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Altitude training

Grégoire P Millet, Franck Brocherie, Raphael Faiss, Olivier Girard
The authors report that many LHTL studies in normobaric hypoxia (NH) "failed to show a positive outcome", which in our view is only partially true. In a cross-over design, we (Saugy et al. 2016) recently tested if LHTL in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) would lead to larger performance enhancement than in NH. Our hypothesis was that HH (i.e. natural altitude) would lead to larger enhancement than NH but the results were contrary to this hypothesis. So we cannot support the affirmation by Lundby & Robach that "natural altitude remains the best approach"...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y Robertson, Philo U Saunders, Kevin G Thompson
PURPOSE: This investigation sought to determine the effect of training at 2100 metres natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. METHODS: In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD; Age, 25 ± 5 years; VO2 max, 71 ± 5 completed either 4-6 weeks of sea-level training (CON, n = 7), or a 4-5 week natural altitude training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) following a period of sea-level training...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Alex J Wadley, Ida S Svendsen, Michael Gleeson
Altitude exposure can exaggerate the transient increase in markers of oxidative stress observed following acute exercise. However, these responses have not been monitored in endurance-trained cyclists at altitudes typically experienced whilst training. Endurance trained males (n=12; mean (±SD) age: 28 ± 4 years, V̇O2max 63.7 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min) undertook two 75-min exercise trials at 70% relative V̇O2max; once in normoxia and once in hypobaric hypoxia, equivalent to 2000m above sea level (hypoxia). Blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 2 h post-exercise to assess plasma parameters of oxidative stress (protein carbonylation (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase activity (CAT))...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Ankit B Shah, Neil Coplan
Altitude plays an important role in cardiovascular performance and training for athletes. Whether it is mountaineers, skiers, or sea-level athletes trying to gain an edge by training or living at increased altitude, there are many potential benefits and harms of such endeavors. Echocardiographic studies done on athletes at increased altitude have shown evidence for right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, but no change in left ventricular ejection fraction. In addition, 10% of athletes are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension and high-altitude pulmonary edema...
2016: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
Samuel Helfer, Joseph Quackenbush, Michael Fletcher, David R Pendergast
BACKGROUND: Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Gidugu Himashree, Latika Mohan, Yogesh Singh
UNLABELLED: Context • High altitude (HA) is a psychophysiological stressor for natives of lower altitudes. Reducing the morbidity and optimizing the performance of individuals deployed in an HA region has been attempted and reported with varied results. Objective • The present study intended to explore the effects of comprehensive yogic practices on the health and performance of Indian soldiers deployed at HAs. Design • The research team designed a prospective, randomized, case-control study...
September 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Juan Carlos Vázquez-García, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Alejandro Casas, Patricia Schönffeldt-Guerrero, Jonatan Pereira, Claudia Vargas-Domínguez, Mónica Velázquez-Uncal, David Martínez-Briseño, Luis Torre-Bouscoulet, Laura Gochicoa-Rangel
BACKGROUND: The lung diffusion capacity (DLCO) determined by the single-breath technique greatly helps in the differential diagnosis and classification of severity of common lung diseases. However, widespread use of single-breath DLCO tests in Latin America has been limited, in part, by the lack of appropriate reference values. Our objective was to derive robust reference equations for single-breath DLCO from healthy Hispanic adults, using the most recent guidelines and taking into account altitude above sea level and hemoglobin...
September 2016: Respiratory Care
Anne-Fleur Gaston, Fabienne Durand, Emma Roca, Grégory Doucende, Ilona Hapkova, Enric Subirats
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH) developed at sea-level on exercise responses at moderate acute altitude. METHODS: Twenty three subjects divided in three groups of individuals: highly trained with EIH (n = 7); highly trained without EIH (n = 8) and untrained participants (n = 8) performed two maximal incremental tests at sea-level and at 2,150 m. Haemoglobin O2 saturation (SpO2), heart rate, oxygen uptake (VO2) and several ventilatory parameters were measured continuously during the tests...
2016: PloS One
Anil S Menon, David Jourdan, Derek M Nusbaum, Alejandro Garbino, Daniel M Buckland, Sean Norton, Johnathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
The StratEx program used a self-contained space suit and balloon system to loft pilot Alan Eustace to a record-breaking altitude and skydive from 135,897 feet (41,422 m). After releasing from the balloon and a stabilized freefall, the pilot safely landed using a parachute system based on a modified tandem parachute rig. A custom spacesuit provided life support using a similar system to NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Washington, DC USA) Extravehicular Mobility Unit. It also provided tracking, communications, and connection to the parachute system...
October 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Oliver Michael Shannon, Lauren Duckworth, Matthew John Barlow, David Woods, Jose Lara, Mario Siervo, John Paul O'Hara
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BRJ) increases plasma nitrite concentrations, lowers the oxygen cost (V⋅O2) of steady-state exercise and improves exercise performance in sedentary and moderately-trained, but rarely in well-trained individuals exercising at sea-level. BRJ supplementation may be more effective in a hypoxic environment, where the reduction of nitrite into nitric oxide (NO) is potentiated, such that well-trained and less well-trained individuals may derive a similar ergogenic effect. We conducted a randomised, counterbalanced, double-blind placebo controlled trial to determine the effects of BRJ on treadmill running performance in moderate normobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 2500 m altitude) in participants with a range of aerobic fitness levels...
