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Mitsuhiko Takewa, Sei Komatsu, Satoru Takahashi, Kazuhisa Kodama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Lisa Gamsjaeger, Munashe Chigerwe
OBJECTIVE To characterize indications for and clinical outcomes of limb amputation in goats and sheep. DESIGN Retrospective case series and observational study. ANIMALS Goats (n = 15) and sheep (7) that underwent partial or complete limb amputation at the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2015. PROCEDURES Medical records of qualifying goats and sheep were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment, use of animal, characteristics of the amputated limb, duration of hospitalization, outcome, and surgery-associated complications...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Katie Conover, Sarah Romero
Drowning contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population but it is largely preventable through judicious use of safety measures. To affect outcomes surrounding drowning, pediatricians need to understand the most updated terminology, the basic resuscitation protocols, and the assessment and management of a drowning victim. Most importantly, pediatricians must appreciate the importance of properly counseling patients and families about drowning prevention. Effective preventive measures supported by the literature include constant and reliable adult supervision, swim instruction for most children older than age 4 years, pool isolation fencing, and the proper use of personal floatation devices...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Alba Pablos-Tanarro, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Antonio Palomo, Francisco Casasola, Ignacio Ferre
The objective of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Iberian sows reared in extensive and intensive management conditions and to compare two serologic techniques used for diagnosis. In addition, some possible risk factors associated with the presence of serum antibodies to T. gondii were also studied. Serum samples were collected from 2492 Iberian sows on 14 pig farms. Three types of management systems were included, traditional extensive outdoor farms (five farms), intensive farms with outdoor access (n = 4), and conventional intensive indoor farms (n = 5)...
March 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Weixiang Jin, M Fethullah Simsek, Arnd Pralle
It has been long recognized that the cell membrane is heterogeneous on scales ranging from a couple of molecules to micrometers in size and hence diffusiong of receptors is length scale dependent. This heterogeneity modulates many cell-membrane-associated processes requiring transient spatiotemporal separation of components. The transient increase in local concentration of interacting signal components enables robust signaling in an otherwise thermally noisy system. Understanding how lipids and proteins self-organize and interact with the cell cortex requires quantifying the motion of the components...
March 9, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Ishier Raote, Maria Ortega-Bellido, António J M Santos, Ombretta Foresti, Chong Zhang, Maria F Garcia-Parajo, Felix Campelo, Vivek Malhotra
Collagen export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires TANGO1, COPII coats, and retrograde fusion of ERGIC membranes. How do these components come together to produce a transport carrier commensurate with the bulky cargo collagen? TANGO1 is known to form a ring that corrals COPII coats and we show here how this ring or fence is assembled. Our data reveal that a TANGO1 ring is organized by its radial interaction with COPII, and lateral interactions with cTAGE5, TANGO1-short or itself. Of particular interest is the finding that TANGO1 recruits ERGIC membranes for collagen export via the NRZ (<u>N</u>BAS/<u>R</u>INT1/<u>Z</u>W10) tether complex...
