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Pregnancy simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325971/incorporation-of-fetal-and-child-pfoa-dosimetry-in-the-derivation-of-health-based-toxicity-values
#1
Kyra Kimberly Kieskamp, Rachel Rogers Worley, Eva D McLanahan, Marc-André Verner
BACKGROUND: Multiple agencies have developed health-based toxicity values for exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Although PFOA exposure occurs in utero and through breastfeeding, current health-based toxicity values have not been derived using fetal or child dosimetry. Therefore, current values may underestimate the potential risks to fetuses and nursing infants. OBJECTIVE: Using fetal and child dosimetry, we aimed to calculate PFOA maternal human equivalent doses (HEDs), corresponding to a developmental mouse study lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 1mg/kg/day)...
December 23, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305251/cardiac-arrest-during-pregnancy-ongoing-clinical-conundrum-an-expert-review
#2
REVIEW
Carolyn M Zelop, Sharon Einav, Jill M Mhyre, Stephanie Martin
While global maternal mortality has decreased in the last 25 years, the maternal mortality ratio in the United States has actually increased. Maternal mortality is a complex phenomenon involving multifaceted socioeconomic and clinical parameters including inequalities in access to health care, racial and ethnic disparities, maternal comorbidities and epidemiologic ascertainment bias. Escalating maternal mortality underscores the importance of clinician preparedness to respond to maternal cardiac arrest that may occur in any maternal health care setting...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277268/dysregulated-placental-micrornas-in-early-and-late-onset-preeclampsia
#3
Alexandra Lykoudi, Aggeliki Kolialexi, George I Lambrou, Maria Braoudaki, Charalampos Siristatidis, George Konstantinos Papaioanou, Maria Tzetis, Ariadni Mavrou, Nikolas Papantoniou
INTRODUCTION: To determine the miRNA expression profile in placentas complicated by Preeclampsia (PE) and compare it to uncomplicated pregnancies. METHODS: Sixteen placentas from women with PE, [11 with early onset PE (EOPE) and 5 with late onset PE (LOPE)], as well as 8 placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed using miRNA microarrays. For statistical analyses the MATLAB® simulation environment was applied. The over-expression of miR-518a-5p was verified using Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247905/the-development-of-a-pregnancy-pbpk-model-for-bisphenol-a-and-its-evaluation-with-the-available-biomonitoring-data
#4
Raju Prasad Sharma, Marta Schuhmacher, Vikas Kumar
Recent studies suggest universal fetal exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and its association with the adverse birth outcomes. Estimation of the fetal plasma BPA concentration from the maternal plasma BPA would be highly useful to predict its associated risk to this specific population. The objective of current work is to develop a pregnancy-physiologically based pharmacokinetic (P-PBPK) model to predict the toxicokinetic profile of BPA in the fetus during gestational growth, and to evaluate the developed model using biomonitoring data obtained from different pregnancy cohort studies...
December 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246927/disruption-of-interneuron-neurogenesis-in-premature-newborns-and-reversal-with-estrogen-treatment
#5
Mahima Tibrewal, Bokun Cheng, Preeti Dohare, Furong Hu, Rana Mehdizadeh, Ping Wang, Deyou Zheng, Zoltan Ungvari, Praveen Ballabh
Preterm-born children suffer from neurobehavioral disorders. Premature birth terminates the hypoxic in utero environment and supply of maternal hormones. As the production of interneurons continues until the end of pregnancy, we hypothesized that premature birth would disrupt interneuron production and restoration of the hypoxic milieu or estrogen treatment might reverse interneuron generation. To test these hypotheses, we quantified interneuronal progenitors in the medial, lateral, and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE, LGE, and CGE) of preterm- (E29 at D3 and D7) vs...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238894/a-nonparametric-maximum-likelihood-approach-for-survival-data-with-observed-cured-subjects-left-truncation-and-right-censoring
#6
Jue Hou, Christina D Chambers, Ronghui Xu
We consider observational studies in pregnancy where the outcome of interest is spontaneous abortion (SAB). This at first sight is a binary 'yes' or 'no' variable, albeit there is left truncation as well as right-censoring in the data. Women who do not experience SAB by gestational week 20 are 'cured' from SAB by definition, that is, they are no longer at risk. Our data is different from the common cure data in the literature, where the cured subjects are always right-censored and not actually observed to be cured...
