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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212388/multiple-processes-in-two-dimensional-visual-statistical-learning
#1
Eiichi Hoshino, Ken Mogi
Knowledge about the arrangement of visual elements is an important aspect of perception. This study investigates whether humans learn rules of two-dimensional abstract patterns (exemplars) generated from Reber's artificial grammar. The key question is whether the subjects can implicitly learn them without explicit instructions, and, if so, how they use the acquired knowledge to judge new patterns (probes) in relation to their finite experience of the exemplars. The analysis was conducted using dissimilarities among patterns, which are defined with n-gram probabilities and the Levenshtein distance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212380/correction-psychotic-experiences-and-overhasty-inferences-are-related-to-maladaptive-learning
#2
Heiner Stuke, Hannes Stuke, Veith Andreas Weilnhammer, Katharina Schmack
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005328.].
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212138/deep-learning-in-mammography-diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-multipurpose-image-analysis-software-in-the-detection-of-breast-cancer
#3
Anton S Becker, Magda Marcon, Soleen Ghafoor, Moritz C Wurnig, Thomas Frauenfelder, Andreas Boss
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a multipurpose image analysis software based on deep learning with artificial neural networks for the detection of breast cancer in an independent, dual-center mammography data set. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study, all patients undergoing mammography in 2012 at our institution were reviewed (n = 3228). All of their prior and follow-up mammographies from a time span of 7 years (2008-2015) were considered as a reference for clinical diagnosis...
February 16, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212101/fast-solving-quasi-optimal-ls-s-%C3%A2-vm-based-on-an-extended-candidate-set
#4
Yuefeng Ma, Xun Liang, James T Kwok, Jianping Li, Xiaoping Zhou, Haiyan Zhang
The semisupervised least squares support vector machine (LS-S³VM) is an important enhancement of least squares support vector machines in semisupervised learning. Given that most data collected from the real world are without labels, semisupervised approaches are more applicable than standard supervised approaches. Although a few training methods for LS-S³VM exist, the problem of deriving the optimal decision hyperplane efficiently and effectually has not been solved. In this paper, a fully weighted model of LS-S³VM is proposed, and a simple integer programming (IP) model is introduced through an equivalent transformation to solve the model...
February 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212086/salient-object-detection-via-multiple-instance-learning
#5
Fang Huang, Qi Jinqing, Huchuan Lu, Lihe Zhang, Xiang Ruan
Object proposals are a series of candidate segments containing objects of interest, which are taken as preprocessing and widely applied in various vision tasks. However, most of existing saliency approaches only utilize the proposals to compute a location prior. In this paper, we naturally take the proposals as the bags of instances of multiple instance learning (MIL), where the instances are the superpixels contained in the proposals, and formulate saliency detection problem as a MIL task (i.e., predict the labels of instances using the classifier in the MIL framework)...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212079/multi-view-multi-instance-learning-based-on-joint-sparse-representation-and-multi-view-dictionary-learning
#6
Bing Li, Chunfeng Yuan, Weihua Xiong, Weiming Hu, Houwen Peng, Xinmiao Ding, Stephen Maybank
In multi-instance learning (MIL), the relations among instances in a bag convey important contextual information in many applications. Previous studies on MIL either ignore such relations or simply model them with a fixed graph structure so that the overall performance inevitably degrades in complex environments. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel multi-view multi-instance learning algorithm (M2IL) that combines multiple context structures in a bag into a unified framework. The novel aspects are: (i) we propose a sparse "-graph model that can generate different graphs with different parameters to represent various context relations in a bag, (ii) we propose a multi-view joint sparse representation that integrates these graphs into a unified framework for bag classification, and (iii) we propose a multi-view dictionary learning algorithm to obtain a multi-view graph dictionary that considers cues from all views simultaneously to improve the discrimination of the M2IL...
February 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210793/a-national-population-based-cohort-study-of-urethral-injection-therapy-for-female-stress-and-mixed-urinary-incontinence-the-danish-urogynaecological-database-2007-2011
#7
Margrethe Foss Hansen, Gunnar Lose, Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel, Kim Oren Gradel
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Urethral injection therapy (UIT) has been performed since the early 20th century and a variety of agents have been launched. In 2006, polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAGH) was introduced and is now widely used as an agent. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of PAGH based on a national population over a 5-year period (2007-2011) and the influence of patient-related factors, surgeon experience, and department volume. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out based on data from the Danish Urogynaecological Database (DugaBase)...
