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atypical antipsychotic

Eva Ceskova, Petr Silhan
In spite of tremendous development in central nervous system research, current treatment is suboptimal, especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the health care provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring but also implementation of general trends in the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include new more sophisticated forms of monoaminergic drugs, old drugs rediscovered on the base of a better understanding of pathophysiology of mental illnesses, and drugs aimed at new treatment targets...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Lee Schwartzberg
Recent years have witnessed significant improvements in the prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), allowing patients to complete their prescribed chemotherapy regimens without compromising quality of life. This reduction in the incidence of CINV can be primarily attributed to the emergence of effective, well-tolerated antiemetic therapies, including serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT3) receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists, and the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine...
March 19, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Ana Carolina Issy, Maurício Dos-Santos-Pereira, João Francisco Cordeiro Pedrazzi, Regina Celia Cussa Kubrusly, Elaine Del-Bel
Pharmacological manipulation of nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested as a promising treatment for schizophrenia symptoms. A single infusion of sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor with short half-life, was found to improve schizophrenia symptoms. However, an increasing number of preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential beneficial effects of both NO donors and inhibitors. We investigated the potential synergistic effect of sub-effective doses of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or the NO inhibitor 7-Nitroindazole (7NI) combined with clozapine, a standard atypical antipsychotic, on counteracting amphetamine or MK-801-induced psychosis-like behaviors...
March 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Mary Coughlin, Catherine Lindsay Goldie, Joan Tranmer, Sarosh Khalid-Khan, Deborah Tregunno
OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents with a range of psychiatric disorders are increasingly being prescribed atypical or second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). While SGAs are effective at treating conduct and behavioural symptoms, they infer significant cardiometabolic risk. This study aims to explore what patient, treatment, and health care utilization variables are associated with adherence to Canadian Alliance for Monitoring Effectiveness and Safety of Antipsychotics in Children (CAMESA) metabolic monitoring guidelines...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
D Papola, C Gastaldon, G Ostuzzi
A substantial proportion of people with mental health conditions do not adhere to prescribed pharmacological treatments. Poor adherence is probably one of the most critical elements contributing to relapse in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders. In order to tackle this global issue, in November 2017 the Food and Drug Administration approved a tablet formulation of the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole embedded with a novel digital adherence-assessment device. In this commentary, we critically appraised the potential beneficial and harmful consequences of this new digital formulation of aripiprazole, and we highlighted expected implications for clinical practice...
March 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Luke Sy-Cherng Woon, Chun Keat Tee, Lydia Lay Yen Gan, Kanit Tha Deang, Lai Fong Chan
Leukopenia is a known hematological side effect of atypical antipsychotics. We report a case of an antipsychotic-naive patient with schizophrenia who developed leukopenia after a single dose of olanzapine, which worsened during subsequent treatment with risperidone. Normalization of the white blood cell counts occurred within 24 hours of risperidone discontinuation. Possible synergistic mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced and risperidone-induced leukopenia are discussed. This case highlights the challenges in identifying and managing nonclozapine antipsychotic-induced leukopenia in a susceptible patient...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Nuria Berrocal-Izquierdo, Miquel Bioque, Miguel Bernardo
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD), especially in its asymptomatic forms, is relatively common in patients with serious mental illness (SMI). Nevertheless, the literature on this topic is scarce and sometimes contradictory. Antipsychotic medications, especially atypical agents, play an important role in the overall cardiovascular health of these patients. The goal of this study was to analyze the frequency of CVD in patients with and without SMI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared the frequency of CVD, including silent forms, in a group of patients without mental illness and without a history of taking antipsychotic medication, with another group of patients diagnosed with SMI who had received antipsychotic treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Magdalena Kiedrowicz, Radosław M Kiedrowicz, Joanna Pietrzak-Halińska, Mariusz Pietrzak, Romuald Maleszka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Chunsong Yang, Zilong Hao, Ling-Li Zhang, Cai-Rong Zhu, Ping Zhu, Qin Guo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antipsychotic drugs for tic disorders (TDs) in a network meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and 4 Chinese databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs for TDs were included. RESULTS: Sixty RCTs were included. In terms of tic symptom score, compared with placebo, haloperidol, risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine, olanzapine, and ziprasidone can significantly improve tic symptom score (standardized mean differences [SMD] ranged from -12...
March 5, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Isheeta Zalpuri, Manpreet K Singh
Purpose of Review: Bipolar disorder is highly familial and has a protracted and diagnostically confusing prodrome. This review critically evaluates recently published literature relevant to the treatment of psychiatric symptoms in high-risk offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder. Recent Findings: Non-pharmacological treatment options including psychotherapy, resilience promotion through good sleep, diet, and exercise hygiene, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation are important first line interventions for high-risk offspring...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
Li Jing, Ben Liu, Min Zhang, Jian-Hui Liang
A single exposure to drugs of abuse is sufficient to induce behavioral sensitization, which is a form of long-lasting neuroplasticity. Dopamine D2 receptors are the main receptor for antipsychotic drugs, but little is known about their role in a single methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. In the present study, we examined whether typical antipsychotic haloperidol and atypical antipsychotic risperidone, both targeting dopamine D2 receptor, could prevent the methamphetamine sensitization when they were given at the different phase of behavioral sensitization...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Sabine Mogwitz, Judith Buse, Nicole Wolff, Veit Roessner
More than forty years of research and clinical practice have proven the effectiveness of dopamine receptor antagonists in the pharmacological treatment of tics. A blockade of the striatal dopamine-D2 receptors is mainly responsible for their tic-reducing effect. A broad spectrum of dopamine-modulating agents, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics, but also dopamine receptor agonists are used with an immanent discord between experts about which of them should be considered as first choice. The present article outlines the state of the art on pharmacological treatment of tics with dopamine-modulating agents by giving an systemativ overview of studies on their effectiveness and a critical discussion of their specific adverse effects...
