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Pregnancy simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528582/searching-the-web-a-survey-on-the-quality-of-advice-on-postnatal-sequelae-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-the-implication-of-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease
#1
S Perzel, H Huebner, W Rascher, C Menendez-Castro, A Hartner, F B Fahlbusch
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are pregnancy complications associated with morbidity in later life. Despite a growing body of evidence from current research on developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), little information is currently provided to parents on long-term metabolic, cardiovascular and neurologic consequences. As parents strongly rely on internet-based health-related information, we examined the quality of information on IUGR/FGR sequelae and DOHaD in webpages used by laypersons...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528578/a-cluster-randomized-trial-to-reduce-caesarean-delivery-rates-in-quebec-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#2
Mira Johri, Edmond S W Ng, Clara Bermudez-Tamayo, Jeffrey S Hoch, Thierry Ducruet, Nils Chaillet
BACKGROUND: Widespread increases in caesarean section (CS) rates have sparked concerns about risks to mothers and infants and rising healthcare costs. A multicentre, two-arm, cluster-randomized trial in Quebec, Canada assessed whether an audit and feedback intervention targeting health professionals would reduce CS rates for pregnant women compared to usual care, and concluded that it reduced CS rates without adverse effects on maternal or neonatal health. The effect was statistically significant but clinically small...
May 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527693/two-hit-model-of-schizophrenia-induced-by-neonatal-immune-activation-and-peripubertal-stress-in-rats-study-of-sex-differences-and-brain-oxidative-alterations
#3
Aline Santos Monte, Bruna Stefânia Ferreira Mello, Vládia Célia Moreira Borella, Tatiane da Silva Araujo, Francisco Eliclécio Rodrigues da Silva, Francisca Cléa F de Sousa, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Clarissa Severino Gama, Mary V Seeman, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas De Lucena, Danielle Macêdo
Schizophrenia is considered to be a developmental disorder with distinctive sex differences. Aiming to simulate the vulnerability of the third trimester of human pregnancy to the developmental course of schizophrenia, an animal model was developed, using neonatal poly(I:C) as a first-hit, and peripubertal stress as a second-hit, i.e. a two-hit model. Since, to date, there have been no references to sex differences in the two-hit model, our study sought to determine sex influences on the development of behavior and brain oxidative change in adult rats submitted to neonatal exposure to poly(I:C) on postnatal days 5-7 as well as peripubertal unpredictable stress (PUS)...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525542/semiparametric-model-and-inference-for-spontaneous-abortion-data-with-a-cured-proportion-and-biased-sampling
#4
Jin Piao, Jing Ning, Christina D Chambers, Ronghui Xu
Evaluating and understanding the risk and safety of using medications for autoimmune disease in a woman during her pregnancy will help both clinicians and pregnant women to make better treatment decisions. However, utilizing spontaneous abortion (SAB) data collected in observational studies of pregnancy to derive valid inference poses two major challenges. First, the data from the observational cohort are not random samples of the target population due to the sampling mechanism. Pregnant women with early SAB are more likely to be excluded from the cohort, and there may be substantial differences between the observed SAB time and those in the target population...
May 18, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516728/increased-heterogeneity-of-airway-calibre-in-adult-rats-after-hypoxia-induced-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#5
Kimberley C W Wang, Jude S Morton, Sandra T Davidge, Alexander N Larcombe, Alan L James, Graham M Donovan, Peter B Noble
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with asthma development. We hypothesized that IUGR disrupts airway development leading to postnatal structural abnormalities of the airway that predispose to disease. This study therefore examined structural changes to the airway and lung in a rat model of maternal hypoxia-induced IUGR. METHODS: Pregnant rats were housed under hypoxic conditions (11.5% O2 ) from gestational days (GDs) 13 to 20 (pseudoglandular-canalicular stages, i...
May 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515783/trans-generational-plasticity-in-response-to-immune-challenge-is-constrained-by-heat-stress
#6
Olivia Roth, Susanne H Landis
Trans-generational plasticity (TGP) is the adjustment of phenotypes to changing habitat conditions that persist longer than the individual lifetime. Fitness benefits (adaptive TGP) are expected upon matching parent-offspring environments. In a global change scenario, several performance-related environmental factors are changing simultaneously. This lowers the predictability of offspring environmental conditions, potentially hampering the benefits of TGP. For the first time, we here explore how the combination of an abiotic and a biotic environmental factor in the parental generation plays out as trans-generational effect in the offspring...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498194/modeling-the-impact-of-retention-interventions-on-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-results-from-inspire-studies-in-malawi-nigeria-and-zimbabwe
#7
Elizabeth McCarthy, Jessica Joseph, Geoff Foster, Alexio-Zambezio Mangwiro, Victor Mwapasa, Bolanle Oyeledun, Sam Phiri, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Shaffiq Essajee
BACKGROUND: Six implementation research studies in Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe tested approaches for improving retention in care among women living with HIV. We simulated the impact of their interventions on the probability of HIV transmission during pregnancy and breastfeeding. METHODS: A computer-based state-transition model was developed to estimate the impact of the retention interventions. Patient-level data from the 6 studies were aggregated and analyzed, and weighted averages of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV probabilities were presented...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474821/application-of-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-to-predict-drug-disposition-in-pregnant-populations
#8
Vamshi Krishna Jogiraju, Suvarchala Avvari, Rakesh Gollen, David R Taft
Pregnancy is associated with numerous physiologic changes that influence absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Moreover, the magnitude of these effects changes as pregnancy matures. For most medications, there is limited information available about changes in drug disposition that can occur in pregnant patients, yet most women are prescribed one or more medications during pregnancy. In this investigation, PBPK modeling was used to assess the impact of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profiles of three medications (metformin, tacrolimus, oseltamivir) using the Simcyp® Simulator...
