. Volunteers performed physical exercise on treadmill with intensity of 6...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467920/the-limits-of-exercise-physiology-from-performance-to-health
#10
REVIEW
Brendan M Gabriel, Juleen R Zierath
Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have been informed by studying highly trained athletes, in addition to healthy or unhealthy people. Recent progress has been made in regard to skeletal muscle metabolism and personalized exercise regimes. In this perspective, we review some of the historical milestones of exercise physiology, discuss how these inform contemporary knowledge, and speculate on future questions...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424267/using-a-novel-data-resource-to-explore-heart-rate-during-mountain-and-road-running
#11
Andrew Best, Barry Braun
Online, accessible performance and heart rate data from running competitions are posted publicly or semi-publicly to social media. We tested the efficacy of one such data resource- Strava- as a tool in exercise physiology investigations by exploring heart rate differences in mountain racing and road racing running events. Heart rate and GPS pace data were gathered from Strava activities posted by 111 males aged 21-49, from two mountain races (Mt. Washington Road Race and Pike's Peak Ascent) and two road race distances (half marathon and marathon)...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400701/studies-on-the-exercise-physiology-of-draft-horses-performed-in-japan-during-the-1950s-and-1960s
#12
Atsushi Hiraga, Shigeru Sugano
Although the total number of horses raised in Japan dramatically decreased after World War II, because draft horses were still used for farm work in paddy fields and on farms during the period of the 1950s and 1960s, a performance test for selecting better draft horses was needed. In order to determine the most suitable size of draft horses for Japanese farm conditions, the working power of horses weighing from 185 to 622 kg was evaluated by performing an endurance test, several kinds of working power tests, and maximum pulling power tests...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288203/the-effects-of-menstrual-cycle-phase-on-physical-performance-in-female-soccer-players
#13
Ross Julian, Anne Hecksteden, Hugh H K Fullagar, Tim Meyer
BACKGROUND: Female soccer has grown extensively in recent years, however differences in gender-specific physiology have rarely been considered. The female reproductive hormones which rise and fall throughout the menstrual cycle, are known to affect numerous cardiovascular, respiratory, thermoregulatory and metabolic parameters, which in turn, may have implications on exercise physiology and soccer performance. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate potential effects of menstrual cycle phase on performance in soccer specific tests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282326/effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-endurance-performance-in-the-heat
#14
Jeroen VAN Cutsem, Kevin DE Pauw, Luk Buyse, Samuele Marcora, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
PURPOSE: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity and has been observed to decrease time trial (TT) endurance performance by ∼3.5% in normal ambient temperatures. Recently, it has been suggested that heat may augment the negative effect of mental fatigue on cognitive performance, raising the question whether it may also amplify the effect of mental fatigue on TT performance. METHODS: In 30°C and 30% relative humidity, 10 endurance-trained male athletes (mean ± SD; age = 22 ± 3 yr, Wmax = 332 ± 41 W) completed two experimental conditions: intervention (I; 45-min Stroop task) and control (C; 45-min documentary)...
August 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270724/exercise-for-people-with-cancer-a-clinical-practice-guideline
#15
R Segal, C Zwaal, E Green, J R Tomasone, A Loblaw, T Petrella
BACKGROUND: Development of this guideline was undertaken by the Exercise for People with Cancer Guideline Development Group, a group organized by Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care (pebc). The purpose of the guideline was to provide guidance for clinicians with respect to exercise for patients living with cancer, focusing on the benefits of specific types of exercise, recommendations about screening requirements for new referrals, and safety concerns. METHODS: Consistent with the pebc's standardized approach, a systematic search was conducted for existing guidelines, and systematic literature searches were performed in medline and embase for both systematic reviews and primary literature...
February 2017: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188199/back-to-the-future-revisiting-the-physiological-cost-of-negative-work-as-a-team-based-activity-for-exercise-physiology-students
#16
Matthew A Kilgas, Steven J Elmer
We implemented a team-based activity in our exercise physiology teaching laboratory that was inspired from Abbott et al.'s classic 1952 Journal of Physiology paper titled "The physiological cost of negative work." Abbott et al. connected two bicycles via one chain. One person cycled forward (muscle shortening contractions, positive work) while the other resisted the reverse moving pedals (muscle lengthening contractions, negative work), and the cost of work was compared. This study was the first to link human whole body energetics with isolated muscle force-velocity characteristics...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140625/ncaa-football-off-season-training-unanswered-prayers%C3%A2-a-prayer-answered
#17
Scott Anderson
Off-season training in year-round collegiate football is purported to be performance enhancing. Absent principles of exercise physiology, excesses in sport-training regimens pose risk to the participant athletes. Since 2000, 33 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players have died in sport: 27 nontraumatic deaths and 6 traumatic deaths, a ratio of 4.5 nontraumatic deaths for every traumatic death. On average, 2 NCAA football players die per season. Best practices, consensus guidelines, and precautions are ignored, elevating the risk...
February 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006436/professor-bengt-saltin-symposium-environmental-challenges-to-human-performance
#18
REVIEW
Philip N Ainslie
This short review is from a presentation made at the Bengt Saltin Symposium, October 15-17, at the 2015 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology conference, Hamilton, Canada. The review provides context of the important work of the late Dr. Saltin's contributions to environmental physiology. In addition to well-controlled laboratory experiments to better understand the influence of hypoxia or temperature, or both, Dr. Saltin also led several field expeditions to the North Greenland, Kenya, Himalayas, and the Andes, where he studied several aspects of human adaptation to environment...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006435/linking-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow-and-metabolism-to-the-limits-of-human-performance
#19
REVIEW
Robert Boushel
Over the last 50 years, Bengt Saltin's contributions to our understanding of physiology of the circulation, the matching of the circulation to muscle metabolism, and the underlying mechanisms that set the limits for exercise performance were enormous. His research addressed the key questions in the field using sophisticated experimental methods including field expeditions. From the Dallas Bedrest Study to the 1-leg knee model to the physiology of lifelong training, his prodigious body of work was foundational in the field of exercise physiology and his leadership propelled integrative human physiology into the mainstream of biological sciences...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974872/studies-on-exercise-physiology-and-performance-testing-of-racehorses-performed-in-japan-during-the-1930s-using-recovery-rate-as-an-index
#20
Atsushi Hiraga, Shigeru Sugano
The history of research on the exercise physiology of racehorses in Japan dates back to the 1930s. A research report entitled "Studies on exercise physiology and performance testing of the racehorse", published in 1933 by Shigeo Matsuba and Torao Shimamura of The University of Tokyo, was epoch-making and the most important study in the history of equine exercise physiology in Japan. Research results were reported from 92 Thoroughbred racehorses in a large-scale project during the period of 1928 to 1932 at the Shimofusa Imperial Farm and the Koiwai Farm, which were the two greatest racehorse farms at that time...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
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