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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517613/a-quantitative-method-to-the-analysis-of-mlc-leaf-position-and-speed-based-on-epid-and-ebt3-film-for-dynamic-imrt-treatment-with-different-types-of-mlc
#1
Yinghui Li, Lixin Chen, Jinhan Zhu, Bin Wang, Xiaowei Liu
A quantitative method based on the electronic portal imaging system (EPID) and film was developed for MLC position and speed testing; this method was used for three MLC types (Millennium, MLCi, and Agility MLC). To determine the leaf position, a picket fence designed by the dynamic (DMLC) model was used. The full-width half-maximum (FWHM) values of each gap measured by EPID and EBT3 were converted to the gap width using the FWHM versus nominal gap width relationship. The algorithm developed for the picket fence analysis was able to quantify the gap width, the distance between gaps, and each individual leaf position...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507191/lowering-metabolic-rate-mitigates-muscle-atrophy-in-western-fence-lizards
#2
J Balaban, E Azizi
Extended periods of skeletal muscle disuse can cause a significant loss of contractile proteins, which compromises the ability to generate force, mechanical work or power, thus compromising locomotor performance. Several hibernating organisms can resist muscle atrophy despite months of inactivity. This resistance has been attributed to a reduction in body temperature and metabolic rate and activation of physiological pathways that counteract pathways of protein degradation. However, in these systems such strategies are not mutually exclusive and the effects of these mechanisms can be difficult to separate...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504300/effect-of-protection-against-hot-climate-on-growth-performance-physiological-response-and-endocrine-profile-of-growing-lambs-under-semi-arid-tropical-environment
#3
Kalyan De, Davendra Kumar, Anoop Kumar Singh, Kamal Kumar, Artabandhu Sahoo, Syed Mohammed Khursheed Naqvi
In the hot semi-arid tropical region, extreme summer is a major constraint in sheep production. The growth performance of growing lambs is impaired during the summer. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of protection against hot climate on growth performance, physiological response, and endocrine profile of growing lambs under semi-arid tropical environment. All the data in the experiment were presented as mean ± SE. Thirty Malpura lambs with the age of 122.7 ± 6.05 days and body weight of 19...
May 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498334/pastoralism-versus-agriculturalism-how-do-altered-land-use-forms-affect-the-spread-of-invasive-plants-in-the-degraded-mutara-rangelands-of-north-eastern-rwanda
#4
Torsten Wronski, Jean Damascene Bariyanga, Ping Sun, Martin Plath, Ann Apio
Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats...
May 12, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496966/effects-of-deer-on-the-photosynthetic-performance-of-invasive-and-native-forest-herbs
#5
J Mason Heberling, Nathan L Brouwer, Susan Kalisz
Overabundant generalist herbivores can facilitate non-native plant invasions, presumably through direct and indirect modifications to the environment that affect plant performance. However, ecophysiological mechanisms behind ungulate-mediated plant invasions have not been well-studied. At a long-term Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) exclusion site in a temperate deciduous forest, we quantified deer-mediated ecophysiological impacts on an invasive biennial Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and two palatable native herbaceous perennials, Maianthemum racemosum and Trillium grandiflorum...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490624/removal-of-an-apex-predator-initiates-a-trophic-cascade-that-extends-from-herbivores-to-vegetation-and-the-soil-nutrient-pool
#6
Timothy Morris, Mike Letnic
It is widely assumed that organisms at low trophic levels, particularly microbes and plants, are essential to basic services in ecosystems, such as nutrient cycling. In theory, apex predators' effects on ecosystems could extend to nutrient cycling and the soil nutrient pool by influencing the intensity and spatial organization of herbivory. Here, we take advantage of a long-term manipulation of dingo abundance across Australia's dingo-proof fence in the Strzelecki Desert to investigate the effects that removal of an apex predator has on herbivore abundance, vegetation and the soil nutrient pool...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490388/the-ability-of-ewes-with-lambs-to-learn-a-virtual-fencing-system
#7
E I Brunberg, I K Bergslid, K E Bøe, K M Sørheim
The Nofence technology is a GPS-based virtual fencing system designed to keep sheep within predefined borders, without using physical fences. Sheep wearing a Nofence collar receive a sound signal when crossing the virtual border and a weak electric shock if continuing to walk out from the virtual enclosure. Two experiments testing the functionality of the Nofence system and a new learning protocol is described. In Experiment 1, nine ewes with their lambs were divided into groups of three and placed in an experimental enclosure with one Nofence border...
