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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055101/substance-p-and-dopamine-interact-to-modulate-the-distribution-of-delta-opioid-receptors-on-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-striatum
#1
Emily Heath, Billy Chieng, Macdonald J Christie, Bernard W Balleine
It recently been demonstrated that predictive learning induces a persistent accumulation of delta-opioid receptors (DOPr's) at the somatic membrane of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in the nucleus accumbens shell (Nac-S). This accumulation is required for predictive learning to influence subsequent choice between goal-directed actions. The current experiments investigated the local neurochemical events responsible for this translocation. We found that (1) local administration of substance P into multiple striatal sub-territories induced DOPr translocation and (2) that this effect was mediated by the NK1 receptor, likely through its expression on CINs...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054591/us-alone-trials-presented-during-acquisition-do-not-disrupt-classical-eyeblink-conditioning-empirical-and-computational-findings
#2
M T Allen, C E Myers, D Williams, R J Servatius
Studies of partial reinforcement in eyeblink conditioning have typically shown slower learning of a CS-US association when paired CS-US trials are interleaved with CS-alone trials. However, recent work has shown that CS-US learning is not slowed by interleaved US-alone trials. This discrepancy is surprising since both partial reinforcement protocols reduce the total number of paired CS-US trials. Previously, Kimble et al. (1955) reported that inserting a block of US-alone trials during CS-US training did not disrupt eyeblink acquisition...
October 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054345/the-effect-of-formal-robotic-residency-training-on-the-adoption-of-minimally-invasive-surgery-by-young-colorectal-surgeons
#3
David E Disbrow, Stephanie M Pannell, Beth-Ann Shanker, Jeremy Albright, Juan Wu, Amir Bastawrous, Mark Soliman, Jane Ferraro, Robert K Cleary
OBJECTIVE: The minimally invasive approach to colorectal surgery is still underused. Only 50% to 60% of colectomies and 10% to 20% of rectal resections for cancer are performed laparoscopically. The increasing adoption of the robotic platform for colorectal surgery warrants re-evaluation of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) training techniques. Although considering lessons learned from past laparoscopic training, a standardized national robotic training program for colon and rectal surgery residents was developed and implemented in 2011...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054104/integrating-gerontology-and-community-concepts-through-simulation
#4
Jacqueline Kayler DeBrew, Susan Hensley-Hannah
This article describes an innovative simulation experience for nursing students. Faculty from a community health nursing course and a course in gerontology worked together to provide a comprehensive simulation experience that combined low-fidelity and high-fidelity experiences that provided an integrated learning experience and gave faculty with an opportunity to collaborate to improve outcomes. Student and faculty feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Future plans include incorporating a third didactic course, Leadership and Management, and working with other disciplines to demonstrate interprofessional collaboration...
November 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054102/supporting-faculty-during-pedagogical-change-through-reflective-teaching-practice-an-innovative-approach
#5
Deborah K Armstrong, Marilyn E Asselin
Given the recent calls for transformation of nursing education, it is critical that faculty be reflective educators. Reflective teaching practice is a process of self-examination and self-evaluation to gain insight into teaching to improve the teaching-learning experience. Limited attention has been given to this notion in the nursing education literature. An innovative reflective teaching practice approach for nursing education is proposed, consisting of question cues, journaling, and a process of facilitated meetings...
November 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054101/virtual-simulated-care-coordination-rounds-for-nursing-students
#6
Donna M Badowski
Implementation of the Affordable Care Act has nursing education reflecting on paradigm shifts in order to prepare nursing students for the evolving health care environment. The traditional focus of nursing education on nursing care in acute care settings does not provide learning experiences in care coordination and transitional care management skills. Virtual simulated care coordination rounds, using the National League for Nursing Advancing Care Excellence resources, offer nursing students an innovative experience in care coordination and transition care management...
