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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690919/plasma-membrane-is-compartmentalized-by-a-self-similar-cortical-actin-meshwork
#1
Sanaz Sadegh, Jenny L Higgins, Patrick C Mannion, Michael M Tamkun, Diego Krapf
A broad range of membrane proteins display anomalous diffusion on the cell surface. Different methods provide evidence for obstructed subdiffusion and diffusion on a fractal space, but the underlying structure inducing anomalous diffusion has never been visualized because of experimental challenges. We addressed this problem by imaging the cortical actin at high resolution while simultaneously tracking individual membrane proteins in live mammalian cells. Our data confirm that actin introduces barriers leading to compartmentalization of the plasma membrane and that membrane proteins are transiently confined within actin fences...
January 2017: Physical Review. X
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687532/studying-scale-up-and-spread-as-social-practice-theoretical-introduction-and-empirical-case-study
#2
James Shaw, Sara Shaw, Joseph Wherton, Gemma Hughes, Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Health and care technologies often succeed on a small scale but fail to achieve widespread use (scale-up) or become routine practice in other settings (spread). One reason for this is under-theorization of the process of scale-up and spread, for which a potentially fruitful theoretical approach is to consider the adoption and use of technologies as social practices. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use an in-depth case study of assisted living to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a social practice approach to explaining the scale-up of an assisted-living technology across a local system of health and social care...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677886/dogs-on-livestock-farms-a-cross-sectional-study-investigating-potential-roles-in-zoonotic-pathogen-transmission
#3
N E Moran, A K Ferketich, T E Wittum, J W Stull
Dogs are often present on livestock farms, where they serve important management and companion roles, yet may be involved in zoonotic pathogen transmission. Numerous factors can potentially alter the risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens, such as the dog's access to livestock, close dog-human contact and an increasing immunocompromised human population. The objective of this study was to quantify and qualify dog ownership among livestock owners, their dog husbandry and biosecurity practices, the dogs' access to livestock and potential risks for zoonotic pathogen transmission...
July 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674607/fluoroacetate-in-plants-a-review-of-its-distribution-toxicity-to-livestock-and-microbial-detoxification
#4
REVIEW
Lex Ee Xiang Leong, Shahjalal Khan, Carl K Davis, Stuart E Denman, Chris S McSweeney
Fluoroacetate producing plants grow worldwide and it is believed they produce this toxic compound as a defence mechanism against grazing by herbivores. Ingestion by livestock often results in fatal poisonings, which causes significant economic problems to commercial farmers in many countries such as Australia, Brazil and South Africa. Several approaches have been adopted to protect livestock from the toxicity with limited success including fencing, toxic plant eradication and agents that bind the toxin. Genetically modified bacteria capable of degrading fluoroacetate have been able to protect ruminants from fluoroacetate toxicity under experimental conditions but concerns over the release of these microbes into the environment have prevented the application of this technology...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665528/trauma-hazards-in-children-an-update-for-the-busy-clinician
#5
REVIEW
Andrew Ja Holland, Soundappan Sv Soundappan
Trauma and injury continue to be common in children and remain an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Legislation mandating the use of helmets for all cyclists appears to have been effective in reducing the incidence and severity of head and facial injuries, with no clear evidence of a reduction in cycling usage or activity. Straddle injuries, whilst uncommon and generally minor, require careful clinical assessment as they may be associated with urethral trauma. Quad bikes remain highly dangerous with continuing reports of deaths in child riders due to their inherent lack of stability: a ban on their use by children would seem the most effective solution...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636623/the-basolateral-vesicle-sorting-machinery-and-basolateral-proteins-are-recruited-to-the-site-of-enteropathogenic-e-coli-microcolony-growth-at-the-apical-membrane
#6
Gitte A Pedersen, Helene H Jensen, Anne-Sofie B Schelde, Charlotte Toft, Hans N Pedersen, Maj Ulrichsen, Frédéric H Login, Manuel R Amieva, Lene N Nejsum
Foodborne Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infections of the small intestine cause diarrhea especially in children and are a major cause of childhood death in developing countries. EPEC infects the apical membrane of the epithelium of the small intestine by attaching, effacing the microvilli under the bacteria and then forming microcolonies on the cell surface. We first asked the question where on epithelial cells EPEC attaches and grows. Using models of polarized epithelial monolayers, we evaluated the sites of initial EPEC attachment to the apical membrane and found that EPEC preferentially attached over the cell-cell junctions and formed microcolonies preferentially where three cells come together at tricellular tight junctions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633110/emerging-contaminants-related-to-the-occurrence-of-forest-fires-in-the-spanish-mediterranean