May 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484321/flow-through-a-very-porous-obstacle-in-a-shallow-channel
#8
M J Creed, S Draper, T Nishino, A G L Borthwick
A theoretical model, informed by numerical simulations based on the shallow water equations, is developed to predict the flow passing through and around a uniform porous obstacle in a shallow channel, where background friction is important. This problem is relevant to a number of practical situations, including flow through aquatic vegetation, the performance of arrays of turbines in tidal channels and hydrodynamic forces on offshore structures. To demonstrate this relevance, the theoretical model is used to (i) reinterpret core flow velocities in existing laboratory-based data for an array of emergent cylinders in shallow water emulating aquatic vegetation and (ii) reassess the optimum arrangement of tidal turbines to generate power in a tidal channel...
April 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482868/the-epidemiology-of-drowning-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#9
Matthew D Tyler, David B Richards, Casper Reske-Nielsen, Omeed Saghafi, Erica A Morse, Robert Carey, Gabrielle A Jacquet
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, drowning is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional injury-related deaths worldwide, accounting for 370,000 annual deaths and 7% of all injury-related deaths. Low- and middle-income countries are the most affected, accounting for 91% of unintentional drowning deaths. METHODS: The authors performed a systematic review of literature indexed in EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Traumatology journals formerly indexed in PubMed in January 2014 and again in September 2016...
May 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481737/are-we-on-the-fence
#10
Charles R Doarn, Ronald C Merrell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455645/on-medicine-and-boundaries-frost-s-mending-wall
#11
Gabriel L Perlow, Andrew C Furman
Published just over a century ago, Robert Frost's Mending Wall stands as one of the most eloquent meditations on boundaries and the complex and nuanced role they play in interpersonal relationships. Often anthologized, and perhaps as often misunderstood, Mending Wall has much to teach medical educators and practicing clinicians about the physician-patient relationship and the evolving dynamic between healer and patient. Remembered mostly for the seemingly contradictory repetition of the adage "Good fences make good neighbors," and the opening "something there is that doesn't love a wall," Frost mischievously navigates through the many meanings and functions of boundaries; how they separate, unite, and ultimately, how they might mend...
April 28, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453615/do-patient-access-schemes-for-high-cost-cancer-drugs-deliver-value-to-society-lessons-from-the-nhs-cancer-drugs-fund
#12
A Aggarwal, T Fojo, C Chamberlain, C Davis, R Sullivan
Background: The NHS Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) was established in 2010 to reduce delays and improve access to cancer drugs, including those that had been previously appraised but not approved by NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence). After 1.3 billion GBP expenditure, a UK parliamentary review in 2016 rationalized the CDF back into NICE. Methods: This paper analyses the potential value delivered by the CDF according to six value criteria. This includes validated clinical benefits scales, cost-effectiveness criteria as defined by NICE and an assessment of real-world data...
April 27, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450356/how-to-cross-the-lymphatic-fence-lessons-from-solute-transport
#13
EDITORIAL
Joanna Kalucka, Laure-Anne Teuwen, Vincent Geldhof, Peter Carmeliet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449495/laser-resection-of-pulmonary-nodule-via-uniportal-thoracoscopic-surgery
#14
Calvin S H Ng, Freddie Capili, Ze-Rui Zhao, Peter S Y Yu, Jacky Y K Ho, Rainbow W H Lau
Uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung wedge resection usually requires three devices, thoracoscope, lung retracting instrument and an endo-stapler cutter to perform the procedure. With advances in miniaturization of the thoracoscope and lung retracting instruments, a major limitation to operating through a smaller uniportal incision has become the endo-stapler. We describe the surgical technique for uniportal VATS laser lung resection which uses a much narrower laser catheter device to replace the endo-stapler for resection...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440021/global-patterns-and-trends-in-human-wildlife-conflict-compensation
#15
Jeremy Ravenelle, Philip J Nyhus
Human-wildlife conflict is a major conservation challenge, and compensation for wildlife damage is a widely used economic tool to mitigate this conflict. The effectiveness of this management tool is widely debated. The relative importance of factors associated with compensation success is unclear and little is known about global geographic or taxonomic differences in the application of compensation programs. We carried out a review of the compensation scholarship to examine geographic and taxonomic gaps, analyze patterns of positive and negative comments related to compensation, and assess the relative magnitude of global compensation payments...
