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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732303/do-analog-number-representations-underlie-the-meanings-of-young-children-s-verbal-numerals
#1
Susan Carey, Anna Shusterman, Paul Haward, Rebecca Distefano
Children learn to count, and even learn the cardinal meanings of the first three or four verbal numerals ("one" through "three" or "four"), before they master the numerical significance of counting. If so, it follows that the cardinal meanings of those first few numerals cannot be derived, initially, from their place in the count list and the counting routine. What non-verbal representations, then, support the cardinal meanings of verbal numerals before children have mastered how counting does so? Four experiments addressed the commonly adopted assumption that in the earliest period of learning the meanings of number words, children map verbal numerals to regions of the analog number system (ANS), a system of representation with numerical content that is widely attested in animals and in human infants...
July 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732210/nursing-as-universal-and-recognisable-nursing-students-perceptions-of-learning-outcomes-from-intercultural-peer-learning-webinars-a-qualitative-study
#2
Elisabeth Carlson, Marie Stenberg, Bessie Chan, Sukki Ho, Timothy Lai, Arkers Wong, Engle Angela Chan
Nursing students need to be prepared for the increasingly culturally diverse health care. Therefore, providing students with international perspectives remains the mission of higher education. However, given the logistic and financial constraints, not all students will be able to travel overseas for their international experiences. A feasible alternative to study abroad is internationalisation-at-home where intercultural dimensions are incorporated into curriculum, without students leaving their home universities...
July 15, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732186/assessing-the-impact-of-surgeon-experience-on-urinary-continence-recovery-after-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-results-of-four-high-volume-surgeons
#3
Nicola Fossati, Ettore Di Trapani, Giorgio Gandaglia, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Paolo Umari, Nicolò Maria Buffi, Giorgio Guazzoni, Alexander Mottrie, Franco Gaboardi, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti, Nazareno Suardi
PURPOSE: To test the impact of surgeon experience on urinary continence (UC) recovery after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 1477 consecutive patients treated with RARP by four surgeons between 2006 and 2014. UC recovery was defined as being completely dry over a 24-hour period at follow-up. Surgeon experience was coded as the total number of RARP performed by the surgeon before the patient's operation. Multivariable analysis tested the association between surgeon experience and UC recovery...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732087/a-dissociation-between-engagement-and-learning-enthusiastic-instructions-fail-to-reliably-improve-performance-on-a-memory-task
#4
Benjamin A Motz, Joshua R de Leeuw, Paulo F Carvalho, Kaley L Liang, Robert L Goldstone
Despite widespread assertions that enthusiasm is an important quality of effective teaching, empirical research on the effect of enthusiasm on learning and memory is mixed and largely inconclusive. To help resolve these inconsistencies, we conducted a carefully-controlled laboratory experiment, investigating whether enthusiastic instructions for a memory task would improve recall accuracy. Scripted videos, either enthusiastic or neutral, were used to manipulate the delivery of task instructions. We also manipulated the sequence of learning items, replicating the spacing effect, a known cognitive technique for memory improvement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731839/cost-benefit-arbitration-between-multiple-reinforcement-learning-systems
#5
Wouter Kool, Samuel J Gershman, Fiery A Cushman
Human behavior is sometimes determined by habit and other times by goal-directed planning. Modern reinforcement-learning theories formalize this distinction as a competition between a computationally cheap but inaccurate model-free system that gives rise to habits and a computationally expensive but accurate model-based system that implements planning. It is unclear, however, how people choose to allocate control between these systems. Here, we propose that arbitration occurs by comparing each system's task-specific costs and benefits...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731576/influence-of-trainee-involvement-on-procedural-characteristics-for-linear-endobronchial-ultrasound
#6
Sébastien Nguyen, Nancy Ferland, Stéphane Beaudoin, Simon Martel, Mathieu Simon, Francis Laberge, Noel Lampron, Marc Fortin, Antoine Delage
BACKGROUND: Linear endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a safe and effective method for the diagnostic sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes. However, there is a learning curve associated with the procedure and operator experience influences diagnostic yield. We sought to determine if trainee involvement during EBUS influences procedural characteristics, complication rate, and diagnostic yield. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 220 subjects who underwent an EBUS procedure at our center from December 2012 to June 2013...
