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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413377/mimicry-of-appendicitis-symptomatology-in-congenital-anomalies-and-diseases-of-the-genitourinary-system-and-pregnancy
#1
REVIEW
Amanda Dalpiaz, Jason Gandhi, Noel L Smith, Gautam Dagur, Richard Schwamb, Steven J Weissbart, Sardar Ali Khan
INTRODUCTION: Appendicitis is a prevailing cause of acute abdomen, but is often difficult to diagnose due to its wide range of symptoms, anatomical variations, and developmental abnormalities. Urological disorders of the genitourinary tract may be closely related to appendicitis due to the close proximity of the appendix to the genitourinary tract. This review provides a summary of the urological complications and simulations of appendicitis. Both typical and urological symptoms of appendicitis are discussed, as well as recommended diagnostic and treatment methods...
January 2017: Current Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405635/using-mendelian-randomization-to-determine-causal-effects-of-maternal-pregnancy-intrauterine-exposures-on-offspring-outcomes-sources-of-bias-and-methods-for-assessing-them
#2
Deborah Lawlor, Rebecca Richmond, Nicole Warrington, George McMahon, George Davey Smith, Jack Bowden, David M Evans
Mendelian randomization (MR), the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to test causal effects, is increasingly used in aetiological epidemiology. Few of the methodological developments in MR have considered the specific situation of using genetic IVs to test the causal effect of exposures in pregnant women on postnatal offspring outcomes. In this paper, we describe specific ways in which the IV assumptions might be violated when MR is used to test such intrauterine effects. We highlight the importance of considering the extent to which there is overlap between genetic variants in offspring that influence their outcome with genetic variants used as IVs in their mothers...
February 14, 2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402417/grandmaternal-smoke-exposure-reduces-female-fertility-in-a-murine-model-with-great-grandmaternal-smoke-exposure-unlikely-to-have-an-effect
#3
N J Camlin, A G Jarnicki, R L Vanders, K A Walters, P M Hansbro, E A McLaughlin, J E Holt
STUDY QUESTION: What effect does multigenerational (F2) and transgenerational (F3) cigarette smoke exposure have on female fertility in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cigarette smoking has a multigenerational effect on female fertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It has been well established that cigarette smoking decreases female fertility. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence suggests that smoking during pregnancy decreases the fertility of daughters and increases cancer and asthma incidence in grandchildren and great-grandchildren...
April 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387867/cost-effectiveness-analysis-and-mortality-impact-estimation-of-scaling-up-pregnancy-test-kits-in-madagascar-ethiopia-and-malawi
#4
Robert J Kolesar, Martine Audibert, Alison B Comfort
Cost-effective, innovative approaches are needed to accelerate progress towards ending preventable infant, child and maternal mortality. To inform policy decisions, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of adding urine pregnancy test kits to the maternal and reproductive services package offered at the community level in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi. We used a decision tree model to compare the intervention with the status quo for each country. We also completed single factor sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations with 10 000 iterations to generate the probability distribution of the estimates and uncertainty limits...
April 5, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374792/cell-based-secondary-prevention-of-childbirth-induced-pelvic-floor-trauma
#5
REVIEW
Geertje Callewaert, Marina Monteiro Carvalho Mori Da Cunha, Nikhil Sindhwani, Maurilio Sampaolesi, Maarten Albersen, Jan Deprest
With advancing population age, pelvic-floor dysfunction (PFD) will affect an increasing number of women. Many of these women wish to maintain active lifestyles, indicating an urgent need for effective strategies to treat or, preferably, prevent the occurrence of PFD. Childbirth and pregnancy have both long been recognized as crucial contributing factors in the pathophysiology of PFD. Vaginal delivery of a child is a serious traumatic event, causing anatomical and functional changes in the pelvic floor. Similar changes to those experienced during childbirth can be found in symptomatic women, often many years after delivery...
April 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350383/a-microfluidic-culture-model-of-the-human-reproductive-tract-and-28-day-menstrual-cycle
#6
Shuo Xiao, Jonathan R Coppeta, Hunter B Rogers, Brett C Isenberg, Jie Zhu, Susan A Olalekan, Kelly E McKinnon, Danijela Dokic, Alexandra S Rashedi, Daniel J Haisenleder, Saurabh S Malpani, Chanel A Arnold-Murray, Kuanwei Chen, Mingyang Jiang, Lu Bai, Catherine T Nguyen, Jiyang Zhang, Monica M Laronda, Thomas J Hope, Kruti P Maniar, Mary Ellen Pavone, Michael J Avram, Elizabeth C Sefton, Spiro Getsios, Joanna E Burdette, J Julie Kim, Jeffrey T Borenstein, Teresa K Woodruff
The endocrine system dynamically controls tissue differentiation and homeostasis, but has not been studied using dynamic tissue culture paradigms. Here we show that a microfluidic system supports murine ovarian follicles to produce the human 28-day menstrual cycle hormone profile, which controls human female reproductive tract and peripheral tissue dynamics in single, dual and multiple unit microfluidic platforms (Solo-MFP, Duet-MFP and Quintet-MPF, respectively). These systems simulate the in vivo female reproductive tract and the endocrine loops between organ modules for the ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, cervix and liver, with a sustained circulating flow between all tissues...
