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psychology, neurology, neuropsychology, cognitive impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352145/neuropsychological-impact-of-west-nile-virus-infection-an-extensive-neuropsychiatric-assessment-of-49-cases-in-canada
#1
Zainab Samaan, Stephanie McDermid Vaz, Monica Bawor, Tammy Hlywka Potter, Sasha Eskandarian, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: West Nile virus emerged as an important human pathogen in North America and continues to pose a risk to public health. It can cause a highly variable range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe illness. Neuroinvasive disease due to West Nile virus can lead to long-term neurological deficits and psychological impairment. However, these deficits have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological manifestations of West Nile virus infection with a focus on neuroinvasive status and time since infection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26860741/digital-gaming-for-improving-the-functioning-of-people-with-traumatic-brain-injury-protocol-of-a-feasibility-study
#2
Maritta Välimäki, Jyrki Korkeila, Kaisa Kauppi, Johanna K Kaakinen, Suvi Holm, Jukka Vahlo, Olli Tenovuo, Heikki Hämäläinen, Jaana Sarajuuri, Pekka Rantanen, Tage Orenius, Aki Koponen
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health problem. The recovery process for people with TBI is typically slow and dependent on complex and intensive assisted rehabilitation programs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects and feasibility of digital games for cognitive functioning and general well-being among people with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: This is a single-site feasibility study conducted in Finland, which uses a pragmatic, randomized controlled trial with three arms, and will recruit patients from the Turku University Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences in Finland...
February 9, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26286440/neurocognitive-functions-and-brain-atrophy-after-proven-neuroborreliosis-a-case-control-study
#3
Holger Schmidt, Marija Djukic, Klaus Jung, Manfred Holzgraefe, Peter Dechent, Nicole von Steinbüchel, Joachim Blocher, Helmut Eiffert, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa
BACKGROUND: Patients often report neurocognitive difficulties after neuroborreliosis (NB). The frequency and extent of cognitive problems in European patients have been studied incompletely. METHODS: Sixty patients received a neurological and neuropsychological work-up 6 months or longer after treatment for proven NB. Quality of life, psychiatric symptom load, and brain atrophy were measured. All results were compared with a group of 30 healthy control persons adapted for age, gender and education being serologically negative for Borrelia burgdorferi senso latu...
2015: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25925692/diagnosis-of-cognitive-impairment-compatible-with-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-bayesian-network-model-based-on-the-analysis-of-oral-definitions-of-semantic-categories
#4
J M Guerrero, R Martínez-Tomás, M Rincón, H Peraita
BACKGROUND: Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become one of the principal focuses of research in medicine, particularly when the disease is incipient or even prodromic, because treatments are more effective in these stages. Lexical-semantic-conceptual deficit (LSCD) in the oral definitions of semantic categories for basic objects is an important early indicator in the evaluation of the cognitive state of patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research is to define an economic procedure for cognitive impairment (CI) diagnosis, which may be associated with early stages of AD, by analysing cognitive alterations affecting declarative semantic memory...
2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25686381/blissfully-unaware-anosognosia-and-anosodiaphoria-after-acquired-brain-injury
#5
Philip Gerard Gasquoine
Historically, anosognosia referred to under-report of striking symptoms of acquired brain injury (e.g., hemiplegia) with debilitating functional consequences and was linked with anosodiaphoria, an emotional reaction of indifference. It was later extended to include under-report of all manner of symptoms of acquired brain injury by the patient compared to clinicians, family members, or functional performance. Anosognosia is related to time since onset of brain injury but not consistently to demographic variables, lesion location (except that it is more common after unilateral right than left hemispheric injury), or specific neuropsychological test scores...
2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25496310/psychological-characteristics-of-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#6
J A Bertrand, S Jean, L Laberge, C Gagnon, J Mathieu, J F Gagnon, L Richer
OBJECTIVES: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common adult-onset muscular dystrophy. It is associated with motor symptoms but patients also display non-motor symptoms such as particular personality traits. Studies have reported mixed results about personality characteristics which may be attributable to small sample sizes, different disease severity of groups studied, and use of different questionnaires or method. This study aimed to describe the psychological characteristics of a large cohort of patients with DM1, to characterize those at risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, and to compare characteristics between two DM1 phenotypes, a mild and more severe adult-onset phenotype...