#7
Julian Campo, María Lorenzo, Erik L H Cammeraat, Yolanda Picó, Vicente Andreu
Forest fires can be a source of contamination because, among others, of the use of chemicals to their extinction (flame retardants, FRs), or by the production of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from high temperature alteration of organic matter. Up to our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the direct (PAHs 16 on the USA EPA's priority list), and indirect [tri- to hepta- brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)] contamination related to forest fires...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629881/cell-mediated-immune-response-of-postmetamorphic-sea-urchin-juveniles-against-infectious-stages-of-diatom-cylindrotheca-closterium-bacillariophyceae
#8
Adriano Magesky, Claude Belzile, Émilien Pelletier
In this study, successive infectious stages by diatom Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae) are described for the first time during the early development of sea urchin at low temperature (8°C). Diatom cell-types enclosed or not by typical theca were capable of infection. As an immune response, red spherulocytes and amoebocytes migrated towards infested areas and restrained the infection spreading over shells in 2- and 3-month old urchins. Only amoebocyte cells appeared to be involved in the immune reaction of 1-month old specimens which turned out to be a less effective fence to stop infestation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625538/a-strong-contractile-actin-fence-and-large-adhesions-direct-human-pluripotent-colony-morphology-and-adhesion
#9
Elisa Närvä, Aki Stubb, Camilo Guzmán, Matias Blomqvist, Diego Balboa, Martina Lerche, Markku Saari, Timo Otonkoski, Johanna Ivaska
Cell-type-specific functions and identity are tightly regulated by interactions between the cell cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have ultimate differentiation capacity and exceptionally low-strength ECM contact, yet the organization and function of adhesion sites and associated actin cytoskeleton remain poorly defined. We imaged hPSCs at the cell-ECM interface with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and discovered that adhesions at the colony edge were exceptionally large and connected by thick ventral stress fibers...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605964/impact-of-a-freeway-on-the-dispersal-of-ticks-and-ixodes-ricinus-borne-pathogens-forested-resting-areas-may-become-lyme-disease-hotspots
#10
Sándor Hornok, Maria Mulvihill, Krisztina Szőke, Enikő Gönczi, Kinga M Sulyok, Miklós Gyuranecz, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
Man-made barriers are well known for their effects on ecosystems. Habitat fragmentation, for instance, is a recognised consequence of modern-day infrastructure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity and abundance of tick species, as well as the risks of acquiring tick-borne infections in habitats adjacent to a freeway. Therefore, ixodid ticks were collected from the vegetation at two-week intervals (in the main tick season, from March to June) in eight habitats of different types (forest, grove, grassland) along both sides of a freeway...
June 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591179/a-systematic-review-of-elephant-impact-across-africa
#11
Robert A R Guldemond, Andrew Purdon, Rudi J van Aarde
Contradictory findings among scientific studies that address a particular issue may impede the conversion of science to management implementation. A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to generate a single outcome may overcome this problem. The contentious topic of the impact that a megaherbivore such as the savanna elephant have for other species and their environment can benefit from such an approach. After some 68 years, 367 peer-reviewed papers covered the topic and 51 of these papers provided sufficient data to be included in a meta-analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588202/terahertz-electromagnetic-fences-on-a-graphene-surface-plasmon-polariton-platform
#12
Xidong Wu, Xiang Guo
Controlling the loss of graphene can be used in the field of transformation optics. We propose a new concept of electromagnetic fence on a monolayer graphene surface plasmon polariton platform. Using a Dot-Density-Renderer quasicrystal metasurface, we can simulate the absorption of gradient index optics structures. Numerical simulations show that the incident waves to our designed electromagnetic fence are trapped toward the central lines and quickly absorbed by the high-loss region. Two basic types of electromagnetic fence and its composite structures have been designed and analyzed, which exhibit excellent broadband absorbing performances at 8 THz-12 THz...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582555/enablers-of-innovation-in-digital-public-health-surveillance-lessons-from-flutracking
#13
Craig B Dalton
Opportunities for digital innovation in public health surveillance have never been greater. Social media data streams, Open Data initiatives, mHealth geotagged data, and the 'internet of things' are ripe for development. To embrace these opportunities we need to provide public health professionals with environments that support experimentation with new technology. Innovative practitioners will lead discovery, adaption, trialling and deployment of new technological solutions mostly developed outside their organisation...
