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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921259/epigenetic-effects-of-the-pregnancy-mediterranean-diet-adherence-on-the-offspring-metabolic-syndrome-markers
#1
REVIEW
David Lorite Mingot, Eva Gesteiro, Sara Bastida, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) has a multifactorial and not yet fully clarified origin. Insulin resistance is a key element that connects all the accepted components of MS (obesity, dyslipemia, high blood pressure, and hyperglycemia). There is strong evidence that epigenetic changes during fetal development are key factors in the development of MS. These changes are induced by maternal nutrition, among different factors, affecting the intrauterine environment. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of MS in adults...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920512/rhythmic-three-part-harmony-the-complex-interaction-of-maternal-placental-and-fetal-circadian-systems
#2
Peter J Mark, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Brendan J Waddell
From the perspective of circadian biology, mammalian pregnancy presents an unusual biological scenario in which an entire circadian system (i.e., that of the fetus) is embodied within another (i.e., that of the mother). Moreover, both systems are likely to be influenced at their interface by a third player, the placenta. Successful pregnancy requires major adaptations in maternal physiology, many of which involve circadian changes that support the high metabolic demands of the growing fetus. A functional role for maternal circadian adaptations is implied by the effects of circadian disruption, which result in pregnancy complications including higher risks for miscarriage, preterm labor, and low birth weight...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918081/developmental-alcohol-exposure-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-without-overtly-altering-microglial-function-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#3
Elissa L Wong, Nina M Lutz, Victoria A Hogan, Cassandra E Lamantia, Helene R McMurray, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Ania K Majewska
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by gestational ethanol (EtOH) exposure, is one of the most common causes of non-heritable and life-long mental disability worldwide, with no standard treatment or therapy available. While EtOH exposure can alter the function of both neurons and glia, it is still unclear how EtOH influences brain development to cause deficits in sensory and cognitive processing later in life. Microglia play an important role in shaping synaptic function and plasticity during neural circuit development and have been shown to mount an acute immunological response to EtOH exposure in certain brain regions...
September 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917719/polymorphisms-in-manganese-transporters-show-developmental-stage-and-sex-specific-associations-with-manganese-concentrations-in-primary-teeth
#4
Karin Wahlberg, Manish Arora, Austen Curtin, Paul Curtin, Robert O Wright, Donald R Smith, Roberto G Lucchini, Karin Broberg, Christine Austin
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that can become neurotoxic at elevated levels with negative consequences on neurodevelopment. We have evaluated the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Mn transporter genes SLC30A10 and SLC39A8 on Mn concentrations in dentine, a validated biomarker that reflects Mn tissue concentrations early in life. METHODS: The study included 195 children with variable environmental Mn exposure. Mn concentrations in dentine representing fetal, early postnatal and early childhood developmental periods were measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
September 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916000/development-phenotype-and-function-of-non-conventional-b-cells
#5
REVIEW
J M B Prieto, M J B Felippe
Three populations of B cells develop in fetal life: B1, B2 and marginal zone B cells. B1 cells play important roles in innate immunity in contrast to B2 cells that perform the conventional roles in adaptive immunity. B1 cells were first identified in mice based on their expression of CD5 and spontaneous secretion of IgM. B1 cells were subsequently found to have unique developmental, phenotype, tissue distribution, and functional characteristics that differ from B2 cells. These phenotypic and functional differences allow B1 cells to play important roles in immunity and homeostasis, but be implicated in autoimmune disease...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915389/choline-prevents-fetal-overgrowth-and-normalizes-placental-fatty-acid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-obesity
#6
Juha Nam, Esther Greenwald, Chauntelle Jack-Roberts, Tamara T Ajeeb, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Kathleen Axen, Anjana Saxena, Ekaterina Semernina, Khatia Nanobashvili, Xinyin Jiang
