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"Physical exercise" and "performance"

Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Gustav Kuhn, Nicholas Gant
Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling...
2016: PloS One
M Schapschröer, S Lemez, J Baker, J Schorer
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have considered the impact of physical exercise on perceptual-cognitive performance. There have also been a substantial number of studies that have examined how perceptual-cognitive skills differ between elite athletes and non-athletes. However, the knowledge on how physical exercise interacts with perceptual-cognitive skill is limited. This systematic review aims to provide detailed information on how athletes' perceptual-cognitive performance is influenced by acute physical exercise load and whether these effects differ between elite athletes and lesser skilled groups...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Jean-Guillaume Meusnier, Charles Dewar, Erti Mavrovi, Frederic Caremil, Pierre-Francois Wey, Jean-Yves Martinez
BACKGROUND: Junctional hemorrhage (i.e., between the trunk and limbs) are too proximal for a tourniquet and difficult to compress. These hemorrhages are responsible for 20% of preventable deaths by bleeding on the battlefield. The majority of these involve the groin area. Devices allowing a proximal compression for arterial axes have been recently developed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the use of two junctional- tourniquet models, the Combat Ready Clamp (CRoC®) and the SAM® Junctional Tourniquet (SJT), in simulated out-of-hospital trauma care when tourniquets were ineffective to stop the arterial flow...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Markus Sack, Jenny N Lenz, Mira Jakovcevski, Sarah V Biedermann, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza, Jan Deussing, Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Frederik Pfister, Günter K Stalla, Alexander Sartorius, Peter Gass, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Johannes Fuss, Matthias K Auer
Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Half of the mice performed voluntary wheel running to study if regular physical exercise prevents unfavorable effects of a cafeteria-diet...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Paul Scully, Orlaith Reid, Alan P Macken, Mark Healy, Jean Saunders, Des Leddin, Walter Cullen, Colum P Dunne, Clodagh S O'Gorman
BACKGROUND: Television watching is obesogenic due to its sedentary nature and programming content, which influences children. Few studies have examined exercise placement within children-specific programming. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and type of exercise placement in children-specific television broadcasts and to compare placements on the UK and Irish television channels. METHODS: Content analysis for five weekdays' worth of children-specific television broadcasting totaling 82...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
K I Braam, E M van Dijk-Lokkart, J M van Dongen, R R L van Litsenburg, T Takken, J Huisman, J H M Merks, J E Bosmans, N A G Hakkenbrak, M B Bierings, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M A Veening, E van Dulmen-den Broeder, G J L Kaspers
This study was performed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention for children with cancer compared with usual care. Sixty-eight children, aged 8-18 years old, during or within the first year post-cancer treatment were randomised to the intervention (n = 30) and control group (n = 38). Health outcomes included fitness, muscle strength and quality adjusted life years; all administered at baseline, 4- and 12-month follow-up. Costs were gathered by 1 monthly cost questionnaires over 12 months, supplemented by medication data obtained from pharmacies...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Shaiane Silva Tomazoni, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior, Rodney Capp Pallotta, Simone Teixeira, Patricia de Almeida, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão Lopes-Martins
Osteoarthritis (OA) triggers increased levels of inflammatory markers, including prostaglandin (PG) E2 and proinflammatory cytokines. The elevation of cytokine levels is closely associated with increased articular tissue degeneration. Thus, the use of combination therapies may presumably be able to enhance the effects on the modulation of inflammatory markers. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), physical exercise, and topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use on the inflammatory process after they were applied either alone or in different combinations...
October 10, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Bădicu Georgian, Balint Lorand
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to present a methodology based on a questionnaire focused on social health, our study aims at highlighting, in a declarative and comparative manner, the development of social relationships between individuals, more or less for both adults who perform leisure sports activities and for those who do not practice. METHODS: The study was conducted between October 2012, March 2013 on a sample of 500 adults, who responded to a survey questionnaire, of whom 318 individuals perform leisure sports activities and 182 do not perform this kind of activities...