September 30, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Gisselle Yang Xie, Deanna H Olson, Andrew R Blaustein
Projected changes in climate conditions are emerging as significant risk factors to numerous species, affecting habitat conditions and community interactions. Projections suggest species range shifts in response to climate change modifying environmental suitability and is supported by observational evidence. Both pathogens and their hosts can shift ranges with climate change. We consider how climate change may influence the distribution of the emerging infectious amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen associated with worldwide amphibian population losses...
2016: PloS One
Amador García-Ramos, Igor Štirn, Paulino Padial, Javier Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Blanca De la Fuente, Carmen Calderón, Juan Bonitch-Góngora, Katja Tomazin, Boro Strumbelj, Vojko Strojnik, Belén Feriche
This study evaluated the influence of an altitude training (AT) camp on swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance. To accomplish this goal, 13 international swimmers (8 women, 5 men) were allocated to both the control (Sea Level Training, SLT) and experimental conditions (AT, 2320 m above sea level) that were separated by a one year period. All tests (15 m freestyle swimming start and loaded squat jumps with additional loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of swimmers' body weight) were performed before and after a concurrent 3-week strength and endurance training program prescribed by the national coach...
2016: PloS One
Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias, Tomás Freitas, Arturo Camacho, José Fernando Jiménez-Diaz, Pedro E Alcaraz
The aim of this study was to analyze physical performance and physiological variables during High-Intensity Resistance Circuit Training (HRC) with the addition of two levels (moderate and high) of systemic hypoxia. Twelve resistance-trained young male subjects participated in the study. After a 6RM testing session, participants performed three randomized trials of HRC: normoxia (NORM: FiO2=0.21; ∼0 m altitude), moderate hypoxia (MH: FiO2=0.16; ∼2.100 m altitude) or high hypoxia (HH: FiO2=0.13; ∼3.800 m altitude), as controlled by a hypoxic generator...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Amy L Woods, Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Philo Saunders, Tony Rice, Kevin G Thompson
High altitude exposure can increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) and induce weight loss in obese populations, but there is a lack of research regarding RMR in athletes at moderate elevations common to endurance training camps. The present study aimed to determine whether four weeks of classical altitude training affects RMR in middle-distance runners. Ten highly-trained athletes were recruited for four weeks of endurance training undertaking identical programs at either 2200m in Flagstaff, Arizona (ALT, n=5) or 600m in Canberra, Australia (CON, n=5)...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Jonas J Saugy, Laurent Schmitt, Sibylle Fallet, Raphael Faiss, Jean-Marc Vesin, Mattia Bertschi, Raphaël Heinzer, Grégoire P Millet
Saugy, Jonas J., Laurent Schmitt, Sibylle Fallet, Raphael Faiss, Jean-Marc Vesin, Mattia Bertschi, Raphaël Heinzer, and Grégoire P. Millet. Sleep disordered breathing during live high-train low in normobaric versus hypobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2016.-The present study aimed to compare sleep disordered breathing during live high-train low (LHTL) altitude camp using normobaric hypoxia (NH) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH). Sixteen highly trained triathletes completed two 18-day LHTL camps in a crossover designed study...
July 13, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Andrew M Jones, Paul C Mann, Greg J Daw, Greg J Daw, Phillip B Watts, Randall L Jensen, Scott N Drum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Billy Sperlich, Silvia Achtzehn, Markus de Marées, Henning von Papen, Joachim Mester
There is a debate on the optimal way of monitoring training loads in elite endurance athletes especially during altitude training camps. In this case report, including nine members of the German national middle distance running team, we describe a practical approach to monitor the psychobiological stress markers during 21 days of altitude training (~2100 m above sea-level) to estimate the training load and to control muscle damage, fatigue, and/or chronic overreaching. Daily examination included: oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, resting heart rate, body mass, body and sleep perception, capillary blood concentration of creatine kinase...
June 2016: Physiological Reports
Jon Peter Wehrlin, Bernard Marti, Jostein Hallén
Fore more than a decade, the live high-train low (LHTL) approach, developed by Levine and Stray-Gundersen, has been widely used by elite endurance athletes. Originally, it was pointed out, that by living at moderate altitude, athletes should benefit from an increased red cell volume (RCV) and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), while the training at low altitudes should prevent the disadvantage of reduced training intensity at moderate altitude. VO2max is reduced linearly by about 6-8 % per 1000 m increasing altitude in elite athletes from sea level to 3000 m, with corresponding higher relative training intensities for the same absolute work load...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
O Shannon, M Barlow, L Duckworth, D R Woods, T Barker, A Grindrod, A Griffiths, J P O'Hara
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a pre-loaded 1 500-m treadmill time trial, conducted in moderate normobaric hypoxia. 8 trained runners/triathletes (24±3 years, 73.2±8.1 kg, 182.5±6.5 cm, altitude specific V˙O2max: 52.9±5.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed 3 trials (the first as a familiarisation), involving 2, 15-min running bouts at 45% and 65% V˙O2max, respectively, and a 1 500-m time trial in moderate normobaric hypoxia equivalent to a simulated altitude of 2 500 m (FiO2~15%)...
September 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Małgorzata Michalczyk, Miłosz Czuba, Grzegorz Zydek, Adam Zając, Józef Langfort
The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment...
2016: Nutrients
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