December 13, 2017: Lifetime Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222728/fetal-electrocardiogram-extraction-and-analysis-using-adaptive-noise-cancellation-and-wavelet-transformation-techniques
#7
P Sutha, V E Jayanthi
Birth defect-related demise is mainly due to congenital heart defects. In the earlier stage of pregnancy, fetus problem can be identified by finding information about the fetus to avoid stillbirths. The gold standard used to monitor the health status of the fetus is by Cardiotachography(CTG), cannot be used for long durations and continuous monitoring. There is a need for continuous and long duration monitoring of fetal ECG signals to study the progressive health status of the fetus using portable devices. The non-invasive method of electrocardiogram recording is one of the best method used to diagnose fetal cardiac problem rather than the invasive methods...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206986/potential-for-bias-when-estimating-critical-windows-for-air-pollution-in-children-s-health
#8
Ander Wilson, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon Hsu, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright, Brent A Coull
Evidence supports an association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and children's health outcomes. Recent interest has focused on identifying critical windows of vulnerability. An analysis based on a distributed lag model (DLM) can yield estimates of a critical window that are different from those from an analysis that regresses the outcome on each of the 3 trimester-average exposures (TAEs). Using a simulation study, we assessed bias in estimates of critical windows obtained using 3 regression approaches: 1) 3 separate models to estimate the association with each of the 3 TAEs; 2) a single model to jointly estimate the association between the outcome and all 3 TAEs; and 3) a DLM...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198212/rubella-vaccination-in-india-identifying-broad-consequences-of-vaccine-introduction-and-key-knowledge-gaps
#9
A K Winter, S Pramanik, J Lessler, M Ferrari, B T Grenfell, C J E Metcalf
Rubella virus infection typically presents as a mild illness in children; however, infection during pregnancy may cause the birth of an infant with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). As of February 2017, India began introducing rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into the public-sector childhood vaccination programme. Low-level RCV coverage among children over several years can result in an increase in CRS incidence by increasing the average age of infection without sufficiently reducing rubella incidence. We evaluated the impact of RCV introduction on CRS incidence across India's heterogeneous demographic and epidemiological contexts...
December 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197003/ex-vivo-dual-perfusion-of-the-human-placenta-disease-simulation-therapeutic-pharmacokinetics-and-analysis-of-off-target-effects
#10
Paul Brownbill, Neil Sebire, Erin V McGillick, Stacey Ellery, Padma Murthi
In recent years ex vivo dual perfusion of the human placental lobule is seeing an international renaissance in its application to understanding fetal health and development. Here, we discuss the methods and uses of this technique in the evaluation of (1) vascular function, (2) transplacental clearance, (3) hemodynamic and oxygenation changes associated with pregnancy complications on placental structure and function, and (4) placental toxicology and post-perfusion evaluation of tissue architecture.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188325/pregnancy-impact-on-uterosacral-ligament-and-pelvic-muscles-using-a-3d-numerical-and-finite-element-model-preliminary-results
#11
Estelle Jean Dit Gautier, Olivier Mayeur, Julien Lepage, Mathias Brieu, Michel Cosson, Chrystele Rubod
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We studied the geometry of and changes in structures that play an important role in stabilizing the pelvic system during pregnancy using a numerical system at different gestational ages and postpartum. METHODS: We developed a parturient numerical model to assess pelvic structures at different gestational stages (16, 32, and 38 weeks) and postpartum (2 months and 1 year) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Organs, muscles, and ligaments were segmented to generate a 3D model of the pelvis...
November 29, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185895/training-method-and-other-factors-affecting-student-accuracy-in-bovine-pregnancy-diagnosis
#12
Annett Annandale, C Henry Annandale, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Dietmar E Holm
To optimize bovine pregnancy diagnosis (PD) training, factors influencing student performance were investigated. The objective was to determine whether training method, gender, background (farm, urban, or mixed), previous experience in bovine PD, and current career interest influenced the accuracy of bovine PD by trans-rectal palpation (TRP). Fourth-year (of a 6-year program) veterinary students (n=138) received one PD training session in groups using either simulator training on Breed'n Betsy (BB) or training on live cows (C)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179955/the-utility-of-bedside-simulation-for-training-in-critical-care-obstetrics
#13
REVIEW
Jean-Ju Sheen, Colleen Lee, Dena Goffman
Over the last 2 decades, the maternal mortality ratio in the United States has doubled from 7.4/100,000 live births in 1986 to 14.5/100,000 today. Despite great advances in health care, increasing rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States have prompted calls to action to reverse this disturbing trend. Assisted reproductive technology has allowed women to delay childbearing to more advanced ages, resulting in a greater number of pregnancies complicated by one or more of the diseases associated with aging, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension...