July 2015: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25100039/domain-specific-impairment-in-metacognitive-accuracy-following-anterior-prefrontal-lesions
#7
Stephen M Fleming, Jihye Ryu, John G Golfinos, Karen E Blackmon
Humans have the capacity to evaluate the success of cognitive processes, known as metacognition. Convergent evidence supports a role for anterior prefrontal cortex in metacognitive judgements of perceptual processes. However, it is unknown whether metacognition is a global phenomenon, with anterior prefrontal cortex supporting metacognition across domains, or whether it relies on domain-specific neural substrates. To address this question, we measured metacognitive accuracy in patients with lesions to anterior prefrontal cortex (n = 7) in two distinct domains, perception and memory, by assessing the correspondence between objective performance and subjective ratings of performance...
October 2014: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25050708/neuropsychological-outcome-after-complicated-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection
#8
Olga Simova, Gabriele Weineck, Thorsten Schuetze, Karl Wegscheider, Ulf Panzer, Rolf A K Stahl, Christian Gerloff, Tim Magnus
BACKGROUND: The diarrhea associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a major cause of acute uremic failure in children, but not very common in adults. The enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli-epidemic in Germany in 2011 affected mostly young and healthy adults. While their immediate deficits have been published, not much is known about the time course and degree of recovery concerning cognitive and behavioral impairment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty patients with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection and neurological symptoms underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment 3 months and 1 year after the acute disease...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24768250/an-exploratory-study-of-the-relationship-between-neurological-soft-signs-and-theory-of-mind-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#9
Stefano Romeo, Alessio Chiandetti, Alberto Siracusano, Alfonso Troisi
Indirect evidence suggests partially common pathogenetic mechanisms for Neurological Soft Signs (NSS), neurocognition, and social cognition in schizophrenia. However, the possible association between NSS and mentalizing impairments has not yet been examined. In the present study, we assessed the ability to attribute mental states to others in patients with schizophrenia and predicted that the presence of theory of mind deficits would be significantly related to NSS. Participants were 90 clinically stable patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia...
August 15, 2014: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24630532/-awareness-disorders-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
REVIEW
J-P Jacus, M-P Dupont, Y Herades, C Pelix, H Large, M Baud
INTRODUCTION: Awareness disorders in Alzheimer's disease still remains unclear despite much research regarding this phenomenon. Papers report various and contrasted results with varying frequency from one study to another. Hence, the interest in awareness in Alzheimer's disease remains limited. Nevertheless, this symptom is closely associated with caregivers' burden and increases the patient's dependency, since the patient is unable to avoid dangers, requiring some care services or institutionalization The purpose of this current review is to recall the main neuro-anatomical and theoretical basis of awareness disorders, and to highlight the recent findings in Alzheimer's disease and in its pre-clinical stages...
April 2014: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24561388/selective-preservation-of-the-beat-in-apperceptive-music-agnosia-a-case-study
#11
Amee D Baird, David G Walker, Vivien Biggs, Gail A Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Music perception involves processing of melodic, temporal and emotional dimensions that have been found to dissociate in healthy individuals and after brain injury. Two components of the temporal dimension have been distinguished, namely rhythm and metre. We describe an 18 year old male musician 'JM' who showed apperceptive music agnosia with selectively preserved metre perception, and impaired recognition of sad and peaceful music relative to age and music experience matched controls after resection of a right temporoparietal tumour...
April 2014: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24487439/specificity-of-cognitive-impairment-in-neurological-disease-a-methodological-critique-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
H J Sagar
Multiple cognitive deficits have been recognized in many neurological disorders but the specificity of the findings and the relationship to the underlying neuropathology remain obscure. Definitions of dementia have been proposed based on symptom profiles of the cognitive disorder and qualitative differences have been claimed between dementias of different aetiology. Some conditions have been claimed to show patterns of cognitive deficit that are distinguished from dementia and related to specific neuropathology or psychological processes, e...
1991: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24392726/an-integrative-view-of-luria-s-perspective-on-arithmetic-problem-solving-the-two-sides-of-environmental-dependency
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jérémy Besnard, Philippe Allain, Ghislaine Aubin, Valérie Chauviré, Frédérique Etcharry-Bouyx, Didier Le Gall
INTRODUCTION: A. R. Luria was the first author to hypothesize that executive dysfunction can lead to specific deficits in arithmetic problem solving, showing that patients' performance depends on the structure of the tasks. Cummings (1995. Anatomic and behavioral aspects of frontal-subcortical circuits. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 15, 1-13) proposed the term "environmental dependency" to define such behavioral disorders triggered by the characteristics of the test and pointed out also the role of executive impairments...