April 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438912/effects-of-conservation-management-of-landscapes-and-vertebrate-communities-on-lyme-borreliosis-risk-in-the-united-kingdom
#16
REVIEW
Caroline Millins, Lucy Gilbert, Jolyon Medlock, Kayleigh Hansford, Des Ba Thompson, Roman Biek
Landscape change and altered host abundance are major drivers of zoonotic pathogen emergence. Conservation and biodiversity management of landscapes and vertebrate communities can have secondary effects on vector-borne pathogen transmission that are important to assess. Here we review the potential implications of these activities on the risk of Lyme borreliosis in the United Kingdom. Conservation management activities include woodland expansion, management and restoration, deer management, urban greening and the release and culling of non-native species...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435466/design-of-tumor-acidity-responsive-sheddable-nanoparticles-for-fluorescence-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-photodynamic-therapy
#17
Feng Fan, Yue Yu, Fei Zhong, Meng Gao, Tianmeng Sun, Jiaxin Liu, Huimao Zhang, Haisheng Qian, Wei Tao, Xianzhu Yang
Imaging-guided cancer therapy, which integrates diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities into a single system, holds great promise to enhance the accuracy of diagnosis and improve the efficacy of therapy. Specifically, for photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is highly desirable to precisely focus laser light onto the tumor areas to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are cytotoxic tumor cells and avoid light-associated side effects. Herein, a distinct three-layer nanostructured particle with tumor acidity-responsiveness (S-NP) that encapsulates the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) and chelates Gd(3+) is successfully developed for fluorescence/magnetic resonance (MR) dual-model imaging-guided precision PDT...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430794/experimental-demonstration-of-a-trophic-cascade-in-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-rocky-subtidal-effects-of-consumer-identity-and-behavior
#18
Jon D Witman, Franz Smith, Mark Novak
In diverse tropical webs, trophic cascades are presumed to be rare, as species interactions may dampen top-down control and reduce their prevalence. To test this hypothesis, we used an open experimental design in the Galápagos rocky subtidal that enabled a diverse guild of fish species, in the presence of each other and top predators (sea lions and sharks), to attack two species of sea urchins grazing on benthic algae. Time-lapse photography of experiments on natural and experimental substrates revealed strong species identity effects: only two predator species-blunthead triggerfish (Pseudobalistes naufragium) and finescale triggerfish (Balistes polylepis)-drove a diurnal trophic cascade extending to algae, and they preferred large pencil urchins (Eucidaris galapagensis) over green urchins (Lytechinus semituberculatus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426679/control-of-zoonotic-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-vector-phlebotomus-papatasi-using-attractive-toxic-sugar-baits-atsb
#19
Abedin Saghafipour, Hassan Vatandoost, Ali Reza Zahraei-Ramazani, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Yavar Rassi, Moharram Karami Jooshin, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Amir Ahmad Akhavan
INTRODUCTION: Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB) is a new vector control method that meets Integrated Vector Management (IVM) goals. In an experimental design, this study aimed to determine effects of ATSB on control of Phlebotomus papatasi, as a main vector of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL), in Qom Province, center of Iran. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, boric acid was mixed with brown sugar solution and tested as toxic baits for P. papatasi. Two methods were utilized to use the baits: (a) spraying ATSB on vegetation, bushes, and shrubs; and (b) setting ATSB-treated barrier fences in front of colonies at 500 m distance from the houses in outskirts of villages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419702/evaluation-of-the-truebeam-machine-performance-check-mpc-mechanical-and-collimation-checks
#20
Michael P Barnes, Peter B Greer
Machine performance check (MPC) is an automated and integrated image-based tool for verification of beam and geometric performance of the TrueBeam linac. The aims of the study were to evaluate the performance of the MPC geometric tests relevant to beam collimation (MLC and jaws) and mechanical systems (gantry and collimator). Evaluation was performed by comparing MPC to QA tests performed routinely in the department over a 4-month period. The MPC MLC tests were compared to an in-house analysis of the Picket Fence test...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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