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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102503/reducing-unintended-pregnancies-as-a-strategy-to-avert-zika-related-microcephaly-births-in-the-united-states-a-simulation-study
#1
Katherine A Ahrens, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Loretta Gavin, Susan Moskosky
Introduction There is increasing evidence that infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy can lead to severe brain abnormalities in infants exposed in utero. The objective of our analysis was to estimate the contribution of enhanced contraception access to averting ZIKV-related microcephaly births in the United States, alone and in combination with another possible strategy, anti-ZIKV vaccination. Methods We used Monte Carlo sampling techniques (n = 100,000 simulations) to estimate the number of microcephaly births expected under strategies of enhanced contraception only, vaccination only, both enhanced contraception and vaccination, and status quo (no intervention)...
January 19, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089487/estimation-of-national-regional-and-global-prevalence-of-alcohol-use-during-pregnancy-and-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Gerrit Gmel, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use during pregnancy is the direct cause of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). We aimed to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and FAS in the general population and, by linking these two indicators, estimate the number of pregnant women that consumed alcohol during pregnancy per one case of FAS. METHODS: We began by doing two independent comprehensive systematic literature searches using multiple electronic databases for original quantitative studies that reported the prevalence in the general population of the respective country of alcohol use during pregnancy published from Jan 1, 1984, to June 30, 2014, or the prevalence of FAS published from Nov 1, 1973, to June 30, 2015, in a peer-reviewed journal or scholarly report...
January 12, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079198/oligomerization-of-fvflm-peptides-and-their-ability-to-inhibit-beta-amyloid-peptides-aggregation-consideration-as-a-possible-model
#3
M Kouza, A Banerji, A Kolinski, I A Buhimschi, A Kloczkowski
Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific disorder, shares typical pathophysiological features with protein misfolding disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Characteristic for preeclampsia is the involvement of multiple proteins of which fragments of SERPINA1 and β-amyloid co-aggregate in urine and placenta of preeclamptic women. To explore the biophysical basis of this interaction, we investigated the multidimensional efficacy of the FVFLM sequence in SERPINA1, as a model inhibitory agent of β-amyloid aggregation...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029359/computational-modeling-of-the-structure-function-relationship-in-human-placental-terminal-villi
#4
R Plitman Mayo, J Olsthoorn, D S Charnock-Jones, G J Burton, M L Oyen
Placental oxygen transport takes place at the final branches of the villous tree and is dictated by the relative arrangement of the maternal and fetal circulations. Modeling techniques have failed to accurately assess the structure-function relationship in the terminal villi due to the geometrical complexity. Three-dimensional blood flow and oxygen transport was modeled in four terminal villi reconstructed from confocal image stacks. The blood flow was analyzed along the center lines of capillary segments and the effect of the variability in capillary diameter, tortuosity and branching was investigated...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012870/stress-induces-equivalent-remodeling-of-hippocampal-spine-synapses-in-a-simulated-postpartum-environment-and-in-a-female-rat-model-of-major-depression
#5
Judith Baka, Eszter Csakvari, Orsolya Huzian, Nikoletta Dobos, Laszlo Siklos, Csaba Leranth, Neil J MacLusky, Ronald S Duman, Tibor Hajszan
Stress and withdrawal of female reproductive hormones are known risk factors of postpartum depression. Although both of these factors are capable of powerfully modulating neuronal plasticity, there is no direct electron microscopic evidence of hippocampal spine synapse remodeling in postpartum depression. To address this issue, hormonal conditions of pregnancy and postpartum period were simulated in ovariectomized adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=76). The number of hippocampal spine synapses and the depressive behavior of rats in an active escape task were investigated in untreated control, hormone-withdrawn 'postpartum', simulated proestrus, and hormone-treated 'postpartum' animals...