February 16, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209701/patient-and-citizen-innovation-council-in-family-practice
#8
Ron T Garnett, Jane Bowman, Joanne Ganton
PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Patient engagement is integral to the Patient's Medical Home model. Patient-centred care is more than what happens in the examination room. Decisions around clinic processes, work flow, and initiative prioritization also warrant a patient perspective. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: The Academic Family Medicine Clinic at the South Health Campus in Calgary, Alta, identified a need for patient and community advisory expertise regarding clinic initiatives and quality improvement...
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209560/from-the-experience-of-interactivity-and-entertainment-to-lower-intention-to-smoke-a-randomized-controlled-trial-and-path-analysis-of-a-web-based-smoking-prevention-program-for-adolescents
#9
Georges Elias Khalil, Hua Wang, Karen Sue Calabro, Natasha Mitra, Ross Shegog, Alexander V Prokhorov
BACKGROUND: Web-based programs for smoking prevention are being increasingly used with some success among adolescents. However, little is known about the mechanisms that link the experience of such programs to intended nicotine or tobacco control outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Based on the experiential learning theory and extended elaboration likelihood model, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of a Web-based intervention, A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), on adolescents' intention to smoke, while considering the experience of interactivity and entertainment as predictors of reduced intention to smoke, under a transitional user experience model...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209429/nurses-experiences-of-what-constitutes-the-encounter-with-children-visiting-a-sick-parent-at-an-adult-icu
#10
Susanne Knutsson, Karin Enskär, Marie Golsäter
BACKGROUND: Despite a cultural change in visitation policies for children (0-17 years) in the intensive care unit (ICU) to a more open approach, children are still restricted from visiting for various reasons. To overcome these obstacles, it is vital to determine what is needed while encountering a child. AIM: To elucidate nurses' experiences of what constitutes the encounter with children visiting a sick parent in an adult ICU. METHOD: An explorative inductive qualitative design was used, entailing focus group interviews with 23 nurses working at a general ICU...
February 13, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209208/food-safety-in-vietnam-where-we-are-at-and-what-we-can-learn-from-international-experiences
#11
Hung Nguyen-Viet, Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh, Fred Unger, Sinh Dang-Xuan, Delia Grace
Food-borne diseases are attracting a lot of attention in Vietnam as a result of repeated episodes of adulterated and unsafe food. In this paper, we provide some perspectives on food safety in Vietnam from the point of view of an international research institution working on food safety with partners in the country. We argue that one of the key issues of food safety in Vietnam is that certain food value chain stakeholders lack ethics, which leads to the production and trading of unsafe foods in order to make profits irrespective of adverse health effects on consumers...
February 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209122/effects-and-meanings-of-a-person-centred-and-health-promoting-intervention-in-home-care-services-a-study-protocol-of-a-non-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Karin Bölenius, Kristina Lämås, Per-Olof Sandman, David Edvardsson
BACKGROUND: The literature indicates that current home care service are largely task oriented with limited focus on the involvement of the older people themselves, and studies show that lack of involvement might reduce older people's quality of life. Person-centred care has been shown to improve the satisfaction with care and quality of life in older people cared for in hospitals and nursing homes, with limited published evidence about the effects and meanings of person-centred interventions in home care services for older people...
