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Claude T Sabeta, Drienie Janse van Rensburg, Baby Phahladira, Debra Mohale, Robert F Harrison-White, Carlien Esterhuyzen, June H Williams
Both domestic and wild carnivore species are commonly diagnosed with rabies virus (RABV) infection in South Africa. Although the majority of confirmed rabies cases in wild carnivore species are reported from the yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata), the rest are from other wild carnivores including the highly endangered wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Lyssavirus infection was confirmed in two wild dogs and a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Madikwe Game Reserve, North West province in South Africa, in 2014 and 2015, using a direct fluorescent antibody test and immunohistochemistry...
April 26, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Carl Scott Clem, David W Held
This project investigated associational interactions (associational resistance or susceptibility) between native and non-native trees commonly found in urban landscapes in the southeastern United States. Non-native plants offer limited ecological services because few native herbivore species are capable of feeding on them. In a 2-yr field study, abundance and species richness of caterpillars, plant damage, and herbivore natural enemies were evaluated in plots where a native red maple (Acer rubrum L. [Sapindales: Aceraceae]) was planted singly (no neighbors) or interplanted with either non-native non-congeneric crepe myrtles (Lagerstroemia indica L...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Matthew H Govorko, Lin Fritschi, Alison Reid
In situ asbestos in the built environment is a remaining source of exposure in countries that have prohibited the manufacture and use of asbestos. However, it is difficult to identify in situ asbestos-containing material in residential settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the mobile phone application ("app"), ACM Check, in identifying in situ asbestos located inside and outside of homes compared with onsite inspections conducted by an experienced environmental consultant...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Jake Fountain, Robert Woodgate, Luzia Rast, Marta Hernández-Jover
Sheep production systems are a major industry in Australia, with a gross value of roughly $4.66 billion; 87.3% of which is attributable to export markets. Exotic diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are a potential threat to the viability of Australia's export market. Previous outbreaks of FMD in developed countries, and challenges in the management of onshore biosecurity, signify the importance of on-farm biosecurity in controlling disease transmission. This study aims to investigate the risk of disease introduction and spread among New South Wales (NSW) sheep properties using FMD as a case study and draw recommendation for the industry...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Katherine A Zeller, David W Wattles, Stephen DeStefano
Wildlife-vehicle collisions are a human safety issue and may negatively impact wildlife populations. Most wildlife-vehicle collision studies predict high-risk road segments using only collision data. However, these data lack biologically relevant information such as wildlife population densities and successful road-crossing locations. We overcome this shortcoming with a new method that combines successful road crossings with vehicle collision data, to identify road segments that have both high biological relevance and high risk...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Management
Xavier Iglesias, Ferran A Rodríguez, Rafael Tarragó, Lindsay Bottoms, Lisímaco Vallejo, Lara Rodríguez-Zamora, Michael Price
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiorespiratory demands of standing and wheelchair (seated) fencing in a group of able-bodied fencers during simulated competitive bouts. METHODS: Participants were ten male able-bodied fencers of regional level with previous training experience in wheelchair fencing. After a standardised warm-up participants performed two series of simulated competitive épée bouts (5 and 15 touches) in a random order, either while standing or while sitting in a wheelchair...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Yingxin Wang, Kenneth C Hodgkinson, Fujiang Hou, Zhaofeng Wang, Shenghua Chang
China introduced the "Retire Livestock and Restore Grassland" policy in 2003. It was strengthened in 2011 by additional funding for on-farm structures. On the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), fences were erected, livestock excluded from degraded areas, rotational stocking introduced, nighttime shelters were built, forages grown, and seed sown. However, the effectiveness of these actions and their value to Tibetan herders has been questioned. We conducted a sheep stocking experiment for 5 years in an Alpine Meadow region of the QTP to evaluate stocking options recommended by Government...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Miaojun Ma, Jeffrey L Walck, Zhen Ma, Lipei Wang, Guozhen Du
Very few studies have examined whether the impacts of grazing disturbance on soil seed banks occur directly or indirectly through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. The potential role of the seed bank in alpine wetland restoration is also unknown. We used SEM (structural equation modeling) to explore the direct effect of grazing disturbance on the seed bank and the indirect effect through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. We also studied the role of the seed bank on the restoration potential in wetlands with various grazing intensities: low (fenced, winter grazed only), medium (seasonally grazed), and high (whole-year grazed)...
April 30, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Rubén Moreno-Opo, Josep Piqué
Resolving human-wildlife conflicts requires the assessment and implementation of appropriate technical measures that minimize negative impacts on socio-economic uses, including agriculture, and ensure the adequate protection of biological diversity. Rice paddies are widely distributed in the western Mediterranean region. Because of their high productivity, they can be a good habitat for waterbirds, including the purple swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio , particularly in areas where natural wetlands have been removed or reduced...