December 22, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003175/design-of-a-serious-game-for-handling-obstetrical-emergencies
#6
Estelle Jean Dit Gautier, Virginie Bot-Robin, Aurélien Libessart, Guillaume Doucède, Michel Cosson, Chrystèle Rubod
BACKGROUND: The emergence of new technologies in the obstetrical field should lead to the development of learning applications, specifically for obstetrical emergencies. Many childbirth simulations have been recently developed. However, to date none of them have been integrated into a serious game. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to design a new type of immersive serious game, using virtual glasses to facilitate the learning of pregnancy and childbirth pathologies...
December 21, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000917/simulating-demand-for-cigarettes-among-pregnant-women-a-low-risk-method-for-studying-vulnerable-populations
#7
Stephen T Higgins, Derek D Reed, Ryan Redner, Joan M Skelly, Ivori A Zvorsky, Allison N Kurti
A substantive obstacle to experimentally studying cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco products in pregnant women is the risk of adverse effects on mother and fetus from experimenter administration of the product of interest. The purpose of this study is to investigate bypassing that obstacle by using behavioral economic simulation tasks. In the present study we used the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) to simulate changes in demand for hypothetical cigarettes as a function of varying cigarette prices. Participants were 95 pregnant women who completed the CPT prior to participation in a smoking-cessation trial...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966666/measurement-error-in-mobile-source-air-pollution-exposure-estimates-due-to-residential-mobility-during-pregnancy
#8
Audrey Flak Pennington, Matthew J Strickland, Mitchel Klein, Xinxin Zhai, Armistead G Russell, Craig Hansen, Lyndsey A Darrow
Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920035/an-infant-simulator-programme-did-not-reduce-teenage-pregnancy
#9
Giordano Pérez-Gaxiola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891739/acardiac-twin-pregnancies-part-iv-acardiac-onset-from-unequal-embryonic-splitting-simulated-by-a-fetoplacental-resistance-model
#10
Martin J C van Gemert, Jeroen P H M van den Wijngaard, K Marieke Paarlberg, Helena M Gardiner, Peter G J Nikkels
BACKGROUND: Benirschke postulated that acardiac twinning occurs when markedly unequal embryonic splitting combines with arterioarterial (AA) and venovenous placental anastomoses. We tested this hypothesis by model simulations and by comparison of outcomes with 18 "pseudo-" (twin fetus with beating heart but otherwise with clear signs of an acardiac) and 3 "normal" acardiac cases. METHODS: The smaller/larger cell volume ratio at embryonic splitting becomes the smaller/larger embryonic/fetal blood volume ratio (a)...
November 28, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887718/novel-centrifugal-technology-for-measuring-sperm-concentration-in-the-home
#11
Ulrich Y Schaff, Laura L Fredriksen, Jon G Epperson, Tiffany R Quebral, Sara Naab, Mark J Sarno, Michael L Eisenberg, Greg J Sommer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the analytical performance and usability of the Trak Male Fertility Testing System, a semiquantitative (categorical) device recently US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared for measuring sperm concentration in the home by untrained users. DESIGN: A three-site clinical trial comparing self-reported lay user results versus reference results obtained by computer-aided semen analysis (CASA). SETTING: Simulated home use environments at fertility centers and urologist offices...
November 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875431/do-infant-simulators-deter-teen-pregnancy
#12
Joan Zolot
Study shows girls who took simulators home had higher subsequent pregnancy rates.
December 2016: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866752/selling-antimicrobials-without-prescription-far-beyond-an-administrative-problem
#13
Maria C Guinovart, Albert Figueras, Carles Llor
INTRODUCTION: Selling antibiotics without prescription is common in many countries; beyond the administrative restrictions, this practice is a risk for patients and society. The aim of the study was to evaluate the information provided by the staff of the pharmacy to a simulated patient requesting an antibiotic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in January 2013 - February 2014 in the Health Region of Tarragona, in which a mystery shopper visited 220 pharmacies requesting an antibiotic to be sold...