February 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208966/study-of-parental-perceptions-on-health-social-needs-of-children-with-neuro-developmental-disability-and-it-s-impact-on-the-family
#13
Nusrat Jahan Rafique Ansari, Ramchandra Keshav Dhongade, Preeti Sagar Lad, Ashwin Borade, Suvarna Yg, Vishal Yadav, Ashwini Mehetre, Rahul Kulkarni
INTRODUCTION: The term Neuro Developmental Disorder (NDD) is used for conditions caused by a dysfunction in any part of the brain or nervous system, resulting in physical and/or psychological symptoms as a child develops. Family of children with NDD face many problems. It is very important to find them and create awareness so that gaps in essential services and supports can be decreased. AIM: To explore parental perceptions on health & social needs of children with NDD, to understand the impact of disability on the families having children with disability, and to find out the parental perceptions on availability of services for children with NDD and its utilization by families...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208883/fostering-educational-research-among-medical-teachers-evaluation-of-a-faculty-development-program-in-india
#14
Tripti K Srivastava, Lalitbhushan S Waghmare, Alka Rawekar, Ved Prakash Mishra
INTRODUCTION: Medical education can be enormously benefitted from research. Since clinicians/medical teachers are directly involved in teaching learning processes, they should participate in Educational Research (ER) practices to generate evidence and insights about teaching learning. Faculty Development Program (FDP) has a positive influence amongst health professionals and therefore can prove to be of consequence in instilling a strong educational research culture. AIM: Present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a Faculty Development Fellowship Program in Medical Education to foster educational research culture amongst medical teachers...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208881/media-matter-the-effect-of-medium-of-presentation-on-student-s-recognition-of-histopathology
#15
Ajay Telang, Nynke De Jong, Jan Van Dalen
INTRODUCTION: Pathology teaching has undergone transformation with the introduction of virtual microscopy as a teaching and learning tool. AIM: To assess if dental students can identify histopathology irrespective of the media of presentation and if the media affect student's oral pathology case based learning scores. The perception of students towards "hybrid" approach in teaching and learning histopathology in oral pathology was also assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A controlled experiment was conduc-ted on year 4 and year 5 dental student groups using a perfor-mance test and a questionnaire survey...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207842/evaluating-evidence-based-health-care-teaching-and-learning-in-the-undergraduate-human-nutrition-occupational-therapy-physiotherapy-and-speech-language-and-hearing-therapy-programs-at-a-sub-saharan-african-academic-institution
#16
Anel Schoonees, Anke Rohwer, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. METHODS: We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207383/person-re-identification-by-camera-correlation-aware-feature-augmentation
#17
Ying-Cong Chen, Xiatian Zhu, Wei-Shi Zheng, Jian-Huang Lai
The challenge of person re-identification (re-id) is to match individual images of the same person captured by different non-overlapping camera views against significant and unknown cross-view feature distortion. While a large number of distance metric/subspace learning models have been developed for re-id, the cross-view transformations they learned are view-generic and thus potentially less effective in quantifying the feature distortion inherent to each camera view. Learning view-specific feature transformations for re-id (i...
February 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205604/selectively-bred-rats-provide-a-unique-model-of-vulnerability-to-ptsd-like-behavior-and-respond-differentially-to-fgf2-augmentation-early-in-life
#18
Katherine E Prater, Elyse L Aurbach, Hanna K Larcinese, Taylor N Smith, Cortney A Turner, Peter Blandino, Stanley J Watson, Stephen Maren, Huda Akil
Individuals respond differently to traumatic experiences including their propensity to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Understanding individual differences in PTSD vulnerability will allow the development of improved prevention and treatment options. Here, we characterized fear conditioning and extinction in rats selectively bred for differences in their locomotor response to a novel environment. Selectively bred high responder (bHR) and low responder (bLR) male rats are known to differ in their emotional reactivity on a range of measures of spontaneous anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205499/motor-adaptation-deficits-in-ideomotor-apraxia
#19
Pratik K Mutha, Lee H Stapp, Robert L Sainburg, Kathleen Y Haaland
OBJECTIVES: The cardinal motor deficits seen in ideomotor limb apraxia are thought to arise from damage to internal representations for actions developed through learning and experience. However, whether apraxic patients learn to develop new representations with training is not well understood. We studied the capacity of apraxic patients for motor adaptation, a process associated with the development of a new internal representation of the relationship between movements and their sensory effects...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205321/an-investigative-graduate-laboratory-course-for-teaching-modern-dna-techniques
#20
Alexandre de Lencastre, A Thomas Torello, Lani C Keller
This graduate-level DNA methods laboratory course is designed to model a discovery-based research project and engages students in both traditional DNA analysis methods and modern recombinant DNA cloning techniques. In the first part of the course, students clone the Drosophila ortholog of a human disease gene of their choosing using Gateway(®) cloning. In the second part of the course, students examine the expression of their gene of interest in human cell lines by reverse transcription PCR and learn how to analyze data from quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments...
February 16, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
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