March 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344561/fetal-growth-restriction-induces-heterogeneous-effects-on-vascular-biomechanical-and-functional-properties-in-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus
#7
Daniel Cañas, Emilio A Herrera, Claudio García-Herrera, Diego Celentano, Bernardo J Krause
Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334179/bayesian-distributed-lag-interaction-models-to-identify-perinatal-windows-of-vulnerability-in-children-s-health
#8
Ander Wilson, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon Hsu, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright, Brent A Coull
Epidemiological research supports an association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse children's health outcomes. Advances in exposure assessment and statistics allow for estimation of both critical windows of vulnerability and exposure effect heterogeneity. Simultaneous estimation of windows of vulnerability and effect heterogeneity can be accomplished by fitting a distributed lag model (DLM) stratified by subgroup. However, this can provide an incomplete picture of how effects vary across subgroups because it does not allow for subgroups to have the same window but different within-window effects or to have different windows but the same within-window effect...
February 27, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297453/spot-scanning-proton-therapy-minimizes-neutron-dose-in-the-setting-of-radiation-therapy-administered-during-pregnancy
#9
Xin Wang, Falk Poenisch, Narayan Sahoo, Ronald X Zhu, MingFwu Lii, Michael T Gillin, Jing Li, David Grosshans
This is a real case study to minimize the neutron dose equivalent (H) to a fetus using spot scanning proton beams with favorable beam energies and angles. Minimum neutron dose exposure to the fetus was achieved with iterative planning under the guidance of neutron H measurement. Two highly conformal treatment plans, each with three spot scanning beams, were planned to treat a 25-year-old pregnant female with aggressive recurrent chordoma of the base of skull who elected not to proceed with termination. Each plan was scheduled for delivery every other day for robust target coverage...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292614/embryo-transfer-simulation-improves-pregnancy-rates-and-decreases-time-to-proficiency-in-reproductive-endocrinology-and-infertility-fellow-embryo-transfers
#10
Ryan J Heitmann, Micah J Hill, John M Csokmay, Justin Pilgrim, Alan H DeCherney, Shad Deering
OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate an ET simulator to train Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (REI) fellows' techniques of ET. DESIGN: Simulation model development and retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Patients undergoing IVF. INTERVENTION(S): Simulation model evaluation and implementation of ET simulation training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Pregnancy rates...
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269608/modelling-nutrient-transfer-based-on-3d-imaging-of-the-human-placental-microstructure
#11
S Perazzolo, R M Lewis, B G Sengers
Impaired transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus can affect pregnancy outcomes. The placenta has a complex microstructure, including the maternal intervillous space and fetal capillaries. Previous computational models of placental transfer either assumed a simplified idealized local geometry or were based on 2D imaging. In this study, we present a novel 3D computational model to assess the placental transfer of nutrients at the microscale in interaction with the maternal flow environment. A stack of confocal microscopy images of the placental terminal villi was collected and reconstructed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258413/viscosity-and-haemodynamics-in-a-late-gestation-rat-feto-placental-arterial-network
#12
Nikhilesh Bappoo, Lachlan J Kelsey, Louis Parker, Tim Crough, Carmel M Moran, Adrian Thomson, Megan C Holmes, Caitlin S Wyrwoll, Barry J Doyle
The placenta is a transient organ which develops during pregnancy to provide haemotrophic support for healthy fetal growth and development. Fundamental to its function is the healthy development of vascular trees in the feto-placental arterial network. Despite the strong association of haemodynamics with vascular remodelling mechanisms, there is a lack of computational haemodynamic data that may improve our understanding of feto-placental physiology. The aim of this work was to create a comprehensive 3D computational fluid dynamics model of a substructure of the rat feto-placental arterial network and investigate the influence of viscosity on wall shear stress (WSS)...
March 3, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250013/time-variant-genetic-effects-as-a-cause-for-preterm-birth-insights-from-a-population-of-maternal-cousins-in-sweden
#13
Julius Juodakis, Jonas Bacelis, Ge Zhang, Louis J Muglia, Bo Jacobsson
Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide, yet its etiology remains largely unexplained. We propose that the genetic factors controlling this trait could act in a nonuniform manner during pregnancy, with each factor having a unique "window of sensitivity." We test this hypothesis by modeling the distribution of gestational ages (GAs) observed in maternal cousins from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR) (n = 35,541 pairs). The models were built using a time-to-event framework, with simulated genetic factors that increase the hazard of birth either uniformly across the pregnancy (constant effect) or only in particular windows (varying effect)...