November 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053530/innovative-teaching-for-undergraduate-nursing-students-through-mastery-modeling
#7
Kathleen A Gordon, Kelly E Carmany, Janet R Baker, Laura M Goliat
Mastery modeling was implemented to support the transfer of classroom diabetes content to the clinical area. Interactive teaching methodologies that exemplified mastery modeling included scripted classroom video and vignettes, simulation-based learning experiences, and a worksheet relating to diabetes-specific groups to use in the clinical setting. When mastery modeling teaching methodologies were implemented, transfer of knowledge through clinical reasoning was noted at a higher level for the diabetes-specific groups over the standard groups...
October 20, 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053460/sdl-saliency-based-dictionary-learning-framework-for-image-similarity
#8
Rituparna Sarkar, Scott T Acton
In image classification, obtaining adequate data to learn a robust classifier has often proven to be difficult in several scenarios. Classification of histological tissue images for health care analysis is a notable application in this context due to the necessity of surgery, biopsy or autopsy. To adequately exploit limited training data in classification, we propose a saliency guided dictionary learning method and subsequently an image similarity technique for histo-pathological image classification. Salient object detection from images aids in the identification of discriminative image features...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053223/the-utility-of-adaptive-elearning-in-cervical-cytopathology-education
#9
T Danielle Samulski, Laura A Taylor, Teresa La, Chelsea R Mehr, Cindy M McGrath, Roseann I Wu
BACKGROUND: Adaptive eLearning allows students to experience a self-paced, individualized curriculum based on prior knowledge and learning ability. METHODS: The authors investigated the effectiveness of adaptive online modules in teaching cervical cytopathology. eLearning modules were created that covered basic concepts in cervical cytopathology, including artifacts and infections, squamous lesions (SL), and glandular lesions (GL). The modules used student responses to individualize the educational curriculum and provide real-time feedback...
October 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052730/the-reward-of-seeing-different-types-of-visual-reward-and-their-ability-to-modify-oculomotor-learning
#10
Annegret Meermeier, Svenja Gremmler, Kerstin Richert, Til Eckermann, Markus Lappe
Saccadic adaptation is an oculomotor learning process that maintains the accuracy of eye movements to ensure effective perception of the environment. Although saccadic adaptation is commonly considered an automatic and low-level motor calibration in the cerebellum, we recently found that strength of adaptation is influenced by the visual content of the target: pictures of humans produced stronger adaptation than noise stimuli. This suggests that meaningful images may be considered rewarding or valuable in oculomotor learning...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052364/sensorimotor-learning-and-associated-visual-perception-are-intact-but-unrelated-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Spencer J Hayes, Matthew Andrew, Nathan C Foster, Digby Elliott, Emma Gowen, Simon J Bennett
Humans show an astonishing capability to learn sensorimotor behaviours. However, data from sensorimotor learning experiments suggest the integration of efferent sensorimotor commands, afferent sensorimotor information, and visual consequences of a performed action during learning is different in autism, leading to atypical representation of internal action models. Here, we investigated the generalization of a sensorimotor internal action model formed during sensorimotor learning to a different, but associated, visual perception task...
October 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052343/learning-lessons-from-the-analysis-of-patient-complaints-relating-to-staff-attitudes-behaviour-and-communication-using-the-concept-of-emotional-labour
#12
Rhona Hogg, Janet Hanley, Pam Smith
OBJECTIVES: This paper explores the content of letters of complaint by patients and carers about the behaviour, attitudes and communication of healthcare staff. BACKGROUND: The most common focus of patient complaints in the UK and other high-income countries is staff attitudes, behaviour and communication. There is a move to learn lessons from patient complaints which can be used to improve patient care and experience. METHODS: Fifty letters of complaint made by patients and carers relating to the behaviour, attitudes and communication of healthcare staff were analysed...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052307/instrumental-learning-and-cognitive-flexibility-processes-are-impaired-in-children-exposed-to-early-life-stress
#13
Madeline B Harms, Katherine E Shannon Bowen, Jamie L Hanson, Seth D Pollak
Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings...