May 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562182/effect-of-dual-attention-task-on-attack-and-defensive-actions-in-fencing
#14
Marcos Gutiérrez-Davila, F Javier Rojas, Carmen Gutiérrez-Cruz, Enrique Navarro
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect that the presence of two stimuli that require two different responses (dual-attention) has both, on offensive reaction-response time to a light stimulus, and on defensive response time when the stimulus is a real fencing attack. Twenty-five elite fencers and a fencing master were included in the study. The equipment included four force plates adapted to a scaffold that served as a fencing piste. Two force plates were placed, at the start position, under the fencer's feet and another two plates were placed under the master's feet...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561013/photoresponsive-lipid-polymer-hybrid-nanoparticles-for-controlled-doxorubicin-release
#15
Cuiping Yao, Ming Wu, Cecheng Zhang, Xinyi Lin, Zuwu Wei, Youshi Zheng, Da Zhang, Zhenxi Zhang, Xiaolong Liu
Currently, photoresponsive nanomaterials are particularly attractive due to their spatial and temporal controlled drug release abilities. In this work, we report a photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle for remote controlled delivery of anticancer drugs. This hybrid nanoparticle comprises three distinct functional components: (i) a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) core to encapsulate doxorubicin; (ii) a soybean lecithin monolayer at the interface of the core and shell to act as a molecular fence to prevent drug leakage; (iii) a photoresponsive polymeric shell with anti-biofouling properties to enhance nanoparticle stability, which could be detached from the nanoparticle to trigger the drug release via a decrease in the nanoparticle's stability under light irradiation...
May 31, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560287/mend-your-fences-the-epithelial-barrier-and-its-relationship-with-mucosal-immunity-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
REVIEW
Eva Martini, Susanne M Krug, Britta Siegmund, Markus F Neurath, Christoph Becker
The intestinal epithelium can be easily disrupted during gut inflammation as seen in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. For a long time, research into the pathophysiology of IBD has been focused on immune cell-mediated mechanisms. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the intestinal epithelium might play a major role in the development and perpetuation of IBD. It is now clear that IBD can be triggered by disturbances in epithelial barrier integrity via dysfunctions in intestinal epithelial cell-intrinsic molecular circuits that control the homeostasis, renewal, and repair of intestinal epithelial cells...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538318/do-fencers-require-a-weapon-specific-approach-to-strength-and-conditioning-training
#17
Anthony N Turner, Chris J Bishop, Jon A Cree, Michael L Edwards, Shyam Chavda, Paul J Read, David M J Kirby
Turner, AN, Bishop, CJ, Cree, JA, Edwards, ML, Chavda, S, Read, PJ, and Kirby, DMJ. Do fencers require a weapon-specific approach to strength and conditioning training? J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1662-1668, 2017-There are 3 types of weapons used in Olympic fencing: the épée, foil, and sabre. The aim of this study was to determine if fencers exhibited different physical characteristics across weapons. Seventy-nine male (n = 46) and female (n = 33) national standard fencers took part in this study. Fencers from each weapon (male and female), i...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517613/a-quantitative-method-to-the-analysis-of-mlc-leaf-position-and-speed-based-on-epid-and-ebt3-film-for-dynamic-imrt-treatment-with-different-types-of-mlc
#18
Yinghui Li, Lixin Chen, Jinhan Zhu, Bin Wang, Xiaowei Liu
A quantitative method based on the electronic portal imaging system (EPID) and film was developed for MLC position and speed testing; this method was used for three MLC types (Millennium, MLCi, and Agility MLC). To determine the leaf position, a picket fence designed by the dynamic (DMLC) model was used. The full-width half-maximum (FWHM) values of each gap measured by EPID and EBT3 were converted to the gap width using the FWHM versus nominal gap width relationship. The algorithm developed for the picket fence analysis was able to quantify the gap width, the distance between gaps, and each individual leaf position...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507191/lowering-metabolic-rate-mitigates-muscle-atrophy-in-western-fence-lizards
#19
J Balaban, E Azizi
Extended periods of skeletal muscle disuse can cause a significant loss of contractile proteins, which compromises the ability to generate force, mechanical work or power, thus compromising locomotor performance. Several hibernating organisms can resist muscle atrophy despite months of inactivity. This resistance has been attributed to a reduction in body temperature and metabolic rate and activation of physiological pathways that counteract pathways of protein degradation. However, in these systems such strategies are not mutually exclusive and the effects of these mechanisms can be difficult to separate...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504300/effect-of-protection-against-hot-climate-on-growth-performance-physiological-response-and-endocrine-profile-of-growing-lambs-under-semi-arid-tropical-environment
#20
Kalyan De, Davendra Kumar, Anoop Kumar Singh, Kamal Kumar, Artabandhu Sahoo, Syed Mohammed Khursheed Naqvi
In the hot semi-arid tropical region, extreme summer is a major constraint in sheep production. The growth performance of growing lambs is impaired during the summer. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of protection against hot climate on growth performance, physiological response, and endocrine profile of growing lambs under semi-arid tropical environment. All the data in the experiment were presented as mean ± SE. Thirty Malpura lambs with the age of 122.7 ± 6.05 days and body weight of 19...
May 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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