November 24, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175101/direct-modeling-of-blood-flow-through-the-vascular-network-of-the-germinal-matrix
#14
Nikolai D Botkin, Andrey E Kovtanyuk, Varvara L Turova, Irina N Sidorenko, Renée Lampe
A premature birth, before completion of the 32nd pregnancy week, increases the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. The cause of brain bleeding is very often the germinal matrix of the immature brain. The germinal matrix consists of richly vascularized neuroepithelial cells and is located over the lower part of the head of the caudate nucleus. By 32-36 gestation weeks, the germinal matrix essentially disappears so that its hemorrhage is a disease of premature infants. The aim of this paper consists in developing a model of the brain vascular network and computing the pressure distribution in the germinal matrix, particularly near arterioles and venules, where cerebral hemorrhage may occur...
November 16, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171179/optimal-timing-of-viral-load-monitoring-during-pregnancy-to-predict-viraemia-at-delivery-in-hiv-infected-women-initiating-art-in-south-africa-a-simulation-study
#15
Maia Lesosky, Tracy Glass, Elton Mukonda, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
INTRODUCTION: HIV viral load (VL) monitoring is a central tool to evaluate ART effectiveness and transmission risk. There is a global movement to expand VL monitoring following recent recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO), but there has been little research into VL monitoring in pregnant women. We investigated one important question in this area: when and how frequently VL should be monitored in women initiating ART during pregnancy to predict VL at the time of delivery in a simulated South African population...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166183/the-development-of-an-interactive-health-education-model-based-on-the-djuwita-application-for-adolescent-girls
#16
Sri Djuwitaningsih, Setyowati
Alarming incidents of maternal deaths in Indonesia are due to three major causes: bleeding, sepsis, and hypertension, in addition to other non-obstetric causes and unsafe abortions. Adolescent girls contributed to maternal mortality based on early marriage, unwanted pregnancy, and childbirth. Prevention efforts have been taken through government programs and non-governmental organizations, but in practice those were considered ineffective. Thus, a preventative effort in the form of health education should be made, preferably embedded in a popular mobile application that most teenagers would be apt to use...
2017: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161262/the-value-of-confirmatory-testing-in-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-programmes-in-south-africa-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#17
Lorna Dunning, Jordan A Francke, Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Martina Penazzato, Taige Hou, Landon Myer, Elaine J Abrams, Rochelle P Walensky, Valériane Leroy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Andrea Ciaranello
BACKGROUND: The specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) used for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV infection is <100%, leading some HIV-uninfected infants to be incorrectly identified as HIV-infected. The World Health Organization recommends that infants undergo a second NAAT to confirm any positive test result, but implementation is limited. Our objective was to determine the impact and cost-effectiveness of confirmatory HIV testing for EID programmes in South Africa...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121458/placental-drug-transport-on-a-chip-a-microengineered-in-vitro-model-of-transporter-mediated-drug-efflux-in-the-human-placental-barrier
#18
Cassidy Blundell, Yoon-Suk Yi, Lin Ma, Emily R Tess, Megan J Farrell, Andrei Georgescu, Lauren M Aleksunes, Dongeun Huh
The current lack of knowledge about the effect of maternally administered drugs on the developing fetus is a major public health concern worldwide. The first critical step toward predicting the safety of medications in pregnancy is to screen drug compounds for their ability to cross the placenta. However, this type of preclinical study has been hampered by the limited capacity of existing in vitro and ex vivo models to mimic physiological drug transport across the maternal-fetal interface in the human placenta...
November 9, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060149/estimates-of-peak-electric-fields-induced-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-pregnant-women-as-patients-using-an-fem-full-body-model
#19
J Yanamadala, G M Noetscher, S N Makarov, A Pascual-Leone
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for treatment of depression during pregnancy is an appealing alternative to fetus-threatening drugs. However, no studies to date have been performed that evaluate the safety of TMS for a pregnant mother patient and her fetus. A full-body FEM model of a pregnant woman with about 100 tissue parts has been developed specifically for the present study. This model allows accurate computations of induced electric field in every tissue given different locations of a shape-eight coil, a biphasic pulse, common TMS pulse durations, and using different values of the TMS intensity measured in SMT (Standard Motor Threshold) units...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053768/investigating-the-impact-of-maternal-residential-mobility-on-identifying-critical-windows-of-susceptibility-to-ambient-air-pollution-during-pregnancy
#20
Joshua L Warren, Ji-Young Son, Gavin Pereira, Brian P Leaderer, Michelle L Bell
Identifying periods of increased vulnerability during pregnancy to air pollution with respect to the development of adverse birth outcomes can improve understanding of possible mechanisms of disease development and provide guidelines for protection of the child. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is typically based on the residence at delivery, potentially resulting in exposure misclassification and biasing the estimation of critical windows. In this work, we determine the impact of maternal residential mobility during pregnancy on defining weekly exposure to PM10 and the estimation of windows of susceptibility for term low birth weight utilizing birth cohort datasets from Connecticut (1988-2008) that include information on all residential addresses for each woman between conception and delivery...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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