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Experience learning

Hilary Bradbury, Svante Lifvergren
We discuss action research healthcare as a transformative approach that continuously innovates in healthcare, attending to the "quadruple" aim. This article is shaped around a decade of evidence in Sweden. At the heart of healthcare action research is the endeavour to "learn by doing" with the participation of key stakeholders, including the patient. Experience suggests that an action research approach is particularly relevant when treating patients with chronic diseases and complex care needs. This inclusion is itself a social learning process and is key to realizing the improved outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Healthcare Management Forum
Rebecca Leddy, Madelene Lewis, Susan Ackerman, Jeanne Hill, Paul Thacker, Maria Matheus, Sameer Tipnis, Leonie Gordon
Utilization of a radiology resident-specific quality improvement (QI) program and curriculum based on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones can enable a program's assessment of the systems-based practice component and prepare residents for QI implementation post graduation. This article outlines the development process, curriculum, QI committee formation, and resident QI project requirements of one institution's designated radiology resident QI program. A method of mapping the curriculum to the ACGME milestones and assessment of resident competence by postgraduate year level is provided...
October 18, 2016: Academic Radiology
Eddie Y Liu, Bo Li, Cindy M L Hutnik
Wet lab and surgical simulation can reduce the learning curve of difficult surgical techniques, accelerate the rate for trainees to achieve surgical competency, and improve patient safety. To provide the most up-to-date information and hands-on experiences with novel ophthalmic surgical techniques and instruments, the Department of Ophthalmology at Western University has created a wet lab-based, multilevel microsurgery skills transfer course through collaboration with various industry partners. Several elements in the course goal and design differentiate this type of surgical course from typical wet labs: the format is multileveled surgical training, with a beginner level targeting undergraduate medical students, an intermediate level for ophthalmology residents, and an advanced level for trained ophthalmologist...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Gem Mohan, Julius X Scott, Rizwana Nasrin, Latha Sneha, Rakesh Manohar, Lalitha Subramanian, Sowmiya Narayani, Aruna Rajendran
BACKGROUND: The first counseling or the exchange between the physician and the parent(s) of children with cancer is of vital importance as it sets the tone for the rest of the treatment. The goal of our study was to find out the preferences among parents of Indian children with cancer regarding communication and breaking of bad news when fully informed about the diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 60 parents who had been counseled within 3 months from diagnosis were interviewed with a prepared questionnaire directed at eliciting their experiences with the physicians who broke the bad news to them and also suggestions to improve the exchange...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Jan Forber, Michelle DiGiacomo, Bernie Carter, Patricia Davidson, Jane Phillips, Debra Jackson
Clinical learning experiences are an essential part of nurse education programs. Numerous approaches to clinical education and student supervision exist. The aim of this integrative review was to explore how studies have compared or contrasted different models of undergraduate nurse clinical education. A search of eight databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature published between 2006 and 2015. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. A diverse range of methodologies and data collection methods were represented, which primarily explored student experiences or perceptions...
September 30, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Marit Hegg Reime, Tone Johnsgaard, Fred Ivan Kvam, Morten Aarflot, Marit Breivik, Janecke Merethe Engeberg, Guttorm Brattebø
Poor teamwork is an important factor in the occurrence of critical incidents because of a lack of non-technical skills. Team training can be a key to prevent these incidents. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of nursing and medical students after a simulation-based interprofessional team training (SBITT) course and its impact on professional and patient safety practices, using a concurrent mixed-method design. The participants (n = 262) were organized into 44 interprofessional teams...
October 13, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Sanna Rönkä, Anu Katainen
BACKGROUND: The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. METHODS: The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Emily R R Burdett, Amanda J Lucas, Daphna Buchsbaum, Nicola McGuigan, Lara A Wood, Andrew Whiten
This study examined whether instrumental and normative learning contexts differentially influence 4- to 7-year-old children's social learning strategies; specifically, their dispositions to copy an expert versus a majority consensus. Experiment 1 (N = 44) established that children copied a relatively competent "expert" individual over an incompetent individual in both kinds of learning context. In experiment 2 (N = 80) we then tested whether children would copy a competent individual versus a majority, in each of the two different learning contexts...