July 21, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731401/intraoperative-perception-and-estimates-on-extent-of-resection-during-awake-glioma-surgery-overcoming-the-learning-curve
#7
Darryl Lau, Shawn L Hervey-Jumper, Seunggu J Han, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE There is ample evidence that extent of resection (EOR) is associated with improved outcomes for glioma surgery. However, it is often difficult to accurately estimate EOR intraoperatively, and surgeon accuracy has yet to be reviewed. In this study, the authors quantitatively assessed the accuracy of intraoperative perception of EOR during awake craniotomy for tumor resection. METHODS A single-surgeon experience of performing awake craniotomies for tumor resection over a 17-year period was examined...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729951/young-children-do-not-require-perceptual-motor-feedback-to-solve-aesop-s-fable-tasks
#8
Rachael Miller, Sarah A Jelbert, Elsa Loissel, Alex H Taylor, Nicola S Clayton
Aesop's Fable tasks-in which subjects drop objects into a water-filled tube to raise the water level and obtain out-of-reach floating rewards -have been used to test for causal understanding of water displacement in both young children and non-human animals. However, a number of alternative explanations for success on these tasks have yet to be ruled out. One hypothesis is that subjects may respond to perceptual-motor feedback: repeating those actions that bring the reward incrementally closer. Here, we devised a novel, forced-choice version of the Aesop's Fable task to assess whether subjects can solve water displacement tasks when this type of feedback is removed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729324/access-and-quality-of-maternity-care-for-disabled-women-during-pregnancy-birth-and-the-postnatal-period-in-england-data-from-a-national-survey
#9
Reem Malouf, Jane Henderson, Maggie Redshaw
OBJECTIVES: More disabled women are becoming mothers, and yet, their care is rarely the focus of quantitative research. This study aimed to investigate access and quality of maternity care for women with differing disabilities. DESIGN: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a 2015 national survey of women's experience of maternity care. Descriptive and adjusted analyses were undertaken for five disability groups: physical disability, sensory impairment, mental health disability, learning disability and multiple disability, and comparisons were made with the responses of non-disabled women...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729189/the-quality-in-training-initiative-giving-residents-data-to-learn-clinical-effectiveness
#10
Morgan M Sellers, Matt Fordham, Craig W Miller, Clifford Y Ko, Rachel R Kelz
BACKGROUND: Training programs are expected to provide clinical outcomes data to residents. Few systems have the necessary infrastructure. We evaluated initial adoption and use of the Quality In-Training Initiative (QITI) platform linking National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data to trainees. STUDY DESIGN: Proportions of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education general surgery residency programs with differing levels of NSQIP and QITI affiliation were calculated and program characteristics were compared...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729138/spatial-working-memory-in-the-touchscreen-operant-platform-is-disrupted-in-female-rats-by-ovariectomy-but-not-estrous-cycle
#11
Alyssa M Sbisa, Andrea Gogos, Maarten van den Buuse
Learning and memory deficits have been described in rats and mice after ovariectomy (OVX) and across the estrous cycle. Preclinical researchers therefore often avoid using female animals and, consequently, a large male bias exists in the preclinical cognitive literature. In the present study we examined the role of sex hormones in the touchscreen operant platform using the spatial working memory trial unique nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task. Twenty-nine Long Evans rats were trained to acquire the TUNL task including three incremental spatial separations (S0, S1, S2)...
July 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728997/sepsis-reconsidered-identifying-novel-metrics-for-behavioral-landscape-characterization-with-a-high-performance-computing-implementation-of-an-agent-based-model
#12
Chase Cockrell, Gary An
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis affects nearly 1 million people in the United States per year, has a mortality rate of 28-50% and requires more than $20 billion a year in hospital costs. Over a quarter century of research has not yielded a single reliable diagnostic test or a directed therapeutic agent for sepsis. Central to this insufficiency is the fact that sepsis remains a clinical/physiological diagnosis representing a multitude of molecularly heterogeneous pathological trajectories. Advances in computational capabilities offered by High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms call for an evolution in the investigation of sepsis to attempt to define the boundaries of traditional research (bench, clinical and computational) through the use of computational proxy models...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728899/machine-learning-enabled-discovery-and-design-of-membrane-active-peptides
#13
Ernest Y Lee, Gerard C L Wong, Andrew L Ferguson
Antimicrobial peptides are a class of membrane-active peptides that form a critical component of innate host immunity and possess a diversity of sequence and structure. Machine learning approaches have been profitably employed to efficiently screen sequence space and guide experiment towards promising candidates with high putative activity. In this mini-review, we provide an introduction to antimicrobial peptides and summarize recent advances in machine learning-enabled antimicrobial peptide discovery and design with a focus on a recent work Lee et al...