October 19, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052241/symbol-grounding-without-direct-experience-do-words-inherit-sensorimotor-activation-from-purely-linguistic-context
#14
Fritz Günther, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Theories of embodied cognition assume that concepts are grounded in non-linguistic, sensorimotor experience. In support of this assumption, previous studies have shown that upwards response movements are faster than downwards movements after participants have been presented with words whose referents are typically located in the upper vertical space (and vice versa for downwards responses). This is taken as evidence that processing these words reactivates sensorimotor experiential traces. This congruency effect was also found for novel words, after participants learned these words as labels for novel objects that they encountered either in their upper or lower visual field...
October 19, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052113/stimulus-preexposure-speeds-or-slows-subsequent-acquisition-of-associative-learning-depending-on-learning-test-procedures-and-response-measure
#15
Peter C Holland
Prior exposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS) typically results in latent inhibition-slower acquisition of associative learning about that stimulus in subsequent training. Here, we found that CS preexposure had different effects on the appetitive conditioning of rats with a sucrose unconditioned stimulus (US) depending on training test procedures, the similarity of preexposure and training procedures, and the choice of response measure. Preexposure to a visual or an auditory stimulus produced facilitation of acquisition of food-cup-directed responding when both of those cues were (separately) paired with sucrose delivery in the training test (Experiments 1 and 3)...
October 19, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052112/divergences-in-learning-and-memory-among-wild-zebrafish-do-sex-and-body-size-play-a-role
#16
Tamal Roy, Anuradha Bhat
Given its diverse ecological distribution, zebrafish has great potential for investigations on the effect of habitat characteristics on cognition. Studies were conducted on four wild-caught zebrafish populations to understand the role of native habitat, sex, and body size in determining learning through a novel task associated with a food reward. The habitat variables, namely, the relative abundances of zebrafish and predatory fish and the substrate and vegetation diversity, were quantified during fish sampling...
October 19, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051330/cross-cultural-differences-in-communication-about-a-dying-child
#17
Donald Cochran, Sarosh Saleem, Sumaira Khowaja-Punjwani, John D Lantos
There are more migrants, refugees, and immigrants adrift in the world today than at any time in the recent past. Doctors and hospitals must care for people from many different cultures, countries, and religious backgrounds. We sometimes find our own deeply held beliefs and values challenged. In this "Ethics Rounds," we present a case in which a Pakistani immigrant family faces a tragic medical situation and wants to deal with it in ways that might be normative in their own culture but are aberrant in ours. We asked the American doctors and 2 Pakistani health professionals to think through the issues...
October 19, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051028/social-touch-interacts-with-infants-learning-of-auditory-patterns
#18
Casey Lew-Williams, Brock Ferguson, Rana Abu-Zhaya, Amanda Seidl
Infants' experiences are defined by the presence of concurrent streams of perceptual information in social environments. Touch from caregivers is an especially pervasive feature of early development. Using three lab experiments and a corpus of naturalistic caregiver-infant interactions, we examined the relevance of touch in supporting infants' learning of structure in an altogether different modality: audition. In each experiment, infants listened to sequences of sine-wave tones following the same abstract pattern (e...
September 29, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051027/the-conception-of-the-abcd-study-from-substance-use-to-a-broad-nih-collaboration
#19
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, George F Koob, Robert T Croyle, Diana W Bianchi, Joshua A Gordon, Walter J Koroshetz, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable, William T Riley, Michele H Bloch, Kevin Conway, Bethany G Deesds, Gayathri J Dowling, Steven Grant, Katia D Howlett, John A Matochik, Glen D Morgan, Margaret M Murray, Antonio Noronha, Catherine Y Spong, Eric M Wargo, Kenneth R Warren, Susan R B Weiss
Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes in brain structure and function, and the adolescent brain is highly susceptible to being altered by experiences like substance use. However, there is much we have yet to learn about how these experiences influence brain development, how they promote or interfere with later health outcomes, or even what healthy brain development looks like. A large longitudinal study beginning in early adolescence could help us understand the normal variability in adolescent brain and cognitive development and tease apart the many factors that influence it...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049264/learning-from-clinical-experience-with-necrotizing-fasciitis-treatment-and-management
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
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