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psychology, neurology, neuropsychology, cognitive impairment

Francesco Corallo, Viviana Lo Buono, Marcella Di Cara, Simona De Salvo, Giuliana Vermiglio, Patrizia Pollicino, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino, Carmela Rifici
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, that implies neurobiologic, psychological, and social consequences. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an electro-clinical state associated to altered level of consciousness. In NCSE could occur the behavioural and emotional disorder, cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorder with a negative impact on quality of life and adaptive social behaviours. Cognitive rehabilitation for epileptic patients may include internal compensation strategies, external memory aids, psychoeducation, verbal and visual memory training, attention exercise and executive functions...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Viviana Lo Buono, Lilla Bonanno, Rosanna Palmeri, Francesco Corallo, Sergio Parisi, Antonia Trinchera, Edoardo Sessa, Patrizia Pollicino, Bruno Galletti, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric disorders are commonly observed in patients following a stroke. Among 30%-60% of poststroke patients suffer from depression and anxiety (18%-25%). Some authors suggest an association between psychological symptoms and lesions in specific brain areas. In particular, lesions in left frontal cortex and left basal ganglia are frequently associated with poststroke depression and with comorbidity of anxiety and depression, whereas isolated anxiety symptoms are frequently observed after right hemispheric lesions...
May 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Teresa Costabile, Veronica Capretti, Filomena Abate, Agnese Liguori, Francesca Paciello, Chiara Pane, Anna De Rosa, Silvio Peluso, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Francesco Saccà
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease presenting with ataxia, corticospinal signs, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac abnormalities. Little effort has been made to understand the psychological and emotional burden of the disease. The aim of our study was to measure patients' ability to recognize emotions using visual and non-verbal auditory hints, and to correlate this ability with psychological, neuropsychological, and neurological variables. We included 20 patients with FRDA, and 20 age, sex, and education matched healthy controls (HC)...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
Juan Manuel Orjuela-Rojas, Gustavo Adolfo Barrios Vincos, Melisa Alejandra Martínez Gallego
Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Sabrina Cipolletta, Giorgia Rosamaria Gammino, Arianna Palmieri
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify illness trajectories in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by analysing personal, social and functional dimensions related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have considered some psychological distinct variables that may moderate illness progression, but no research has combined an extensive qualitative understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients' psychological characteristics and illness progression...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Christopher A Lane, Thomas D Parker, Dave M Cash, Kirsty Macpherson, Elizabeth Donnachie, Heidi Murray-Smith, Anna Barnes, Suzie Barker, Daniel G Beasley, Jose Bras, David Brown, Ninon Burgos, Michelle Byford, M Jorge Cardoso, Ana Carvalho, Jessica Collins, Enrico De Vita, John C Dickson, Norah Epie, Miklos Espak, Susie M D Henley, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Michael Hutel, Jana Klimova, Ian B Malone, Pawel Markiewicz, Andrew Melbourne, Marc Modat, Anette Schrag, Sachit Shah, Nikhil Sharma, Carole H Sudre, David L Thomas, Andrew Wong, Hui Zhang, John Hardy, Henrik Zetterberg, Sebastien Ourselin, Sebastian J Crutch, Diana Kuh, Marcus Richards, Nick C Fox, Jonathan M Schott
BACKGROUND: Increasing age is the biggest risk factor for dementia, of which Alzheimer's disease is the commonest cause. The pathological changes underpinning Alzheimer's disease are thought to develop at least a decade prior to the onset of symptoms. Molecular positron emission tomography and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging allow key pathological processes underpinning cognitive impairment - including β-amyloid depostion, vascular disease, network breakdown and atrophy - to be assessed repeatedly and non-invasively...
April 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
Barbara Poletti, Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Annalisa Lafronza, Elisa Pedroli, Andrea Faini, Stefano Zago, Nicola Ticozzi, Andrea Ciammola, Claudia Morelli, Paolo Meriggi, Pietro Cipresso, Dorothée Lulé, Albert C Ludolph, Giuseppe Riva, Vincenzo Silani
Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA)...