May 5, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464100/a-deterministic-dynamic-systems-model-of-cow-calf-production-the-effects-of-the-duration-of-postpartum-anestrus-on-production-parameters-over-a-10-year-horizon
#9
D D Shane, R L Larson, M W Sanderson, M Miesner, B J White
The duration of postpartum anestrus (dPPA) is important to consider for reproductive performance and efficiency in cow-calf operations. We developed a deterministic, dynamic systems model of cow-calf production over a 10-yr horizon to model the effects that dPPA had on measures of herd productivity, including the percentage of cows cycling before the end of the first 21 d of the breeding season (%C21), the percentage of cows pregnant at pregnancy diagnosis (%PPD), the distribution of pregnancy by 21-d breeding intervals, the kilograms of calf weaned (KW), the kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed (KPC), and the replacement percentage...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457554/comparison-between-an-exclusive-in-vitro-produced-embryo-transfer-system-and-artificial-insemination-for-genetic-technical-and-financial-herd-performance
#10
K Kaniyamattam, J Block, P J Hansen, A De Vries
The objective of this study was to implement an in vitro produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system in an existing stochastic dynamic dairy simulation model with multitrait genetics to evaluate the genetic, technical, and financial performance of a dairy herd implementing an exclusive IVP-ET or artificial insemination (AI) system. In the AI system, sexed semen was used on the genetically best heifers only. In the IVP-ET system, all of the animals in the herd were impregnated with female sexed embryos created through in vitro fertilization of oocytes collected from animals of superior genetics for different traits of interest...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453607/determining-best-strategies-for-maternally-targeted-pertussis-vaccination-using-an-individual-based-model
#11
Patricia Therese Campbell, Jodie McVernon, Nicholas Geard
Rising pertussis incidence has prompted a number of countries to implement maternally-targeted vaccination to protect vulnerable infants, but questions remain about optimal design of such vaccination strategies. We simulated pertussis transmission within an individual based model parameterized to match Australian conditions, explicitly linking infants and their mothers to estimate the effectiveness of alternative maternally-targeted vaccination strategies (antenatal versus postnatal delivery) and the benefit of revaccination over multiple pregnancies...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447543/human-egf-derived-direct-and-reverse-short-linear-motifs-conformational-dynamics-insight-into-the-receptor-binding-residues
#12
Nurbubu T Moldogazieva, Konstantin V Shaitan, Mikhail Yu Antonov, Innokenty M Mokhosoev, Olga V Levtsova, Аlexander A Terentiev
Short linear motifs (SLiMs) have been recognized to perform diverse functions in a variety of regulatory proteins through the involvement in protein-protein interactions, signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, protein secretion, etc. However, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying their functions including roles of definite amino acid residues remain obscure. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that conformational dynamics of amino acid residues in oligopeptides derived from regulatory proteins such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and pregnancy specific β1-glycoproteins (PSGs) contributes greatly to their biological activities...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442561/spread-of-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#13
Qian Zhang, Kaiyuan Sun, Matteo Chinazzi, Ana Pastore Y Piontti, Natalie E Dean, Diana Patricia Rojas, Stefano Merler, Dina Mistry, Piero Poletti, Luca Rossi, Margaret Bray, M Elizabeth Halloran, Ira M Longini, Alessandro Vespignani
We use a data-driven global stochastic epidemic model to analyze the spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas. The model has high spatial and temporal resolution and integrates real-world demographic, human mobility, socioeconomic, temperature, and vector density data. We estimate that the first introduction of ZIKV to Brazil likely occurred between August 2013 and April 2014 (90% credible interval). We provide simulated epidemic profiles of incident ZIKV infections for several countries in the Americas through February 2017...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413377/mimicry-of-appendicitis-symptomatology-in-congenital-anomalies-and-diseases-of-the-genitourinary-system-and-pregnancy
#14
REVIEW
Amanda Dalpiaz, Jason Gandhi, Noel L Smith, Gautam Dagur, Richard Schwamb, Steven J Weissbart, Sardar Ali Khan
INTRODUCTION: Appendicitis is a prevailing cause of acute abdomen, but is often difficult to diagnose due to its wide range of symptoms, anatomical variations, and developmental abnormalities. Urological disorders of the genitourinary tract may be closely related to appendicitis due to the close proximity of the appendix to the genitourinary tract. This review provides a summary of the urological complications and simulations of appendicitis. Both typical and urological symptoms of appendicitis are discussed, as well as recommended diagnostic and treatment methods...