March 7, 2018: ELife
Hein Sprong, Tal Azagi, Dieuwertje Hoornstra, Ard M Nijhof, Sarah Knorr, M Ewoud Baarsma, Joppe W Hovius
Lyme borreliosis (LB) and other Ixodes ricinus-borne diseases (TBDs) are diseases that emerge from interactions of humans and domestic animals with infected ticks in nature. Nature, environmental and health policies at (inter)national and local levels affect the risk, disease burden and costs of TBDs. Knowledge on ticks, their pathogens and the diseases they cause have been increasing, and resulted in the discovery of a diversity of control options, which often are not highly effective on their own. Control strategies involving concerted actions from human and animal health sectors as well as from nature managers have not been formulated, let alone implemented...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Hector Argüello, Edgar G Manzanilla, Helen Lynch, Kavita Walia, Finola C Leonard, John Egan, Geraldine Duffy, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Among the zoonotic pathogens affecting pigs, Salmonella stands out due to the high number of human cases linked to pork consumption. In the last two decades many countries have put considerable effort into the control of the infection by surveillance and control strategies on farm. Despite this effort, many herds still have a high Salmonella prevalence and they require guidance to address this problem. The present study, using the serological surveillance data of finishing pigs from the Irish National pig Salmonella Control Programme, aimed to highlight factors associated with increased risk or that might mitigate Salmonella occurrence on farm...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Danila Marini, M Dennis Meuleman, Sue Belson, T Bas Rodenburg, Rick Llewellyn, Caroline Lee
To ensure animal welfare isn't compromised when using virtual fencing, animals must be able to associate a benign conditioned stimulus with an aversive stimulus. This study used an associative learning test to train 30, four-year-old, Merino x Suffolk ewes, to associate an audio cue with an electric stimulus. Collars manually controlled by a GPS hand-held unit were used to deliver the audio and electric stimuli cues. For the associative learning, when sheep approached an attractant at a distance of three m from the trough, an audio cue was applied for one s...
February 27, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Danila Marini, Rick Llewellyn, Sue Belson, Caroline Lee
Virtual fencing has the potential to greatly improve livestock movement, grazing efficiency, and land management by farmers; however, relatively little work has been done to test the potential of virtual fencing with sheep. Commercial dog training equipment, comprising of a collar and GPS hand-held unit were used to implement a virtual fence in a commercial setting. Six, 5-6 year-old Merino wethers, which were naïve to virtual fencing were GPS tracked for their use of a paddock (80 × 20 m) throughout the experiment...
February 26, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Guiming Wang, Wei Liu, Yanni Wang, Xinrong Wan, Wenqin Zhong
Restricted gene flow may cause positive spatial genetic autocorrelation of animal populations at fine spatial scales. The Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus is a territorial, social rodent. Territoriality may create social fences to restrict dispersal or gene flow of Mongolian gerbils to a short distance. Restricted dispersal may differentiate fine-scale spatial genetic structure of populations with increasing distances (i.e., isolation by distance [IBD]). Competition for mates and inbreeding avoidance may result in equal dispersal propensity and subsequently similar spatial genetic autocorrelation between males and females of monogamous gerbils...
December 2017: Current Zoology
Xu Bi, Bo Li, Qi Fu, Yao Fan, Lingxiao Ma, Zihan Yang, Bo Nan, Xuhuan Dai, Xinshi Zhang
Grazing exclusion has been proposed as a method of restoring degraded grassland ecosystems. However, its effectiveness remains poorly understood in mountain-basin grasslands in arid regions. Thus, we investigated the plant community characteristics, C and N storage levels, and soil organic carbon and total nitrogen concentrations and storage within the upper 0-40 cm soil layer in a grazed grassland (GG) and a fenced grassland (FG) with grazing exclusion in mountain meadow (MM) and temperate typical steppe (TTS) habitats in a mountain-basin ecosystem in an arid region of Central China, which are both vital grassland resources for livestock grazing and ecological conservation...
February 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Władysław Jagiełło, Jagiełło Marina, Kalina Roman Maciej, Barczyński Bartłomiej Jan, Litwiniuk Artur, Klimczak Jarosław
Fencing is a combat sport whose form of direct confrontation involves hitting the opponent with a weapon. The purpose of the study was to determine the properties of body composition of female representatives of the Polish national fencing team. The study involved 11 female athletes of the Polish national fencing team. Their age was 16-22 years (19±2.32), body weight 52-78 kg (59.7±7.4), body height 158-183 cm (167.46±6.10) and the training experience 7.64±3.47 years. The reference group consisted of 153 students of Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Leul Kidane, Sileshi Nemomissa, Tamrat Bekele
BACKGROUND: Traditional management regimes and knowledge systems of forest resources have shaped forests throughout the world where materials from individual species are harvested in a sustainable manner. To comprehend this, the vegetation of Hugumburda-Gratkhassu Forest was described and related to anthropogenic factors. METHODS: Three ethnobotanical research methods were used to collect indigenous knowledge of the local inhabitants related to conservation and utilization of forest resources...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Zhang Xia, Xue Jing-Bo, Hu He-Hua, Liu Xiong, Cui Cai-Xia, Wen Xiao-Hong, Xie Xiao-Ping, Zhang Wei-Rong, Tian Rong, Dong Li-Chun, Cao Chun-Li, Li Shi-Zhu, Zhou Yi-Biao
OBJECTIVE: To understand the spatial distribution characteristics of wild feces in schistosomiasis endemic areas of Jiangling County, Hubei Province and further explore the source of infection efficiently, so as to provide the evidence for the development of corresponding monitoring and response technology. METHODS: In 2011, the fresh wild feces were investigated every two months in the selected 15 villages by the severity of historical endemic in Jiangling County...