2018: PeerJ
Jennifer Smith-Merry, Damian Mellifont, Kirsty McKenzie, Paul Clenaghan
BACKGROUND: Despite significant need for mental health services targeting the requirements of inmates transitioning into the community there is little research about successful recovery-oriented or person-centred transition programs. AIMS: This systematic narrative review brings together existing evidence to inform policymakers and practitioners about current practice in transition support, and barriers and facilitators of effective practice. METHOD: We carried out a systematic narrative review of recovery-oriented or person-centred mental health support programs supporting transition from incarceration to the community...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
Helmi Chaabene, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Laura Capranica, Emerson Franchini, Olaf Prieske, Hamdi Hbacha, Urs Granacher
The regular monitoring of physical fitness and sport-specific performance is important in elite sports to increase the likelihood of success in competition. This study aimed to systematically review and to critically appraise the methodological quality, validation data, and feasibility of the sport-specific performance assessment in Olympic combat sports like amateur boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, and wrestling. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct up to October 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Babu Ram Lamichhane, Gerard A Persoon, Herwig Leirs, Shashank Poudel, Naresh Subedi, Chiranjibi Prasad Pokheral, Santosh Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad Thapaliya, Hans H de Iongh
Wildlife attacks on humans and economic losses often result in reduced support of local communities for wildlife conservation. Information on spatial and temporal patterns of such losses in the highly affected areas contribute in designing and implementing effective mitigation measures. We analyzed the loss of humans, livestock and property caused by wildlife during 1998 to 2016, using victim family's reports to Chitwan National Park authorities and Buffer Zone User Committees. A total of 4,014 incidents were recorded including attacks on humans, livestock depredation, property damage and crop raiding caused by 12 wildlife species...
2018: PloS One
Dominique Fauteux, Gilles Gauthier, Dominique Berteaux, Rupert Palme, Rudy Boonstra
Non-consumptive effects of predation have rarely been assessed in wildlife populations even though their impact could be as important as lethal effects. Reproduction of individuals is one of the most important demographic parameters that could be affected by predator-induced stress, which in turn can have important consequences on population dynamics. We studied non-consumptive effects of predation on the reproductive activity (i.e., mating and fertilization) of a cyclic population of brown lemmings exposed to intense summer predation in the Canadian High Arctic...
April 12, 2018: Oecologia
Sarah A Knutie, Kiyoko M Gotanda
Over the past few decades, studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota strongly influences the physiology, behavior, and fitness of its host. Such studies have been conducted primarily in humans and model organisms under controlled laboratory conditions. More recently, researchers have realized the importance of placing host-associated microbiota studies into a more ecological context; however, few non-destructive methods have been established to collect fecal samples from wild birds. Here, we present an inexpensive and easy-to-use kit for the non-invasive collection of feces from small birds...
April 5, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Patrick Vudriko, James Okwee-Acai, Joseph Byaruhanga, Dickson Stuart Tayebwa, Samuel George Okech, Robert Tweyongyere, Eddie M Wampande, Anna Rose Ademun Okurut, Kenneth Mugabi, Jeanne Bukeka Muhindo, Jesca Lukanga Nakavuma, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Xuenan Xuan, Hiroshi Suzuki
Tick acaricide failure is one of the leading challenges to cattle production in Uganda. To gain an understanding into the possible drivers of acaricide failure, this study characterized the current chemical tick control practices in the southwestern (Mbarara, Mitooma and Rukungiri districts) and northwestern (Adjumani district) regions of Uganda. A total of 85 farms participated in a survey that utilized a semi-structured questionnaire. Moreover, ticks were collected to determine the most common species on the farms...
March 15, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Bin Yang, Hui Geng, Ying Ding, Chi Wah Kong, Chi Wai Cheung, Tin Lok Chiu, Wai Wang Lam, Kin Yin Cheung, Siu Ki Yu
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a series of quality assurance (QA) techniques based on Octavius 4D phantom for testing of respiratory-gated treatment delivery, integrity of dose rate vs gantry speed in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) commissioning, and multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy of a linear accelerator. An Octavius 4D phantom capable of rotating with the gantry and recording the detector signal with a sampling rate of 10 Hz was isocentrally set up and an inclinometer was also installed to measure the gantry angle simultaneously...
March 27, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Yu Xia, Shiyan Chen, Xin-Long Ni
Energy transfer and interchange are central to fabricating white-light-emitting organic materials. However, increasing the efficiency of light-energy transfer remains a considerable challenge due to the occurrence of "crosstalk". In this work, by exploiting the unique photophysical properties of cucurbiturils triggered host-guest interactions, the two complementary luminescent colors blue and yellow for white-light emission were independently obtained from a single fluorophore dye rather than energy transfer...
March 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ž Vienažindienė, D E Joekel, R Schaper, P Deplazes, M Šarkūnas
The efficacy of anthelmintic treatment at 1, 3, and 6 month intervals was evaluated in a prospective controlled field study with naturally exposed Lithuanian village dogs by monthly coproscopy during 1 year. A placebo-treated control group (C) (n = 202) and groups treated with two broad-spectrum anthelmintics, febantel/pyrantel-embonate/praziquantel (Drontal® Plus, Bayer) (D1, D3, D6; n = 113-117) and emodepside/praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer) (P1, P3, P6; n = 114-119), were included. At the beginning of the study, eggs of Toxocara canis (4...
March 25, 2018: Parasitology Research
Egemen Ayhan, Kadir Çevik, Melih Bağır, Mehmet Çolak, Metin Manouchehr Eskandari
BACKGROUND: Children have a curiosity for climbing walls, stairs, and railings and have an increased risk of falling. Here, we report our experience with railings causing injuries by penetrating the upper extremities, and aim to call attention to spiked railing injuries in children. METHODS: We report on five children with a mean age of 8.8. All of the children were male. The penetrating railing parts were removed in a surgical room. RESULTS: The injured structures repaired immediately were as follows: flexor digitorum profundus tendon, A4 pulley, volar plate of the distal interphalangeal joint, radial digital nerve, ulnar digital artery, and radial digital artery...
March 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Mitsuhiko Takewa, Sei Komatsu, Satoru Takahashi, Kazuhisa Kodama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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