January 2017: Current Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405635/using-mendelian-randomization-to-determine-causal-effects-of-maternal-pregnancy-intrauterine-exposures-on-offspring-outcomes-sources-of-bias-and-methods-for-assessing-them
#15
Deborah Lawlor, Rebecca Richmond, Nicole Warrington, George McMahon, George Davey Smith, Jack Bowden, David M Evans
Mendelian randomization (MR), the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to test causal effects, is increasingly used in aetiological epidemiology. Few of the methodological developments in MR have considered the specific situation of using genetic IVs to test the causal effect of exposures in pregnant women on postnatal offspring outcomes. In this paper, we describe specific ways in which the IV assumptions might be violated when MR is used to test such intrauterine effects. We highlight the importance of considering the extent to which there is overlap between genetic variants in offspring that influence their outcome with genetic variants used as IVs in their mothers...
February 14, 2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402417/grandmaternal-smoke-exposure-reduces-female-fertility-in-a-murine-model-with-great-grandmaternal-smoke-exposure-unlikely-to-have-an-effect
#16
N J Camlin, A G Jarnicki, R L Vanders, K A Walters, P M Hansbro, E A McLaughlin, J E Holt
STUDY QUESTION: What effect does multigenerational (F2) and transgenerational (F3) cigarette smoke exposure have on female fertility in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cigarette smoking has a multigenerational effect on female fertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It has been well established that cigarette smoking decreases female fertility. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence suggests that smoking during pregnancy decreases the fertility of daughters and increases cancer and asthma incidence in grandchildren and great-grandchildren...
June 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387867/cost-effectiveness-analysis-and-mortality-impact-estimation-of-scaling-up-pregnancy-test-kits-in-madagascar-ethiopia-and-malawi
#17
Robert J Kolesar, Martine Audibert, Alison B Comfort
Cost-effective, innovative approaches are needed to accelerate progress towards ending preventable infant, child and maternal mortality. To inform policy decisions, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of adding urine pregnancy test kits to the maternal and reproductive services package offered at the community level in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi. We used a decision tree model to compare the intervention with the status quo for each country. We also completed single factor sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations with 10 000 iterations to generate the probability distribution of the estimates and uncertainty limits...
April 5, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374792/cell-based-secondary-prevention-of-childbirth-induced-pelvic-floor-trauma
#18
REVIEW
Geertje Callewaert, Marina Monteiro Carvalho Mori Da Cunha, Nikhil Sindhwani, Maurilio Sampaolesi, Maarten Albersen, Jan Deprest
With advancing population age, pelvic-floor dysfunction (PFD) will affect an increasing number of women. Many of these women wish to maintain active lifestyles, indicating an urgent need for effective strategies to treat or, preferably, prevent the occurrence of PFD. Childbirth and pregnancy have both long been recognized as crucial contributing factors in the pathophysiology of PFD. Vaginal delivery of a child is a serious traumatic event, causing anatomical and functional changes in the pelvic floor. Similar changes to those experienced during childbirth can be found in symptomatic women, often many years after delivery...
April 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350383/a-microfluidic-culture-model-of-the-human-reproductive-tract-and-28-day-menstrual-cycle
#19
Shuo Xiao, Jonathan R Coppeta, Hunter B Rogers, Brett C Isenberg, Jie Zhu, Susan A Olalekan, Kelly E McKinnon, Danijela Dokic, Alexandra S Rashedi, Daniel J Haisenleder, Saurabh S Malpani, Chanel A Arnold-Murray, Kuanwei Chen, Mingyang Jiang, Lu Bai, Catherine T Nguyen, Jiyang Zhang, Monica M Laronda, Thomas J Hope, Kruti P Maniar, Mary Ellen Pavone, Michael J Avram, Elizabeth C Sefton, Spiro Getsios, Joanna E Burdette, J Julie Kim, Jeffrey T Borenstein, Teresa K Woodruff
The endocrine system dynamically controls tissue differentiation and homeostasis, but has not been studied using dynamic tissue culture paradigms. Here we show that a microfluidic system supports murine ovarian follicles to produce the human 28-day menstrual cycle hormone profile, which controls human female reproductive tract and peripheral tissue dynamics in single, dual and multiple unit microfluidic platforms (Solo-MFP, Duet-MFP and Quintet-MPF, respectively). These systems simulate the in vivo female reproductive tract and the endocrine loops between organ modules for the ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, cervix and liver, with a sustained circulating flow between all tissues...
March 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344561/fetal-growth-restriction-induces-heterogeneous-effects-on-vascular-biomechanical-and-functional-properties-in-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus
#20
Daniel Cañas, Emilio A Herrera, Claudio García-Herrera, Diego Celentano, Bernardo J Krause
Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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