March 2, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Naresh Nebhinani, Navratan Suthar
Oculogyric crisis (OGC) is an acute dystonic reaction, commonly seen with the administration of typical antipsychotics, and rarely reported with atypical antipsychotics. Here, we report five cases of oculogyric crisis, developed after administration of atypical antipsychotics. The first case developed OGC on quetiapine 800 mg/day and the second case on olanzapine 20 mg/day. Both the patients did not improve on adding anticholinergic agents and finally stabilized by switching to clozapine. The third case developed OGC on amisulpride 400 mg and lurasidone 40 mg/day and improved by reducing amisulpride dose to 200 mg and stopping lurasidone...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Rajan Jain, Priti Arun, Ajeet Sidana, Atul Sachdev
Objective: Till date, typical antipsychotic haloperidol is the treatment of choice for delirium. But, due to higher side effects with haloperidol, newer atypical antipsychotics (e.g., olanzapine) are increasingly being used in the treatment of delirious patients. The aim of the current research was to study the efficacy and tolerability of haloperidol and olanzapine in the treatment of delirium. Materials and Methods: This was an open-label, randomized controlled study carried out in a tertiary care hospital at Chandigarh, India...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Yanling Zhou, Guannan Li, Dan Li, Hongmei Cui, Yuping Ning
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of dose reduction of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function and symptomatology in stable patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. We sought to determine the change in cognitive function and symptomatology after reducing risperidone or olanzapine dosage in stable schizophrenic patients. METHODS: Seventy-five stabilized schizophrenic patients prescribed risperidone (≥4 mg/day) or olanzapine (≥10 mg/day) were randomly divided into a dose-reduction group ( n=37) and a maintenance group ( n=38)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Bridgette L Kram, Jennifer M Schultheis, Shawn J Kram, Christopher E Cox
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether a pharmacist-initiated electronic handoff tool can reduce the overall, and potentially inappropriate, hospital discharge prescribing rate of atypical antipsychotics (AAP) initiated in AAP-naive critically ill adults. METHODS: This pre-post quality improvement study was initiated in 5 intensive care units (ICUs) at a large academic medical center. An electronic handoff tool (iVent) was utilized in the post-intervention period to enhance pharmacist communication at inpatient transitions of care...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Yui Murata, Miki Bundo, Fumiko Sunaga, Kiyoto Kasai, Kazuya Iwamoto
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence suggests the importance of epigenetic changes in the brain induced by antipsychotic drugs. However, due to the lack of systematic investigation, their effects on epigenetic status remain largely unclear. During the course of examining the epigenetic effects of antipsychotics, we here focused on perospirone, an atypical antipsychotic drug mainly used in Japan. METHODS: Genomic DNA was obtained from human neuroblastoma cells exposed to 2 different doses of perospirone...
February 27, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Kyle J Burghardt, Berhane Seyoum, Sabrina Dass, Elani Sanders, Abdullah Mallisho, Zhengping Yi
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Atypical antipsychotics cause insulin resistance that leads to an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Skeletal muscle is the primary tissue for uptake of glucose, and its dysfunction is considered one of the primary defects in the development of insulin resistance. Protein kinase B (AKT) plays an important role in overall skeletal muscle health and glucose uptake into the muscle. The objective of this study was to measure AKT isoform-specific gene methylation differences in the skeletal muscle of patients with bipolar disorder treated with atypical antipsychotic or mood stabilizer maintenance therapy...
February 27, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Nicki Niemann, Joseph Jankovic
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) encompasses the spectrum of iatrogenic hyperkinetic movement disorders following exposure to dopamine receptor-blocking agents (DRBAs). Despite the advent of atypical or second- and third-generation antipsychotics with a presumably lower risk of complications, TD remains a persistent and challenging problem. Prevention is the first step in mitigating the risk of TD, but early recognition, gradual withdrawal of offending medications, and appropriate treatment are also critical. As TD is often a persistent and troublesome disorder, specific antidyskinetic therapies are often needed for symptomatic relief...
February 26, 2018: Drugs
Emil Joseph, Satish Reddi, Vibhu Rinwa, Garima Balwani, Ranendra Saha
The purpose of present investigation was to nano-encapsulate atypical antipsychotic such as Olanzapine in polymeric nanoparticles in order to explore the possibility of minimizing drug associated extrapyramidal adverse effects. The polymeric nanoparticulate systems were prepared using FDA approved polymer, polycaprolactone, by simple technique of nanoprecipitation using factorial design by DoE approach. The significant factors selected for the optimization during formulation development process were polymer content and surfactant concentration at three different levels (32 factorial design)...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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