April 2017: Neurological Sciences
Zainab Samaan, Stephanie McDermid Vaz, Monica Bawor, Tammy Hlywka Potter, Sasha Eskandarian, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: West Nile virus emerged as an important human pathogen in North America and continues to pose a risk to public health. It can cause a highly variable range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe illness. Neuroinvasive disease due to West Nile virus can lead to long-term neurological deficits and psychological impairment. However, these deficits have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological manifestations of West Nile virus infection with a focus on neuroinvasive status and time since infection...
2016: PloS One
Maritta Välimäki, Jyrki Korkeila, Kaisa Kauppi, Johanna K Kaakinen, Suvi Holm, Jukka Vahlo, Olli Tenovuo, Heikki Hämäläinen, Jaana Sarajuuri, Pekka Rantanen, Tage Orenius, Aki Koponen
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health problem. The recovery process for people with TBI is typically slow and dependent on complex and intensive assisted rehabilitation programs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects and feasibility of digital games for cognitive functioning and general well-being among people with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: This is a single-site feasibility study conducted in Finland, which uses a pragmatic, randomized controlled trial with three arms, and will recruit patients from the Turku University Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences in Finland...
February 9, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Holger Schmidt, Marija Djukic, Klaus Jung, Manfred Holzgraefe, Peter Dechent, Nicole von Steinbüchel, Joachim Blocher, Helmut Eiffert, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa
BACKGROUND: Patients often report neurocognitive difficulties after neuroborreliosis (NB). The frequency and extent of cognitive problems in European patients have been studied incompletely. METHODS: Sixty patients received a neurological and neuropsychological work-up 6 months or longer after treatment for proven NB. Quality of life, psychiatric symptom load, and brain atrophy were measured. All results were compared with a group of 30 healthy control persons adapted for age, gender and education being serologically negative for Borrelia burgdorferi senso latu...
2015: BMC Neurology
J M Guerrero, R Martínez-Tomás, M Rincón, H Peraita
BACKGROUND: Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become one of the principal focuses of research in medicine, particularly when the disease is incipient or even prodromic, because treatments are more effective in these stages. Lexical-semantic-conceptual deficit (LSCD) in the oral definitions of semantic categories for basic objects is an important early indicator in the evaluation of the cognitive state of patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research is to define an economic procedure for cognitive impairment (CI) diagnosis, which may be associated with early stages of AD, by analysing cognitive alterations affecting declarative semantic memory...
2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
Philip Gerard Gasquoine
Historically, anosognosia referred to under-report of striking symptoms of acquired brain injury (e.g., hemiplegia) with debilitating functional consequences and was linked with anosodiaphoria, an emotional reaction of indifference. It was later extended to include under-report of all manner of symptoms of acquired brain injury by the patient compared to clinicians, family members, or functional performance. Anosognosia is related to time since onset of brain injury but not consistently to demographic variables, lesion location (except that it is more common after unilateral right than left hemispheric injury), or specific neuropsychological test scores...
2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
J A Bertrand, S Jean, L Laberge, C Gagnon, J Mathieu, J F Gagnon, L Richer
OBJECTIVES: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common adult-onset muscular dystrophy. It is associated with motor symptoms but patients also display non-motor symptoms such as particular personality traits. Studies have reported mixed results about personality characteristics which may be attributable to small sample sizes, different disease severity of groups studied, and use of different questionnaires or method. This study aimed to describe the psychological characteristics of a large cohort of patients with DM1, to characterize those at risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, and to compare characteristics between two DM1 phenotypes, a mild and more severe adult-onset phenotype...