Maternal obesity increases placental transport of macronutrients, resulting in fetal overgrowth and obesity later in life. Choline participates in fatty acid metabolism, serves as a methyl donor and influences growth signaling, which may modify placental macronutrient homeostasis and affect fetal growth. Using a mouse model of maternal obesity, we assessed the effect of maternal choline supplementation on preventing fetal overgrowth and restoring placental macronutrient homeostasis. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF, 60% kcal from fat) diet or a normal (NF, 10% kcal from fat) diet with a drinking supply of either 25 mM choline chloride or control purified water, respectively, beginning 4 weeks prior to mating until gestational day 12...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911172/androgens-mediate-sex-dependent-gonadotropin-expression-during-late-prenatal-development-in-the-mouse
#7
Michael J Kreisman, Christopher I Song, Kathleen Yip, Bryony V Natale, David R Natale, Kellie M Breen
Central organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is initiated during fetal life. At this critical time, gonadal hormones mediate sex-specific development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which then dictates reproductive physiology and behavior in adulthood. Although studies have investigated the effects of prenatal androgens on central factors influencing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, the impact of fetal androgens on gonadotrope function has been overlooked. In the current study, we demonstrated that gonadotropin gene expression and protein production were robustly elevated in female mice compared with males during late fetal development and that this sex difference was dependent on fetal androgens...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905217/early-life-arsenic-exposure-infant-and-child-growth-and-morbidity-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Anisur Rahman, Caroline Granberg, Lars-Åke Persson
Epidemiological studies have suggested a negative association between early life arsenic exposure and fetal size at birth, and subsequently with child morbidity and growth. However, our understanding of the relationship between arsenic exposure and morbidity and growth is limited. This paper aims to systematically review original human studies with an analytical epidemiological study design that have assessed arsenic exposure in fetal life or early childhood and evaluated the association with one or several of the following outcomes: fetal growth, birth weight or other birth anthropometry, infant and child growth, infectious disease morbidity in infancy and early childhood...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904928/prenatal-sonographic-diagnosis-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome
#9
Raghu Teja Sadineni, B Santh Kumar, N B Chander, Durga Mahita Boppana
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) represents a variety of cardiac malformations that may result from errors in the early stages of cardiac development. HLHS includes a wide spectrum of cardiac malformations including hypoplasia of the left ventricle, ascending aorta, hypoplasia, or atresia of the aortic and mitral valves. Over the recent years, the improved resolution of advanced equipment with awareness and increased performance of second-trimester ultrasound examinations for the assessment of fetal anomalies have helped in understanding the spectrum and have expanded our knowledge of HLHS...
July 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900865/genetic-counseling-in-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders-an-emerging-experience-in-egypt
#10
Rabab E El Hawary, Safa S Meshaal, Dalia S Abd Elaziz, Marwa A Elsharkawy, Radwa S Alkady, Sohilla Lotfy, Ahmad El-Sheikhah, Amr Hassan, Nermeen M Galal, Jeannette A Boutros, Aisha M Elmarsafy
BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases of the immune system leading to life-threatening infections, and, unless urgently treated with immune reconstitution, patients do not usually survive. With the continuing progress in molecular diagnosis, many mutations have been described in more than 300 genes. Genetic counseling has recently been considered an essential part of the management of PIDs. This study presents the experience of genetic counseling services in the largest PID center in Egypt, and reports on our management plan and the impact of prenatal diagnosis (PND) on families...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900758/in-utero-development-of-memory-t-cells
#11
REVIEW
Dania Zhivaki, Richard Lo-Man
Pathogen-specific immune memory develops subsequent to primary exposure to antigen, mainly in the context of infection or vaccination to provide protection. Although a safe fetal life requires a tolerogenic environment in order to circumvent unnecessary inflammatory responses, it needs to be prepared in utero to face the microbial environment outside the womb. The possibility of immune memory generation in the fetus would help such transition providing protection in early life. This requires fetal T cell exposure to foreign antigens presented by dendritic cells...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889777/assessment-of-neonatal-adrenal-size-using-high-resolution-2d-ultrasound-and-its-correlation-with-birth-demographics-clinical-outcomes
#12