2016: SpringerPlus
Louisiana Carolina Ferreira de Meireles, Karine Bertoldi, Laura Reck Cechinel, Bruna Luisa Schallenberger, Vanessa Kappel da Silva, Nadja Schröder, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira
Physical exercise and the aging process have been shown to induce opposite effects on epigenetic marks, such as histone acetylation. The impact of exercise on hippocampal histone acetylation on specific lysine residues, especially during the aging process, is rarely studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise (20min/day during 2 weeks) on H3K9, H4K5 and H4K12 acetylation levels in hippocampi of young adult and aged rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3 or 20-21 months were assigned to sedentary and exercise groups...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Marcele Stephanie de Souza Buto, Verena de Vassimon Barroso Carmelo, Ana Claudia Silva Farche, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros Takahashi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the addition of a dual task to multicomponent training on cognition of active older adults. Eighty physically active older adults were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). Both groups performed multicomponent training over 12 weeks. The IG simultaneously performed exercises and cognitive tasks. The Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Clock Drawing Test were used for cognitive assessments...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Il-Young Kim, Sanghee Park, Ting-Heng Chou, Justin R Trombold, Edward F Coyle
The interaction of prolonged sitting with physical exercise for maintaining health is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that prolonged siting would have a deleterious effect on postprandial plasma lipemia (PPL, postprandial plasma triglycerides) and abolish the ability of an acute exercise bout to attenuate PPL. Seven healthy young men performed three interventions over 5 days (D1-5) in a randomized crossover design with > 1 week between interventions: 1) sitting >14h/d with hypercaloric energy balance (SH), 2) sitting >14h/d with net energy balance (SB), and 3) active walking/standing with net energy balance (WB) and sitting 8...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Nicolas Berryman, Sarah A Fraser, Thien Tuong Minh Vu, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Karen Zh Li, Laurent Bosquet, Louis Bherer
PURPOSE: Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
B Schmitz, L Thorwesten, M Lenders, T Duning, J Stypmann, E Brand, S-M Brand
The aim of this study was to assess the extent of exercise intolerance in Fabry disease (FD) patients and to report individual effects of physical exercise. Exercise capacity and strength of 14 patients (mean age 46 years, 6 females) were determined using cycle ergometry and isokinetic measurements. Patients performed a strength/circuit exercise training protocol for 12 months. The mean relative maximum performance of the group was low at baseline and increased by 12.1% (baseline: 1.9 [0.9-3.4] W·kg(-1) vs...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
András Terebessy, Melinda Matyasovszky, Ferenc Horváth, Áron Horosz, Irén Juhász, Zsuzsa Győrffy
INTRODUCTION: The health status of doctors, nurses and any other professionals working in the healthcare sector influences the quality of their work. Therefore, health promotion of healthcare workers is not only an occupational health program but it can be considered as an action towards improving the quality of care. AIM: The current study was designed to assess the efficacy of a health promotion intervention among healthcare workers after health status assessment...
September 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Luis V Portela, Andressa W Brochier, Clarissa B Haas, Afonso Kopczynski de Carvalho, Jussania A Gnoato, Eduardo R Zimmer, Eduardo Kalinine, Luc Pellerin, Alexandre P Muller
Hyperpalatable diets (HP) impair brain metabolism, and regular physical exercise has an apparent opposite effect. Here, we combined a prior long-term exposure to HP diet followed by physical exercise and evaluated the impact on some neuroenergetic components and on cognitive performance. We assessed the extracellular lactate concentration, expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and mitochondrial function in the hippocampus. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed 4 months with HP or a control diet...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Anna C Furmaniak, Matthias Menig, Martina H Markes
BACKGROUND: A huge clinical research database on adjuvant cancer treatment has verified improvements in breast cancer outcomes such as recurrence and mortality rates. On the other hand, adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy impacts on quality of life due to substantial short- and long-term side effects. A number of studies have evaluated the effect of exercise interventions on those side effects. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2006...
September 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hannah Loher, Roland Kreis, Chris Boesch, Emanuel Christ
In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
T Pincez, L Calamy, Z Germont, A Lemoine, A-A Lopes, A Massiot, J Tencer, C Thivent, A Hadchouel
Acute and chronic pulmonary complications are frequent in sickle cell disease (SCD), with different spectrum and characteristics in children and adults. Chronic hypoxia is frequent and plays a role in several respiratory complications in SCD. Furthermore, hypoxia has been associated with a higher risk of cerebral ischemia. Despite differing oxygen affinity between hemoglobin A and S, standard pulse oximetry was shown to be accurate in diagnosing hypoxia in SCD patients. Whereas acute hypoxia management is similar to non-SCD patients, chronic hypoxia treatment is mainly based on a transfusion program rather than long-term oxygen therapy...
October 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Albertas Skurvydas, Gediminas Mamkus, Sigitas Kamandulis, Vilma Dudoniene, Dovile Valanciene, Håkan Westerblad
PURPOSE: Force production frequently remains depressed for several hours or even days after various types of strenuous physical exercise. We hypothesized that the pattern of force changes during the first hour after exercise can be used to reveal muscular mechanisms likely to underlie the decline in muscle performance during exercise as well as factors involved in the triggering the prolonged force depression after exercise. METHODS: Nine groups of recreationally active male volunteers performed one of the following types of exercise: single prolonged or repeated short maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs); single or repeated all-out cycling bouts; repeated drop jumps...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Gidugu Himashree, Latika Mohan, Yogesh Singh
UNLABELLED: Context • High altitude (HA) is a psychophysiological stressor for natives of lower altitudes. Reducing the morbidity and optimizing the performance of individuals deployed in an HA region has been attempted and reported with varied results. Objective • The present study intended to explore the effects of comprehensive yogic practices on the health and performance of Indian soldiers deployed at HAs. Design • The research team designed a prospective, randomized, case-control study...
September 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
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