March 7, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Chen Zhi-Hua, Zhu Yi-Sheng, Xue Zhi-Qiang, Li Xue-Bing, Ding Yi-Min, Bi Li-Jun, Gao Kai-Min, Zhang You
OBJECTIVE: To construct the Oncomelania hupensis snail monitoring system based on the Baidu Map. METHODS: The environmental basic information about historical snail environment and existing snail environment, etc. was collected with the monitoring data about different kinds of O. hupensis snails, and then the O. hupensis snail monitoring system was built. Geographic Information System (GIS) and the electronic fence technology and Application Program Interface (API) were applied to set up the electronic fence of the snail surveillance environments, and the electronic fence was connected to the database of the snail surveillance...
October 25, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Chen Zhi-Hua, Zhu Yi-Sheng, Xue Zhi-Qiang, Li Xue-Bing, Ding Yi-Min, Bi Li-Jun, Gao Kai-Min, Zhang You
OBJECTIVE: To study the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) electronic fence technique in Oncomelania hupensis snail monitoring. METHODS: The electronic fence was set around the history and existing snail environments in the electronic map, the information about snail monitoring and controlling was linked to the electronic fence, and the snail monitoring information system was established on these bases. The monitoring information was input through the computer and smart phone...
July 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Masimba Ndengu, Gift Matope, Musavengana Tivapasi, Massimo Scacchia, Barbara Bonfini, Davis Mubika Pfukenyi, Michel de Garine-Wichatitsky
A study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in cattle and some selected wildlife species at selected interface areas at the periphery of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in Zimbabwe. Three study sites were selected based on the type of livestock-wildlife interface, porous livestock-wildlife interface (unrestricted), non-porous livestock-wildlife interface (restricted by fencing), and livestock-wildlife non-interface (totally absent or control)...
February 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Xing Wang, Xinguo Yang, Lei Wang, Lin Chen, Naiping Song, Junlong Gu, Yi Xue
Excluding grazers is one of most efficient ways to restore degraded grasslands in desert-steppe communities, but may negatively affect the recovery of plant species diversity. However, diversity differences between grazed and fenced grasslands in desert-steppe are poorly known. In a Stipa breviflora desert steppe community in Northern China, we established six plots to examine spatial patterns of plant species diversity under grazed and fenced conditions, respectively. We addressed three aspects of species diversity: (1) The logistic, exponential and power models were used to describe the species-area curve (SAR)...
2018: PeerJ
Carlo Pacioni, Malcolm S Kennedy, Oliver Berry, Danielle Stephens, Nathan H Schumaker
Large predators can significantly impact livestock industries. In Australia, wild dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris , Canis lupus dingo, and hybrids) cause economic losses of more than AUD$40M annually. Landscape-scale exclusion fencing coupled with lethal techniques is a widely practiced control method. In Western Australia, the State Barrier Fence encompasses approximately 260,000km2 of predominantly agricultural land, but its effectiveness in preventing wild dogs from entering the agricultural region is difficult to evaluate...
January 24, 2018: Ecological Modelling
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