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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210827/medical-conditions-and-demographic-service-and-clinical-factors-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-medication-use-among-children-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Johanna K Lake, Danica Denton, Yona Lunsky, Amy M Shui, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Evdokia Anagnostou
This study aimed to describe rates of antipsychotic medication use and the association between their use and demographics, clinical variables, and the use of behavioral/education services among children with ASD. For children with ASD ages 2-11 (n = 4749) and those 12-17 (n = 401), 5.4 and 17.7% were prescribed at least one atypical antipsychotic medication respectively. In the multivariable model of young children, older age, use of multiple psychotropic medications, prior ASD diagnosis, non-white Hispanic race/ethnicity, and oppositional defiant problems were associated with antipsychotic use...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210359/intentional-recreational-abuse-of-quetiapine-compared-to-other-second-generation-antipsychotics
#2
Lauren Klein, Stacey Bangh, Jon B Cole
INTRODUCTION: Case reports and poison center data have demonstrated that the second-generation antipsychotic quetiapine is being obtained and used for recreational abuse. The purpose of this study was to describe the relative rates of single-substance abuse for different atypical antipsychotics and compare their demographic and clinical features. METHODS: We conducted a 10-year retrospective analysis of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) database (2003 - 2013)...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208982/delusional-disorder-in-a-patient-with-corpus-callosum-agenesis
#3
M S Bhatia, Rashmita Saha, Nimisha Doval
Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger's syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, disturbed sleep and reduced appetite...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208190/real-world-effectiveness-of-antipsychotics-for-the-treatment-of-negative-symptoms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-with-predominantly-negative-symptoms
#4
Diego Novick, William Montgomery, Tamas Treuer, Maria Victoria Moneta, Josep Maria Haro
This study assessed the comparative effectiveness of antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia presenting with prominent negative symptoms and no-to-mild positive symptoms. Data were taken from a 3-year prospective, international, observational study (n=17 384). This post-hoc study focused on 3 712 patients who started antipsychotic monotherapy and had moderate-to-severe negative symptoms and no-to-mild positive symptoms (Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale [GGI-SCH]). Patients were classified into 3 treatment cohorts: olanzapine, other atypicals and typicals...
February 16, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202410/atypical-antipsychotic-clozapine-reversed-deficit-on-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-acoustic-startle-reflex-produced-by-microinjection-of-doi-into-the-inferior-colliculus-in-rats
#5
Rodolpho Pereira de Oliveira, Karen Yuriko Nagaishi, Regina Cláudia Barbosa Silva
Dysfunctions of the serotonergic system have been suggested to be important in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in an operational measure of sensorimotor gating: prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. PPI is the normal reduction in the startle response caused by a low intensity non-startling stimulus (prepulse) which is presented shortly before the startle stimulus (pulse). The hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a 5-hydroxytryptamine(HT)2 receptor agonist disrupted PPI in rats...
February 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202290/effect-of-psychotropic-drug-treatment-on-sterol-metabolism
#6
Željka Korade, Wei Liu, Emily B Warren, Kristan Armstrong, Ned A Porter, Christine Konradi
Cholesterol metabolism is vital for brain function. Previous work in cultured cells has shown that a number of psychotropic drugs inhibit the activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), an enzyme that catalyzes the final steps in cholesterol biosynthesis. This leads to the accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC), a molecule that gives rise to oxysterols, vitamin D, and atypical neurosteroids. We examined levels of cholesterol and the cholesterol precursors desmosterol, lanosterol, 7DHC and its isomer 8-dehydrocholesterol (8DHC), in blood samples of 123 psychiatric patients on various antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs, and 85 healthy controls, to see if the observations in cell lines hold true for patients as well...
February 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197002/an-exploratory-study-for-bladder-dysfunction-in-atypical-antipsychotic-emergent-urinary-incontinence
#7
Preeti Sinha, Anupam Gupta, V Senthil Kumar Reddi, Chittaranjan Andrade
INTRODUCTION: This is an exploratory study, which aimed to analyze urodynamic findings in patients who are on atypical antipsychotics and present with urinary incontinence (UI) in order to understand the mechanisms of antipsychotic-emergent UI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients (34 ± 7.6 years; five males and three females) diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, who were on risperidone, olanzapine, or clozapine monotherapy and having UI were recruited...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193195/assessing-the-burden-of-treatment-emergent-adverse-events-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-medications
#8
Pierre-Michel Llorca, Christophe Lançon, Ann Hartry, T Michelle Brown, Dana B DiBenedetti, Siddhesh A Kamat, Clément François
BACKGROUND: Treatment of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) show improved efficacy and reduced side effect burden compared with older antipsychotic medications. However, a risk of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) remains. TEAEs are hard to quantify and perspectives on the importance of TEAEs differ across patients and between patients and physicians. The current study is a qualitative assessment that investigates TEAEs of AAPs from both patient and physician perspectives to provide better understanding of the occurrence and burden of TEAEs associated with these medications...
