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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677553/developmental-change-in-tone-perception-in-mandarin-monolingual-english-monolingual-and-mandarin-english-bilingual-infants-divergences-between-monolingual-and-bilingual-learners
#1
Leher Singh, Charlene S L Fu, Xian Hui Seet, Ashley P Y Tong, Joelle L Wang, Catherine T Best
Most languages use lexical tone to discriminate the meanings of words. There has been recent interest in tracking the development of tone categories during infancy. These studies have focused largely on monolingual infants learning either a tone language or a non-tone language. It remains to be seen how bilingual infants learning one tone language (e.g., Mandarin) and one non-tone language (e.g., English) discriminate tones. Here, we examined infants' discrimination of two Mandarin tones pairs: one salient and one subtle...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677322/attention-based-perceptual-learning-does-not-affect-access-to-awareness
#2
Chris L E Paffen, Surya Gayet, Micha Heilbron, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Visual information that is relevant for an observer gains prioritized access to awareness (Gayet, Van der Stigchel, & Paffen, 2014). Here we investigate whether information that was relevant for an extended duration is prioritized for access to awareness when it is no longer relevant. We applied a perceptual-learning paradigm, in which observers were trained for 3 days on a speed-discrimination task. This task used a stimulus consisting of two motion directions, of which one was relevant to the task and one irrelevant...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676687/christopher-hitchens-public-dying-toward-a-secular-humanist-ars-moriendi
#3
Michael Brennan
This article explores the public dying of journalist, writer, provocateur, public intellectual, and renowned atheist, Christopher Hitchens. It does so primarily through an analysis of television interviews given by Hitchens following his diagnosis with esophageal cancer in June 2010. Four key themes are identified as emerging from analysis of the interviews: (a) Hitchens' explicit sense of mission in challenging myths and superstitions surrounding cancer, dying, and death; (b) the personal experience of terminal illness and dying and the particular way (or style of dying) by which it is approached; (c) issues of regret and a life well lived; and (d) questions surrounding religion, the afterlife, and possibility of deathbed conversion...
June 2018: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676614/sourcebook-update-intestinal-smooth-muscle-contractility-and-autonomic-control
#4
Philip D Langton
This laboratory practical requires first-year students to anticipate the effects of drugs active at cholinergic and adrenergic receptors on gut motility in order to design experiments during an authentic inquiry exercise. Rather than specifying a strict sequence of drug additions that aim to provide ideal demonstrations of pharmacological and physiological antagonism, I have instead designed switches into the drugs provided and set students, working in small teams, the task of identifying the switched drugs, an inquiry activity...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676613/workshop-report-using-social-media-and-smartphone-applications-in-practical-lessons-to-enhance-student-learning-in-b%C3%A3%C2%BAzios-brazil-august-6-8-2017
#5
Camilo Lellis-Santos, Patricia A Halpin
Cost-effective student engagement poses a challenge for instructors, especially those who may not be familiar with new technologies and mobile devices. In this workshop, participants, experienced and discussed two ways of using smartphones in physiology classes: to engage in an online learning environment for discussions, and to make physiological measurements. Participants signed up for individual Twitter accounts and learned how to tweet, retweet, message, use a URL shortener, and use hashtags. They then went on to locate articles on an assigned topic from the Twitter accounts of credible science sources ( American Journal of Physiology, The Scientist, CDC...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676524/sonogames-effect-of-an-innovative-competitive-game-on-the-education-perception-and-use-of-point-of-care-ultrasound
#6
Andrew S Liteplo, Kristin Carmody, Matt J Fields, Rachel B Liu, Resa E Lewiss
OBJECTIVES: Gamification is a powerful tool in medical education. SonoGames is a competitive games-based event designed to educate and inspire emergency medicine (EM) residents about point-of-care ultrasound. We sought to describe: (1) the perceived effectiveness of a competitive event on both immediate learning and long-term education; and (2) the resultant attitudes of participants and program directors regarding ultrasound training. METHODS: The SonoGames Organizational Committee designed 2 surveys: 1 for SonoGames V EM resident participants and a second for EM program directors...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676286/automated-human-skull-landmarking-with-2d-gabor-wavelets
#7
Markus A de Jong, Atilla Gül, Jan Pieter de Gijt, Maarten J Koudstaal, Manfred Kayser, Eppo B Wolvius, Stefan Böhringer
Landmarking of CT scans is an important step in the alignment of skulls that is key in surgery planning, pre-/post-surgery comparisons, and morphometric studies. We present a novel method for automatically locating anatomical landmarks on the surface of cone beam CT-based image models of human skulls using 2D Gabor wavelets and ensemble learning. The algorithm is validated via human inter- and intra-rater comparisons on a set of 39 scans and a skull superimposition experiment with an established surgery planning software (Maxilim)...