2016: PloS One
Yong Sung Won, Seung-Ju Lee, Hee Youn Kim, Dong Sup Lee
INTRODUCTION: Narrow working space is a major problem to overcome during retroperitoneoscopic ureterolithotomy. We evaluated initial 5 years experience of retroperitoneoscopic ureterolithotomy for large impacted upper ureteral calculi. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2015, a total of 37 consecutive patients were evaluated. A 12-mm camera port at middle of midaxillary line and two 5-mm working ports in posterior axillary line were created...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Elisabet Sundewall Thorén, Julie Hefting Pedersen, Nis Ove Jørnæs
Purpose: This paper describes the results from the iterative development and usability testing of an online audiological rehabilitation (OAR) program. The OAR was based on previous experience with Internet interventions and OAR. Method: The described OAR consisted of weekly learning modules, each of which had a specific topic and contained information and learning activities. A virtual coach, a trained audiologist, led the participants through the modules. The participants' feedback was collected using the "think-aloud" method in which the participants gave their feedback in a structured manner...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Jennifer H Madenspacher, Michael B Fessler
Although community-acquired pneumonia remains a major public health problem, murine models of bacterial pneumonia have recently facilitated significant preclinical advances in our understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular pathogenesis. In vivo mouse models capture the integrated physiology and resilience of the host defense response in a manner not revealed by alternative, simplified ex vivo approaches. Several methods have been described in the literature for intrapulmonary inoculation of bacteria in mice, including aerosolization, intranasal delivery, peroral endotracheal cannulation under 'blind' and visualized conditions, and transcutaneous endotracheal cannulation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nathan T Zwagerman, Georgios Zenonos, Stefan Lieber, Wei-Hsin Wang, Eric W Wang, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Carl H Snyderman, Paul A Gardner
The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has significantly evolved since its initial uses in pituitary and sinonasal surgery. The literature is filled with reports and case series demonstrating efficacy and advantages for the entire ventral skull base. With competence in 'minimally invasive' parasellar approaches, larger and more complex approaches were developed to utilize the endonasal corridor to create maximally invasive endoscopic skull base procedures. The challenges of these more complex endoscopic procedures include a long learning curve and navigating in a narrow corridor; reconstruction of defects presented new challenges and early experience revealed a significantly higher risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
N Seyed Majidi, M C Verhage, O Donchin, P Holland, M A Frens, J N van der Geest
In this study, the role of the cerebellum in a cognitive learning task using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was investigated. Using a weather prediction task, subjects had to learn the probabilistic associations between a stimulus (a combination of cards) and an outcome (sun or rain). This task is a variant of a probabilistic classification learning task, for which it has been reported that prefrontal tDCS enhances performance. Using a between-subject design, all 30 subjects learned to improve their performance with increasing accuracies and shortened response times over a series of 500 trials...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Nidhi Singh, Priyanka Shah, Hemlata Dwivedi, Shikha Mishra, Renu Tripathi, Amogh A Sahasrabuddhe, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi
N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) catalyzes the transfer of myristate to the amino-terminal glycine of a subset of proteins, a co-translational modification involved in trafficking substrate proteins to membrane locations, stabilization and protein-protein interactions. It is a studied and validated pre-clinical drug target for fungal and parasitic infections. In the present study, a machine learning approach, docking studies and CoMFA analysis have been integrated with the objective of translation of knowledge into a pipelined workflow towards the identification of putative hits through the screening of large compound libraries...
October 21, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Aaron L Grant, Claire Temple-Oberle
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of self-assessment in microsurgical training using a previously validated rating scale. DESIGN: A prospective study of surgical residents taking a hands-on 5-day microsurgical training course. Learners completed multiple self-assessments of their technical skills using the University of Western Ontario Microsurgical Acquisition/Assessment instrument. Simultaneously, preceptors assessed the learners using the same scale...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Janice M Haley, Pamela H Cone
Learning from experience is a positive approach when preparing for mobile clinic service in a developing country. Mobile clinics provide healthcare services to people in hard to reach areas around the world, but preparation for their use needs to be done in collaboration with local leaders and healthcare providers. For over 16 years, Azusa Pacific University School of Nursing has sponsored mobile clinics to rural northern Haiti with the aim to provide culturally sensitive healthcare in collaboration with Haitian leaders...
August 28, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Shashanka Ubaru, Abd-Krim Seghouane, Yousef Saad
This letter considers the problem of dictionary learning for sparse signal representation whose atoms have low mutual coherence. To learn such dictionaries, at each step, we first updated the dictionary using the method of optimal directions (MOD) and then applied a dictionary rank shrinkage step to decrease its mutual coherence. In the rank shrinkage step, we first compute a rank 1 decomposition of the column-normalized least squares estimate of the dictionary obtained from the MOD step. We then shrink the rank of this learned dictionary by transforming the problem of reducing the rank to a nonnegative garrotte estimation problem and solving it using a path-wise coordinate descent approach...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
Duk Hwan Kim, Soo Jung Park, Jae Hee Cheon, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim, Sung Pil Hong
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether a pre-training program influences the entire learning process and overall proficiency of colonoscopy during fellowship. METHODS: From March 2011 to February 2013, a total of 28 first-year gastrointestinal fellows were trained in colonoscopy at a single tertiary center. Before entering their fellowship training, all fellows were board certified in internal medicine, but had no experience performing a full colonoscopy...
2016: PloS One
Emilie Venables, Jeffrey K Edwards, Saar Baert, William Etienne, Kelly Khabala, Helen Bygrave
INTRODUCTION: The number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the long-term management of HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is continuing to increase, along with the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). The need to provide large volumes of HIV patients with ART has led to significant adaptations in how medication is delivered, but access to NCD care remains limited in many contexts. Medication Adherence Clubs (MACs) were established in Kibera, Kenya to address the large numbers of patients requiring chronic HIV and/or NCD care...
2016: PloS One
Volker Wenzel, Nikolaus Gravenstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mentoring is fundamentally valuable and important to students considering a path into our specialty, as well as to colleagues already in it and with ambition to advance. General principles and personal experiences are collected and described to help inform future mentors and to reinforce the value of having a mentor and the satisfaction (and work) that is associated with such a role. RECENT FINDINGS: Detecting a latent talent among medical students or residents may be challenging but is worth the effort to develop personal careers and the specialty itself...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
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