July 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728770/don-t-push-your-luck-educational-family-board-not-bored-game-for-school-age-children-living-with-chronic-conditions
#14
Andrea Kennedy, Lisa Semple, Kerri Alderson, Vanessa Bouskill, Janice Karasevich, Brenda Riske, Sheri van Gunst
PURPOSE: Children who are living with chronic conditions may be supported in self-care through enjoyable active learning and family social processes. This research focused on development and evaluation of "Don't Push Your Luck!", an educational board game designed to inspire family discussion about chronic conditions, and help affected children learn about self-care choices and consequences. DESIGN AND METHODS: Mixed-method research was conducted with families from one outpatient Cystic Fibrosis Clinic and four Hemophilia Treatment Centres in Canada and United States (N=72)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728759/school-nurses-experiences-and-perceptions-of-healthy-eating-school-environments
#15
Jean Muckian, Julia Snethen, Aaron Buseh
School nurses provide health promotion and health services within schools, as healthy children have a greater potential for optimal learning. One of the school nurses' role is in encouraging healthy eating and increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables in the school. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe school nurses' perceptions of their role in promoting increased fruit and vegetable consumption in the school setting. One avenue to increased availability of fruits and vegetables in schools is Farm to School programs mandated by the Federal government to improve the health of school children...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728037/including-the-online-feedback-site-patient-opinion-in-the-nursing-curriculum-exploratory-study
#16
Ray Jones, Kim Young, James Munro, Heather Miller, Stephanie Brelsford, Jennie Aronsson, Benny Goodman, Jane Peters
BACKGROUND: Globally, universities aim to involve people who use health services to enrich the nursing curriculum for students, but there can be barriers to this involvement. Many also want students to contribute to local communities. Online communication can help connect students to service users to achieve these aims. The online British patient feedback site, Patient Opinion, gathers comments from service users about services and encourages service responses to the comments. OBJECTIVES: To explore the feasibility and acceptability of five ways of including Patient Opinion in the undergraduate nursing curriculum...
July 12, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727749/student-perception-of-group-dynamics-predicts-individual-performance-comfort-and-equity-matter
#17
Elli J Theobald, Sarah L Eddy, Daniel Z Grunspan, Benjamin L Wiggins, Alison J Crowe
Active learning in college classes and participation in the workforce frequently hinge on small group work. However, group dynamics vary, ranging from equitable collaboration to dysfunctional groups dominated by one individual. To explore how group dynamics impact student learning, we asked students in a large-enrollment university biology class to self-report their experience during in-class group work. Specifically, we asked students whether there was a friend in their group, whether they were comfortable in their group, and whether someone dominated their group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727565/danoc-an-efficient-algorithm-and-hardware-codesign-of-deep-neural-networks-on-chip
#18
Xichuan Zhou, Shengli Li, Fang Tang, Shengdong Hu, Zhi Lin, Lei Zhang
Deep neural networks (NNs) are the state-of-the-art models for understanding the content of images and videos. However, implementing deep NNs in embedded systems is a challenging task, e.g., a typical deep belief network could exhaust gigabytes of memory and result in bandwidth and computational bottlenecks. To address this challenge, this paper presents an algorithm and hardware codesign for efficient deep neural computation. A hardware-oriented deep learning algorithm, named the deep adaptive network, is proposed to explore the sparsity of neural connections...
July 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727547/designing-and-implementation-of-stable-sinusoidal-rough-neural-identifier
#19
Ghasem Ahmadi, Mohammad Teshnehlab
A rough neuron is defined as a pair of conventional neurons that are called the upper and lower bound neurons. In this paper, the sinusoidal rough-neural networks (SR-NNs) are used to identify the discrete dynamic nonlinear systems (DDNSs) with or without noise in series-parallel configuration. In the identification of periodic nonlinear systems, sinusoidal activation functions provide more efficient neural networks than the sigmoidal activation functions. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, an online learning algorithm is developed to train the SR-NNs...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727390/use-of-indocyanine-green-angiography-in-microsurgical-subinguinal-varicocelectomy-lessons-learned-from-our-initial-experience
#20
Chak-Lam Cho, Kwan-Lun Ho, Wayne Kwun-Wai Chan, Ringo Wing-Hong Chu, In-Chak Law
Microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy (MSV) is generally considered the gold standard nowadays in view of the lower risk of complications and recurrence. To achieve complete ligation of veins while preserving testicular artery (TA) during the procedure remains challenging despite the application of high power optical magnification and micro-Doppler ultrasonography. The use of intraoperative indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) with infrared fluorescence operative micro-scope in MSV potentially lowers the incidence of TA injury and shortens the learning curve of nov-ice surgeons...
July 20, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
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