April 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675310/machine-learning-approach-for-single-molecule-localisation-microscopy
#8
Silvia Colabrese, Marco Castello, Giuseppe Vicidomini, Alessio Del Bue
Single molecule localisation (SML) microscopy is a fundamental tool for biological discoveries; it provides sub-diffraction spatial resolution images by detecting and localizing "all" the fluorescent molecules labeling the structure of interest. For this reason, the effective resolution of SML microscopy strictly depends on the algorithm used to detect and localize the single molecules from the series of microscopy frames. To adapt to the different imaging conditions that can occur in a SML experiment, all current localisation algorithms request, from the microscopy users, the choice of different parameters...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674988/a-virtual-object-location-task-for-children-gender-and-videogame-experience-influence-navigation-age-impacts-memory-and-completion-time
#9
David Rodriguez-Andres, Magdalena Mendez-Lopez, M-Carmen Juan, Elena Perez-Hernandez
The use of virtual reality-based tasks for studying memory has increased considerably. Most of the studies that have looked at child population factors that influence performance on such tasks have been focused on cognitive variables. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of non-cognitive skills. In the present paper, we tested 52 typically-developing children aged 5-12 years in a virtual object-location task. The task assessed their spatial short-term memory for the location of three objects in a virtual city...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674986/comparing-feedback-types-in-multimedia-learning-of-speech-by-young-children-with-common-speech-sound-disorders-research-protocol-for-a-pretest-posttest-independent-measures-control-trial
#10
Wendy Doubé, Paul Carding, Kieran Flanagan, Jordy Kaufman, Hannah Armitage
Children with speech sound disorders benefit from feedback about the accuracy of sounds they make. Home practice can reinforce feedback received from speech pathologists. Games in mobile device applications could encourage home practice, but those currently available are of limited value because they are unlikely to elaborate "Correct"/"Incorrect" feedback with information that can assist in improving the accuracy of the sound. This protocol proposes a "Wizard of Oz" experiment that aims to provide evidence for the provision of effective multimedia feedback for speech sound development...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674234/spiking-neural-networks-for-handwritten-digit-recognition-supervised-learning-and-network-optimization
#11
Shruti R Kulkarni, Bipin Rajendran
We demonstrate supervised learning in Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) for the problem of handwritten digit recognition using the spike triggered Normalized Approximate Descent (NormAD) algorithm. Our network that employs neurons operating at sparse biological spike rates below 300Hz achieves a classification accuracy of 98.17% on the MNIST test database with four times fewer parameters compared to the state-of-the-art. We present several insights from extensive numerical experiments regarding optimization of learning parameters and network configuration to improve its accuracy...
April 6, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673608/scadi-a-standard-dataset-for-self-care-problems-classification-of-children-with-physical-and-motor-disability
#12
M S Zarchi, S M M Fatemi Bushehri, M Dehghanizadeh
Self-care problems diagnosis and classification is an important challenge in exceptional children health care systems. Since, self-care problems classification is a time-consuming process and requires expert occupational therapists, using an expert system in classifying these problems can decrease cost and time, efficiently. Expert systems refer to the systems that are based on artificial intelligence methods, which have the ability to learn, infer, and predict. In order to configure and train an expert system, a standard dataset is critical for the learning phase...
June 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673482/dunce-phosphodiesterase-acts-as-a-checkpoint-for-drosophila-long-term-memory-in-a-pair-of-serotonergic-neurons
#13
Lisa Scheunemann, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Yann Dromard, Martin Schwärzel, Thomas Preat
A key function of the brain is to filter essential information and store it in the form of stable, long-term memory (LTM). We demonstrate here that the Dunce (Dnc) phosphodiesterase, an important enzyme that degrades cAMP, acts as a molecular switch that controls LTM formation in Drosophila. We show that, during LTM formation, Dnc is inhibited in the SPN, a pair of newly characterized serotonergic neurons, which stimulates the cAMP/PKA pathway. As a consequence, the SPN activates downstream dopaminergic neurons, opening the gate for LTM formation in the olfactory memory center, the mushroom body...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672937/see-reflect-learn-more-qualitative-analysis-of-breaking-bad-news-reflective-narratives
#14
Orit Karnieli-Miller, Michal Palombo, Dafna Meitar
CONTEXT: Breaking bad news (BBN) is a challenge that requires multiple professional competencies. BBN teaching often includes didactic and group role-playing sessions. Both are useful and important, but exclude another critical component of students' learning: day-to-day role-model observation in the clinics. Given the importance of observation and the potential benefit of reflective writing in teaching, we have incorporated reflective writing into our BBN course. The aim of this study was to enhance our understanding of the learning potential in reflective writing about BBN encounters and the ability to identify components that inhibit this learning...