February 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190661/the-novel-antipsychotic-drug-brexpiprazole-alone-and-in-combination-with-escitalopram-facilitates-prefrontal-glutamatergic-transmission-via-a-dopamine-d1-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#9
Carl Björkholm, Monica M Marcus, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Kent Jardemark, Torgny H Svensson
Brexpiprazole (Rexulti(®)), a novel D2/3 receptor (R) partial agonist, was recently approved as monotherapy for schizophrenia, demonstrating effectiveness against both positive and negative symptoms, and also approved as add-on treatment to antidepressant drugs, inducing a potent antidepressant effect with a faster onset compared to an antidepressant given alone. Moreover, brexpiprazole has demonstrated pro-cognitive effects in preclinical studies. To explore whether the observed effects may be mediated via modulation of prefrontal glutamatergic transmission, we investigated the effect of brexpiprazole, alone and in combination with the SSRI escitalopram, on prefrontal glutamatergic transmission using in vitro electrophysiological intracellular recordings of deep layer pyramidal cells of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
February 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186624/adverse-events-associated-with-antipsychotic-use-in-hospitalized-older-adults-after-cardiac-surgery
#10
Dae H Kim, Krista F Huybrechts, Elisabetta Patorno, Edward R Marcantonio, Yoonyoung Park, Raisa Levin, Abdurrahman Abdurrob, Brian T Bateman
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in-hospital adverse events associated with typical and atypical antipsychotic medications (APMs) after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide inpatient database, 2003 to 14. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals (mean age 70) newly treated with oral atypical (n = 2,580) or typical (n = 1,126 APMs) after coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery (N = 3,706). MEASUREMENTS: In-hospital mortality, arrhythmia, pneumonia, use of brain imaging (surrogate for oversedation and neurological events), and length of stay after drug initiation RESULTS: In the propensity score-matched cohort, median treatment duration was 3 days (interquartile range (IQR) 1-6 days) for atypical APMs and 2 days (IQR 1-3 days) for typical APMs...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185899/lurasidone-versus-treatment-as-usual-for-cognitive-impairment-in-euthymic-patients-with-bipolar-i-disorder-a-randomised-open-label-pilot-study
#11
Lakshmi N Yatham, Sylvia Mackala, Jayasree Basivireddy, Sharon Ahn, Nazlin Walji, Chen Hu, Raymond W Lam, Ivan J Torres
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is present in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and correlates with impairments in everyday functioning. We aimed to examine the efficacy of lurasidone adjunctive therapy compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in improving cognition. METHODS: For this randomised, open-label, pilot study, we recruited patients aged 19-65 years with euthymic bipolar I disorder from the Mood Disorder Centre in UBC Hospital (Vancouver, Canada)...
February 6, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184334/mixed-states-in-bipolar-disorder-etiology-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Ather Muneer
Many bipolar disorder patients exhibit mixed affective states, which portend a generally more severe illness course and treatment resistance. In the previous renditions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual mixed states were narrowly defined in the context of bipolar I disorder, but with the advent of DSM-5 the term "mixed episode" was dropped and replaced by "mixed features" specifier which could be broadly applied to manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes in both the bipolar spectrum and major depressive disorders...