Tijen Karsli, Diana Strickland, Jeffrey Livingston, Qiang Wu, Maroun J Mhanna, Prem S Shekhawat
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of adrenal function in a sick neonate remains a challenge in spite of major advances in neonatal care. We used 2D ultrasound of adrenal glands to assess maturity of adrenal glands in extremely preterm infants and sick term and near term infants. STUDY DESIGN: We collected demographics details of 99 mother-infants pairs (24-41 weeks) and obtained 2D ultrasound scans of adrenal glands in first week of life to measure adrenal volume, fetal zone size and adrenal to kidney ratios...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888333/maternal-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-status-and-pregnancy-complications
#13
REVIEW
Nisha Wadhwani, Vidya Patil, Sadhana Joshi
Maternal nutrition plays a crucial role in influencing fetal growth and birth outcome. Any nutritional insult starting several weeks before pregnancy and during critical periods of gestation is known to influence fetal development and increase the risk for diseases during later life. Literature suggests that chronic adult diseases may have their origin during early life - a concept referred to as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) which states that adverse exposures early in life "program" risks for later chronic disorders...
August 15, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888041/supplementation-with-the-methyl-donor-betaine-prevents-congenital-defects-induced-by-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#14
Ganga Karunamuni, Megan M Sheehan, Yong Qiu Doughman, Shi Gu, Jiayang Sun, Youjun Li, James P Strainic, Andrew M Rollins, Michael W Jenkins, Michiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of public education about dire consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, drinking alcohol during pregnancy remains prevalent. As high as 40% of live-born infants exposed to alcohol during gestation and diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have congenital heart defects that can be life-threatening. In animal models, the methyl donor betaine, found in foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but effects on heart development are unknown...
September 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887130/gender-specific-impairment-of-in-vitro-sinoatrial-node-chronotropic-responses-and-of-myocardial-ischemia-tolerance-in-rats-exposed-prenatally-to-betamethasone
#15
L R A Kiguti, C S Borges, A Mueller, K P Silva, C M Polo, J L Rosa, P V Silva, G Missassi, L Valencise, W G Kempinas, A S Pupo
Excessive fetal glucocorticoid exposure has been linked to increased susceptibility to hypertension and cardiac diseases in the adult life, a process called fetal programming. The cardiac contribution to the hypertensive phenotype of glucocorticoid-programmed progeny is less known, therefore, we investigated in vitro cardiac functional parameters from rats exposed in utero to betamethasone. Pregnant Wistar rats received vehicle (VEH) or betamethasone (BET, 0.1mg/kg, i.m.) at gestational days 12, 13, 18 and 19...
September 5, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886917/effects-of-the-phthalate-exposure-during-three-gestation-periods-on-birth-weight-and-their-gender-differences-a-birth-cohort-study-in-china
#16
Yun-Wei Zhang, Hui Gao, Lei-Jing Mao, Xing-Yong Tao, Xing Ge, Kun Huang, Peng Zhu, Jia-Hu Hao, Qu-Nan Wang, Yuan-Yuan Xu, Zhong-Xiu Jin, Jie Sheng, Ye-Qing Xu, Shuang-Qin Yan, Xu-Guang Tao, Fang-Biao Tao
Phthalate has been widely used as a type of plasticiser in various consuming products in daily life. Recent studies have suggested that prenatal phthalate exposure may have adverse effects on fetal development. We aimed to identify the effects of in utero phthalate exposure on birth weight (BW). We evaluated a birth cohort comprising 3474 pregnant women and their single infants; 3103, 2975 and 2838 urine samples were collected in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Phthalate metabolites included monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxylhexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), which were analysed in the urine by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
September 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886415/burden-of-higher-lead-exposure-in-african-americans-starts-in-utero-and-persists-into-childhood
#17
Andrea E Cassidy-Bushrow, Alexandra R Sitarik, Suzanne Havstad, Sung Kyun Park, Lawrence F Bielak, Christine Austin, Christine Cole Johnson, Manish Arora
BACKGROUND: Recent public health lead crises in urban areas emphasize the need to better understand exposure to environmental toxicants, particularly in higher risk groups. Although African-American children have the highest prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in the United States, little is known about when this trajectory of disproportionate burden of lead exposure first emerges. OBJECTIVES: Using tooth-matrix biomarkers that directly measure fetal and early childhood metal levels, the primary goal of this study was to determine if there were racial disparities in lead levels during fetal development and early childhood...