May 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672581/compositional-clustering-in-task-structure-learning
#15
Nicholas T Franklin, Michael J Frank
Humans are remarkably adept at generalizing knowledge between experiences in a way that can be difficult for computers. Often, this entails generalizing constituent pieces of experiences that do not fully overlap, but nonetheless share useful similarities with, previously acquired knowledge. However, it is often unclear how knowledge gained in one context should generalize to another. Previous computational models and data suggest that rather than learning about each individual context, humans build latent abstract structures and learn to link these structures to arbitrary contexts, facilitating generalization...
April 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672344/preoperative-predictive-factors-of-conversions-in-laparoscopic-splenectomies
#16
Rosario Vecchio, Sebastian M Milluzzo, Graziano Troina, Emma Cacciola, Rossella R Cacciola, Renato S Catalano, Marco Caputo
PURPOSE: Presently, laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is being performed for several indications in clinical practice. However, conversion to open surgery is occasionally required in some patients. We analyzed the intraoperative indications and potential preoperative predictors associated with conversion to open surgery in those presenting for LS. METHODS: We reviewed 107 patients who underwent LS. We analyzed the surgical indications, spleen size, surgical procedure performed, operative time, rate of and indications for conversions, as well as postoperative complications...
April 18, 2018: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672256/an-analysis-of-vr-technology-used-in-immersive-simulations-with-a-serious-game-perspective
#17
Aline Menin, Rafael Torchelsen, Luciana Nedel
Using virtual environments (VEs) is a safer and cost-effective alternative to executing dangerous tasks, such as training firefighters and industrial operators. Immersive virtual reality (VR) combined with game aspects have the potential to improve the user experience in the VE by increasing realism, engagement, and motivation. This article investigates the impact of VR technology on 46 immersive gamified simulations with serious purposes and classifies it towards a taxonomy. Our findings suggest that immersive VR improves simulation outcomes, such as increasing learning gain and knowledge retention and improving clinical outcomes for rehabilitation...
March 2018: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672113/increased-cognitive-load-enables-unlearning-in-procedural-category-learning
#18
Matthew J Crossley, W Todd Maddox, F Gregory Ashby
Interventions for drug abuse and other maladaptive habitual behaviors may yield temporary success but are often fragile and relapse is common. This implies that current interventions do not erase or substantially modify the representations that support the underlying addictive behavior-that is, they do not cause true unlearning. One example of an intervention that fails to induce true unlearning comes from Crossley, Ashby, and Maddox (2013, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General), who reported that a sudden shift to random feedback did not cause unlearning of category knowledge obtained through procedural systems, and they also reported results suggesting that this failure is because random feedback is noncontingent on behavior...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672108/a-greater-tendency-for-representation-mediated-learning-in-a-ketamine-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#19
Ming Teng Koh, Paige S Ahrens, Michela Gallagher
Representation mediated learning is a behavioral paradigm that could be used to potentially capture psychotic symptoms including hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia. In studies of mediated learning, representations of prior experience can enter into current associations. Using a ketamine model of schizophrenia, we investigated whether mice exposed to ketamine during late adolescence subsequently showed an increased tendency to use a representation of a prior gustatory experience to form associations in learning...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671920/who-said-dialogue-conversations-are-easy-the-communication-between-communication-vulnerable-people-and-health-care-professionals-a-qualitative-study
#20
Steffy E A Stans, Ruth J P Dalemans, Uta R Roentgen, Hester W H Smeets, Anna J H M Beurskens
OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into how communication vulnerable people and health-care professionals experience the communication in dialogue conversations, and how they adjust their conversation using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) or other communication strategies. METHODS: Communication vulnerable clients and health-care professionals in a long-term care institution were observed during a dialogue conversation (n = 11) and subsequently interviewed (n = 22) about their experiences with the conversation...
April 19, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
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