January 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176297/ptsd-psychotropic-medication-use-and-the-risk-of-dementia-among-us-veterans-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Francis Mawanda, Robert B Wallace, Kimberly McCoy, Thad E Abrams
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between PTSD, psychotropic medication use, and the risk for dementia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Nationwide sample of US veterans (N = 417,172) aged ≥56 years during fiscal year (FY) 2003 without a diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment at baseline (FY02-03) and ≥1 clinical encounter every 2 years during follow-up (FY04-12). MEASURES: Demographic characteristics; diagnosis of PTSD, dementia, and medical and psychiatric comorbidity (defined by ICD-9 codes); and psychotropic medication use including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), novel antidepressants (NA), benzodiazepines (BZA), and atypical antipsychotics (AA)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163541/clozapine-induced-cataract-in-a-young-female
#14
Md Shahid Alam, K V Praveen Kumar
A variety of systemic drugs including corticosteroids, amiodarone and antipsychotics have been known to cause cataract formation. Typical antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine have been reported to cause cataract formation in varying rates ranging from 22% to 80%. Cataract as an adverse effect resulting from the long term use of atypical antipsychotic has rarely been mentioned in literature, and there is only a single case report of cataract formation from prolonged use of clozapine. We report a rare case of clozpine induced cataract in a young female...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154892/differential-effects-of-antipsychotic-and-propsychotic-drugs-on-prepulse-inhibition-and-locomotor-activity-in-roman-high-rha-and-low-avoidance-rla-rats
#15
Ignasi Oliveras, Ana Sánchez-González, Daniel Sampedro-Viana, Maria Antonietta Piludu, Cristóbal Río-Alamos, Osvaldo Giorgi, Maria G Corda, Susana Aznar, Javier González-Maeso, Cristina Gerbolés, Gloria Blázquez, Toni Cañete, Adolf Tobeña, Alberto Fernández-Teruel
RATIONALE: Animal models with predictive and construct validity are necessary for developing novel and efficient therapeutics for psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVES: We have carried out a pharmacological characterization of the Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rat strains with different acutely administered propsychotic (DOI, MK-801) and antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol, clozapine), as well as apomorphine, on prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle and locomotor activity (activity cages)...
February 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152356/cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Leonard Kritharides, Vincent Chow, Tim Jr Lambert
Patients with schizophrenia die on average 25 years earlier than the general population, and this gap appears to be increasing. Most of the excess mortality is due to premature cardiovascular deaths rather than suicide. Many psychotropic agents are orexigenic and can increase weight and promote dyslipidaemia. Traditional cardiac risk factors are undertreated among patients with schizophrenia, and they are less likely to receive cardiac revascularisation than those without a mental illness. Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication effective for treatment of refractory schizophrenia, but is associated with the risk of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy...
February 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144616/steroid-induced-psychosis-after-eus-guided-celiac-plexus-blockade
#17
David C Olson, Jason J Lewis
A 46-year-old female with no previous personal or family psychiatric history underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided celiac plexus blockade (CPB) to treat pain related to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-associated chronic pancreatitis. She had excellent response to her first three CPBs using bupivacaine and triamcinolone. The patient's subsequent CPBs were complicated by symptoms of racing thoughts, delusional thinking, and insomnia. She was diagnosed with acute psychosis secondary to triamcinolone...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141630/neuroprotective-effect-of-modified-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-schizophrenia-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#18
Jing-Li Gan, Hui-Feng Duan, Zheng-Xiang Cheng, Jia-Ming Yang, Xi-Quan Zhu, Cun-You Gao, Lan-Min Zhao, Xue-Jun Liang
The underlying mechanism of modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) treatment for drug-resistant and catatonic schizophrenia remains unclear. Here, we aim to investigate whether MECT exerts its antipsychotic effects through elevating N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentration measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS). Multiple-voxel H-MRS was acquired in the bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus to obtain measures of neurochemistry in 32 MECT, 34 atypical antipsychotic-treated schizophrenic patients, and 34 healthy controls...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138119/the-normalization-of-brain-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fluorodeoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-hypometabolism-following-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-a-55-year-old-woman-with-treatment-resistant-late-onset-depression-a-case-report
#19
Jeongjae Bak, Sang Mi Lee, Young-Joon Kwon, Se-Hoon Shim, Joong Il Kim
Major depressive disorder, especially in later life, has heterogeneous clinical characteristics and treatment responses. Symptomatically, psychomotor retardation, lack of energy, and apathy tends to be more common in people with late-onset depression (LOD). Despite recent advances in psychopharmacologic treatments, 20% to 30% of patients with mood disorders experience inadequate responses to medication, often resulting in a trial of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, the therapeutic mechanism of ECT is still unclear...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138118/reduction-of-severity-of-recurrent-psychotic-episode-by-sustained-treatment-with-aripiprazole-in-a-schizophrenic-patient-with-dopamine-supersensitivity-a-case-report
#20
Shigenori Tadokoro, Naho Nonomura, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Kenji Hashimoto, Masaomi Iyo
Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is a type of acute exacerbation of recurrent psychosis caused by long-term treatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients. Although DSP is exceedingly troublesome for clinicians, effective treatment has not yet been established. Based on clinical research and our animal study, we hypothesize that aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic, may reduce the exacerbation of recurrent psychotic episodes. We report the case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from schizophrenia with DSP...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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