November 17, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854395/prediction-of-stillbirth-from-placental-growth-factor-at-19-24-weeks
#14
J E Aupont, R Akolekar, A Illian, S Neonakis, K H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the addition of maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) measured at 19-24 weeks' gestation improves the performance of screening for stillbirth that is achieved by a combination of maternal factors, fetal biometry and uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) and to evaluate the performance of screening with this model for all stillbirths and those due to impaired placentation and unexplained or other causes. METHODS: This was a prospective screening study of 70 003 singleton pregnancies including 268 stillbirths, carried out in two phases...
November 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836979/a-mild-ovarian-stimulation-strategy-in-women-with-poor-ovarian-reserve-undergoing-ivf-a-multicenter-randomized-non-inferiority-trial
#15
M A Youssef, M van Wely, H Al-Inany, T Madani, N Jahangiri, S Khodabakhshi, M Alhalabi, M Akhondi, S Ansaripour, R Tokhmechy, L Zarandi, A Rizk, M El-Mohamedy, E Shaeer, M Khattab, M H Mochtar, F van der Veen
STUDY QUESTION: In subfertile women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF does a mild ovarian stimulation strategy lead to comparable ongoing pregnancy rates in comparison to a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy? SUMMARY ANSWER: A mild ovarian stimulation strategy in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF leads to similar ongoing pregnancy rates as a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Women diagnosed with poor ovarian reserve are treated with a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of high-dose gonadotropins and pituitary downregulation with a long mid-luteal start GnRH-agonist protocol...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788214/image-based-modeling-of-blood-flow-and-oxygen-transfer-in-feto-placental-capillaries
#16
Philip Pearce, Paul Brownbill, Jiří Janáček, Marie Jirkovská, Lucie Kubínová, Igor L Chernyavsky, Oliver E Jensen
During pregnancy, oxygen diffuses from maternal to fetal blood through villous trees in the placenta. In this paper, we simulate blood flow and oxygen transfer in feto-placental capillaries by converting three-dimensional representations of villous and capillary surfaces, reconstructed from confocal laser scanning microscopy, to finite-element meshes, and calculating values of vascular flow resistance and total oxygen transfer. The relationship between the total oxygen transfer rate and the pressure drop through the capillary is shown to be captured across a wide range of pressure drops by physical scaling laws and an upper bound on the oxygen transfer rate...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784094/caring-for-realistic-infant-simulators-does-not-deter-teenage-pregnancy
#17
Anita Slomski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773713/reassessing-the-importance-of-long-acting-contraception
#18
Quentin C Karpilow, Adam T Thomas
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have highlighted the need for greater use of long-acting contraception. The most influential of these studies is the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, which was credited with substantially reducing participants' pregnancy risk by increasing their use of long-acting methods such as intrauterine devices and subdermal implants. However, because participants' rates of nonuse and condom use fell to zero at the outset of the intervention, it is possible that sizeable pregnancy reductions could still have been achieved if enrollees had chosen shorter-acting female-controlled methods such as oral contraception...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769989/statistical-methods-for-unusual-count-data-examples-from-studies-of-microchimerism
#19
Katherine A Guthrie, Hilary S Gammill, Mads Kamper-Jørgensen, Anne Tjønneland, Vijayakrishna K Gadi, J Lee Nelson, Wendy Leisenring
Natural acquisition of small amounts of foreign cells or DNA, referred to as microchimerism, occurs primarily through maternal-fetal exchange during pregnancy. Microchimerism can persist long-term and has been associated with both beneficial and adverse human health outcomes. Quantitative microchimerism data present challenges for statistical analysis, including a skewed distribution, excess zero values, and occasional large values. Methods for comparing microchimerism levels across groups while controlling for covariates are not well established...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765195/managing-pregnancy-as-an%C3%A2-interventional%C3%A2-cardiologist-fellow-in-training-my-experience-with-a-simulator
#20
Marie Hauguel-Moreau, Julien Adjedj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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