April 3, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242669/optimal-antimalarial-dose-regimens-for-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-with-and-without-azithromycin-in-pregnancy-based-on-population-pharmacokinetic-modelling
#14
Sam Salman, Francisca Baiwog, Madhu Page-Sharp, Susan Griffin, Harin A Karunajeewa, Ivo Mueller, Stephen J Rogerson, Peter M Siba, Kenneth F Ilett, Timothy M E Davis
Optimal dosing of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy remains to be established, particularly when co-administered with azithromycin (AZI). To further characterize SP pharmacokinetics in pregnancy, plasma concentration-time data from 45 non-pregnant and 45 pregnant women treated with SP-AZI (n=15 in each group) and SP-chloroquine (n=30 in each group) were analyzed. Population non-linear mixed effects pharmacokinetic models were developed for pyrimethamine (PYR), sulfadoxine (SDOX) and N-acetylsulfadoxine (the SDOX metabolite NASDOX), and potential covariates were included...
February 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227866/modelling-nutrient-transfer-based-on-3d-imaging-of-the-human-placental-microstructure
#15
S Perazzolo, R M Lewis, B G Sengers, S Perazzolo, R M Lewis, B G Sengers, B G Sengers, R M Lewis, S Perazzolo
Impaired transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus can affect pregnancy outcomes. The placenta has a complex microstructure, including the maternal intervillous space and fetal capillaries. Previous computational models of placental transfer either assumed a simplified idealized local geometry or were based on 2D imaging. In this study, we present a novel 3D computational model to assess the placental transfer of nutrients at the microscale in interaction with the maternal flow environment. A stack of confocal microscopy images of the placental terminal villi was collected and reconstructed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145985/left-truncation-bias-to-explain-the-protective-effect-of-smoking-on-preeclampsia-potential-but-how-plausible
#16
Alan C Kinlaw, Jessie P Buckley, Stephanie M Engel, Charles Poole, M Alan Brookhart, Alexander P Keil
BACKGROUND: An inverse association between maternal smoking and preeclampsia has been frequently observed in epidemiologic studies for several decades. In the May 2015 issue of this journal, Lisonkova and Joseph described a simulation study suggesting that bias from left truncation might explain the inverse association. The simulations were based on strong assumptions regarding the underlying mechanisms through which bias might occur. METHODS: To examine the sensitivity of the previous authors' conclusions to these assumptions, we constructed a new Monte Carlo simulation using published estimates to frame our data-generating parameters...
May 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102503/reducing-unintended-pregnancies-as-a-strategy-to-avert-zika-related-microcephaly-births-in-the-united-states-a-simulation-study
#17
Katherine A Ahrens, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Loretta Gavin, Susan Moskosky
Introduction There is increasing evidence that infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy can lead to severe brain abnormalities in infants exposed in utero. The objective of our analysis was to estimate the contribution of enhanced contraception access to averting ZIKV-related microcephaly births in the United States, alone and in combination with another possible strategy, anti-ZIKV vaccination. Methods We used Monte Carlo sampling techniques (n = 100,000 simulations) to estimate the number of microcephaly births expected under strategies of enhanced contraception only, vaccination only, both enhanced contraception and vaccination, and status quo (no intervention)...
January 19, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089487/estimation-of-national-regional-and-global-prevalence-of-alcohol-use-during-pregnancy-and-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Gerrit Gmel, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use during pregnancy is the direct cause of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). We aimed to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and FAS in the general population and, by linking these two indicators, estimate the number of pregnant women that consumed alcohol during pregnancy per one case of FAS. METHODS: We began by doing two independent comprehensive systematic literature searches using multiple electronic databases for original quantitative studies that reported the prevalence in the general population of the respective country of alcohol use during pregnancy published from Jan 1, 1984, to June 30, 2014, or the prevalence of FAS published from Nov 1, 1973, to June 30, 2015, in a peer-reviewed journal or scholarly report...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079198/oligomerization-of-fvflm-peptides-and-their-ability-to-inhibit-beta-amyloid-peptides-aggregation-consideration-as-a-possible-model
#19
M Kouza, A Banerji, A Kolinski, I A Buhimschi, A Kloczkowski
Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific disorder, shares typical pathophysiological features with protein misfolding disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Characteristic for preeclampsia is the involvement of multiple proteins of which fragments of SERPINA1 and β-amyloid co-aggregate in urine and placenta of preeclamptic women. To explore the biophysical basis of this interaction, we investigated the multidimensional efficacy of the FVFLM sequence in SERPINA1, as a model inhibitory agent of β-amyloid aggregation...
January 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029359/computational-modeling-of-the-structure-function-relationship-in-human-placental-terminal-villi
#20
R Plitman Mayo, J Olsthoorn, D S Charnock-Jones, G J Burton, M L Oyen
Placental oxygen transport takes place at the final branches of the villous tree and is dictated by the relative arrangement of the maternal and fetal circulations. Modeling techniques have failed to accurately assess the structure-function relationship in the terminal villi due to the geometrical complexity. Three-dimensional blood flow and oxygen transport was modeled in four terminal villi reconstructed from confocal image stacks. The blood flow was analyzed along the center lines of capillary segments and the effect of the variability in capillary diameter, tortuosity and branching was investigated...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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