2014: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24219384/sexual-dysfunction-in-male-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-need-for-counseling
#14
REVIEW
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Rosaria De Luca, Valeria Conti-Nibali, Simone Reitano, Antonino Leo, Placido Bramanti
Sexuality and sexual health are significant factors in determining the quality of life (QoL). Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most serious causes of neurological disability in young adults, therefore it can considerably reduce sexuality. Physical and cognitive symptoms of MS as well as mental and psycho-social issues can directly affect sexual life and body representation, causing reduced libido and self-esteem. Male patients with MS frequently develop sexual dysfunction (SD) as a result of their neurological impairment: in fact physical, psychological and neuropsychological changes indirectly interfere in the sexual response...
August 2014: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24194057/-cognitive-deficits-and-dementia-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-status-quo-and-open-questions
#15
REVIEW
S Wegener, I Marx, U K Zettl
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic immune-mediated disease which goes along with serious somatic and psychic symptoms. Whereas recent research rather focussed on the neurological symptoms of MS, there is nowadays an increasing interest among researchers in psychological symptoms of the disease. It is known that about half of the MS patients suffer from cognitive deficits, and that cognitive decline has a disadvantageous impact on lifestyle and quality of life in affected persons. So far, cognitive deficits in subjects with MS have been described as rather isolated, specific cognitive disturbances with otherwise intact intellectual abilities, while global deterioration of mental skills in terms of dementia is considered as being rather rare...
November 2013: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24191968/susceptibility-of-the-mmpi-2-rf-neurological-complaints-and-cognitive-complaints-scales-to-over-reporting-in-simulated-head-injury
#16
Elizabeth Bolinger, Caitlin Reese, Julie Suhr, Glenn J Larrabee
We examined the effect of simulated head injury on scores on the Neurological Complaints (NUC) and Cognitive Complaints (COG) scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Young adults with a history of mild head injury were randomly assigned to simulate head injury or give their best effort on a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the MMPI-2-RF. Simulators who also showed poor effort on performance validity tests (PVTs) were compared with controls who showed valid performance on PVTs...
February 2014: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24094297/clinical-evaluation-of-early-cognitive-symptoms
#17
REVIEW
J Riley McCarten
The etiology of cognitive impairment in older adults is almost always a clinical diagnosis without definitive biomarkers. The clinical evaluation, therefore, is indispensable. Evaluating cognitive symptoms requires a deliberate approach to define the onset, course, and nature of symptoms. An informant who knows the patient well is essential. The physician must have a working knowledge of the basics of cognitive function. The neurologic examination also is fundamental to defining the origin of cognitive impairment...
November 2013: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24087909/can-computerized-working-memory-training-improve-impaired-working-memory-cognition-and-psychological-health
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Elisabeth Akerlund, Eva Esbjörnsson, Katharina S Sunnerhagen, Ann Björkdahl
OBJECTIVE: To study if computerized working memory (WM) training, in the sub-acute phase after acquired brain injury, in patients with impaired WM, improves WM, cognition and psychological health. RESEARCH DESIGN: A randomized study (n = 47) with an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG), mean age 47.7 years. The WAIS-III NI, Digit span, Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequences (Working Memory sub-scale), Spatial span, the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS) and the self-rating scales DEX and HADS were administered at baseline and at follow-ups at 6 and 18 weeks...
2013: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24070495/episodic-future-thinking-in-children-compared-to-adolescents
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Chloe Gott, Suncica Lah
Episodic thinking involves the ability to re-create past and to construct future personal events, which contain event-specific (episodic) and general (semantic) details. The richness of episodic thought for past events improves as children move into adolescence. The current study aims to examine changes in episodic future thinking and to establish the cognitive underpinning of these changes. Typically developing children (n = 14) and adolescents (n = 15) were tested using an adapted version of the Child Autobiographical Interview (CAI) that required generation of past and future personally relevant events...
2014: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24051015/working-memory-and-default-mode-network-abnormalities-in-unaffected-siblings-of-schizophrenia-patients
#20
Max de Leeuw, René S Kahn, Bram B Zandbelt, Christian G Widschwendter, Matthijs Vink
BACKGROUND: Impaired working memory (WM) is a hallmark of schizophrenia. In addition to classical WM regions such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the striatum, dysfunctions in the default-mode network (DMN) contribute to these WM deficits. Unaffected siblings of patients also show WM impairments. However, the nature of the functional deficits underlying these impairments is unclear, mainly because of impaired performance confounding neuroimaging results. METHODS: Here, we investigated WM and DMN activity in 23 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy volunteers using fMRI and a Sternberg WM task...
November 2013: Schizophrenia Research
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