July 2015: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Stephen M Fleming, Jihye Ryu, John G Golfinos, Karen E Blackmon
Humans have the capacity to evaluate the success of cognitive processes, known as metacognition. Convergent evidence supports a role for anterior prefrontal cortex in metacognitive judgements of perceptual processes. However, it is unknown whether metacognition is a global phenomenon, with anterior prefrontal cortex supporting metacognition across domains, or whether it relies on domain-specific neural substrates. To address this question, we measured metacognitive accuracy in patients with lesions to anterior prefrontal cortex (n = 7) in two distinct domains, perception and memory, by assessing the correspondence between objective performance and subjective ratings of performance...
October 2014: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Olga Simova, Gabriele Weineck, Thorsten Schuetze, Karl Wegscheider, Ulf Panzer, Rolf A K Stahl, Christian Gerloff, Tim Magnus
BACKGROUND: The diarrhea associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a major cause of acute uremic failure in children, but not very common in adults. The enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli-epidemic in Germany in 2011 affected mostly young and healthy adults. While their immediate deficits have been published, not much is known about the time course and degree of recovery concerning cognitive and behavioral impairment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty patients with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection and neurological symptoms underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment 3 months and 1 year after the acute disease...
2014: PloS One
Stefano Romeo, Alessio Chiandetti, Alberto Siracusano, Alfonso Troisi
Indirect evidence suggests partially common pathogenetic mechanisms for Neurological Soft Signs (NSS), neurocognition, and social cognition in schizophrenia. However, the possible association between NSS and mentalizing impairments has not yet been examined. In the present study, we assessed the ability to attribute mental states to others in patients with schizophrenia and predicted that the presence of theory of mind deficits would be significantly related to NSS. Participants were 90 clinically stable patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia...
August 15, 2014: Psychiatry Research
J-P Jacus, M-P Dupont, Y Herades, C Pelix, H Large, M Baud
INTRODUCTION: Awareness disorders in Alzheimer's disease still remains unclear despite much research regarding this phenomenon. Papers report various and contrasted results with varying frequency from one study to another. Hence, the interest in awareness in Alzheimer's disease remains limited. Nevertheless, this symptom is closely associated with caregivers' burden and increases the patient's dependency, since the patient is unable to avoid dangers, requiring some care services or institutionalization The purpose of this current review is to recall the main neuro-anatomical and theoretical basis of awareness disorders, and to highlight the recent findings in Alzheimer's disease and in its pre-clinical stages...
April 2014: L'Encéphale
Amee D Baird, David G Walker, Vivien Biggs, Gail A Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Music perception involves processing of melodic, temporal and emotional dimensions that have been found to dissociate in healthy individuals and after brain injury. Two components of the temporal dimension have been distinguished, namely rhythm and metre. We describe an 18 year old male musician 'JM' who showed apperceptive music agnosia with selectively preserved metre perception, and impaired recognition of sad and peaceful music relative to age and music experience matched controls after resection of a right temporoparietal tumour...
April 2014: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
H J Sagar
Multiple cognitive deficits have been recognized in many neurological disorders but the specificity of the findings and the relationship to the underlying neuropathology remain obscure. Definitions of dementia have been proposed based on symptom profiles of the cognitive disorder and qualitative differences have been claimed between dementias of different aetiology. Some conditions have been claimed to show patterns of cognitive deficit that are distinguished from dementia and related to specific neuropathology or psychological processes, e...
1991: Behavioural Neurology
Jérémy Besnard, Philippe Allain, Ghislaine Aubin, Valérie Chauviré, Frédérique Etcharry-Bouyx, Didier Le Gall
INTRODUCTION: A. R. Luria was the first author to hypothesize that executive dysfunction can lead to specific deficits in arithmetic problem solving, showing that patients' performance depends on the structure of the tasks. Cummings (1995. Anatomic and behavioral aspects of frontal-subcortical circuits. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 15, 1-13) proposed the term "environmental dependency" to define such behavioral disorders triggered by the characteristics of the test and pointed out also the role of executive impairments...
2014: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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