September 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880867/oral-tetrahydrouridine-and-decitabine-for-non-cytotoxic-epigenetic-gene-regulation-in-sickle-cell-disease-a-randomized-phase-1-study
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Robert Molokie, Donald Lavelle, Michel Gowhari, Michael Pacini, Lani Krauz, Johara Hassan, Vinzon Ibanez, Maria A Ruiz, Kwok Peng Ng, Philip Woost, Tomas Radivoyevitch, Daisy Pacelli, Sherry Fada, Matthew Rump, Matthew Hsieh, John F Tisdale, James Jacobberger, Mitch Phelps, James Douglas Engel, Santhosh Saraf, Lewis L Hsu, Victor Gordeuk, Joseph DeSimone, Yogen Saunthararajah
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD), a congenital hemolytic anemia that exacts terrible global morbidity and mortality, is driven by polymerization of mutated sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in red blood cells (RBCs). Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) interferes with this polymerization, but HbF is epigenetically silenced from infancy onward by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). METHODS AND FINDINGS: To pharmacologically re-induce HbF by DNMT1 inhibition, this first-in-human clinical trial (NCT01685515) combined 2 small molecules-decitabine to deplete DNMT1 and tetrahydrouridine (THU) to inhibit cytidine deaminase (CDA), the enzyme that otherwise rapidly deaminates/inactivates decitabine, severely limiting its half-life, tissue distribution, and oral bioavailability...
September 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878260/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-signaling-modulates-the-inflammatory-phenotype-of-fetal-brain-microglia-first-evidence-of-interference-by-iron-homeostasis
#19
M Cortes, M Cao, H L Liu, C S Moore, L D Durosier, P Burns, G Fecteau, A Desrochers, L B Barreiro, J P Antel, M G Frasch
Neuroinflammation in utero may result in life-long neurological disabilities. Microglia play a pivotal role, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. No early postnatal treatment strategies exist to enhance neuroprotective potential of microglia. We hypothesized that agonism on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) in fetal microglia will augment their neuroprotective transcriptome profile, while the antagonistic stimulation of α7nAChR will achieve the opposite. Using an in vivo - in vitro model of developmental programming of neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we validated this hypothesis in primary fetal sheep microglia cultures re-exposed to LPS in presence of a selective α7nAChR agonist or antagonist...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871576/first-trimester-combined-screening-for-preeclampsia-and-small-for-gestational-age-a-single-centre-experience-and-validation-of-the-fmf-screening-algorithm
#20
Beatrice Mosimann, Chantal Pfiffner, Sofia Amylidi-Mohr, Lorenz Risch, Daniel Surbek, Luigi Raio
AIM OF THE STUDY: Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with severe maternal and fetal morbidity in the acute presentation and there is increasing evidence that it is also an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease later in life. Therefore, preventive strategies are of utmost importance. The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) London recently developed a first trimester screening algorithm for placenta-related pregnancy complications, in particular early onset preeclampsia (eoPE) requiring delivery before 34 weeks, and preterm small for gestational age (pSGA), with a birth weight <5th percentile and delivery before 37 weeks of gestation, based on maternal history and characteristics, and biochemical and biophysical parameters...
September 5, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
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