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Jianshuang Wu, Yunfei Feng, Xianzhou Zhang, Susanne Wurst, Britta Tietjen, Paolo Tarolli, Chunqiao Song
Resilience is an important aspect of the non-linear restoration of disturbed ecosystems. Fenced grassland patches on the northern Tibetan Plateau can be used to examine the resistance and resilience of degraded alpine grasslands to grazing and to a changing climate. To examine the non-linearity of restoration, we used moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a proxy for productivity during a ten-year restoration by fencing. Degraded alpine grasslands exhibited three restoration trajectories: an equilibrium in meadows, a non-linear increase across steppes, and an abrupt impulse in desert-steppes following a slight increase in productivity...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Llinos Mary Jehu, Shelina Visram, Linda Marks, David J Hunter, Howard Davis, Anne Mason, Dan Liu, Joanne Smithson
Background: The Health and Social Care Act 2012 gave councils in England responsibility for improving the health of their populations. Public health teams were transferred from the National Health Service (NHS), accompanied by a ring-fenced public health grant. This study examines the changing role of these teams within local government. Methods: In-depth case study research was conducted within 10 heterogeneous councils. Initial interviews (n = 90) were carried out between October 2015 and March 2016, with follow-up interviews (n = 21) 12 months later...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health
Martin Kyek, Peter H Kaufmann, Robert Lindner
This study focuses on the population trends of two widespread European anuran species: the common toad (Bufo bufo) and the common frog (Rana temporaria). The basis of this study is data gathered over two decades of amphibian fencing alongside roads in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Different statistical approaches were used to analyse the data. Overall average increase or decrease of each species was estimated by calculating a simple average locality index. In addition the statistical software TRIM was used to verify these trends as well as to categorize the data based on the geographic location of each migration site...
2017: PloS One
K R Bivens, M K Mullenix, J J Tucker, B E Gamble, R B Muntifering
A 2-yr grazing trial was conducted to evaluate the use of conserved forage type, stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass ( L.; T85) or T85 hay, and supplement type for stocker cattle during the fall forage deficit in the southeastern United States. The study site consisted of six 0.75-ha paddocks of stockpiled T85 for grazing and six 0.20-ha drylot paddocks for feeding T85 hay. Steers ( = 5 per paddock; mean initial BW for both yr, 263 ± 30 kg) were randomly assigned to paddocks on November 11, 2014 and October 28, 2015 in yr 1 and yr 2, respectively...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Jerome A Hogsette, Gregory A Ose
Stable flies are noxious blood-feeding pests of exotic animals at zoological parks, inflicting painful bites, and causing discomfort to animals. Stable fly management is difficult because of the flies' tendency to remain on the host animals only when feeding. Non-toxic traps can be efficient but traps placed around exhibit perimeters captured fewer-than-expected numbers of flies. By surrounding traps with square electric fence enclosures, traps could be placed in the exhibits with the host animals and compared with an equal number of traps placed along perimeter fences...
November 5, 2017: Zoo Biology
Xiuting Chen, Qingnuan Li, Lester Andrews, Yu Gong
Mono and diisocyanide complexes of manganese and iron were prepared via the reactions of laser-ablated manganese and iron atoms with (CN)2 in an argon matrix. Product identifications were performed based on the characteristic infrared absorptions from isotopically labeled (CN)2 experiments as compared with computed values for both cyanides and isocyanides. Manganese atoms reacted with (CN)2 to produce Mn(NC)2 upon λ > 220 nm irradiation, during which MnNC was formed mainly as a result of the photoinduced decomposition of Mn(NC)2...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Karolina Pierzynowska, Marta Skowron Volponi, Grzegorz Węgrzyn
The Apollo butterfly, Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus), was common in Europe over 100 years ago, but currently it is considered as near threatened. Different conservation programs have promoted the persistence of this species, however, it is still endangered. An example of such programs was the action devoted to reestablish the Apollo butterfly population in Pieniny National Park (Poland) from only 20-30 individuals which had survived till the last decade of the 20th century. This reintroduction has been successful, however, unexpected developmental problems appeared...
November 2, 2017: Insect Science
Kate Gosney, Singarayer K Florentine
Fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) is an Australian native grass that has recently become a major concern for rural communities. Its dried inflorescences are blown by the wind and build up against fences and buildings, becoming a severe fire hazard. Understanding the ecology of fairy grass and its impacts on rural communities is relevant to its management. Four dry lake beds in Western Victoria were selected to determine if environmental factors, such as lake, location, direction, altitude and road type and the covariates of pH, soil salinity, soil moisture and distance to nearest road, are related to the presence of fairy grass...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mirali Pandya, Lauren Rosene, Colin Farquharson, José L Millán, Thomas G H Diekwisch
The transport of mineral ions from the enamel organ-associated blood vessels to the developing enamel crystals involves complex cargo packaging and carriage mechanisms across several cell layers, including the ameloblast layer and the stratum intermedium. Previous studies have established PHOSPHO1 as a matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase that interacts with matrix vesicles molecules phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine to initiate apatite crystal formation inside of matrix vesicles in bone. In the present study, we sought to determine the function of Phospho1 during amelogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Mehmet Oğuzhan Özyurtkan, Erkan Kaba, Alper Toker
The popularity of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) which increased worldwide due to the recent innovations in thoracic surgical technics, equipment, electronic devices that carry light and vision and high definition monitors. Uniportal VATS (UVATS) is disseminated widely, creating a drive to develop new techniques and instruments, including new graspers and special staplers with more angulation capacities. During the history of VATS, the classical 10 mm 0° or 30° rigid rod lens system, has been replaced by new thoracoscopes providing a variable angle technology and allowing 0° and 120° range of vision...
2017: J Vis Surg
Agnese Giaccone, Piergiorgio Solli, Luca Bertolaccini
The magnetic anchoring guidance system (MAGS) is one of the most promising technological innovations in minimally invasive surgery and consists in two magnetic elements matched through the abdominal or thoracic wall. The internal magnet can be inserted into the abdominal or chest cavity through a small single incision and then moved into position by manipulating the external component. In addition to a video camera system, the inner magnetic platform can house remotely controlled surgical tools thus reducing instruments fencing, a serious inconvenience of the uniportal access...
2017: J Vis Surg
Júlio Miguel Alvarenga, Cecília Rodrigues Vieira, Leandro Braga Godinho, Pedro Henrique Campelo, James Purser Pitts, Guarino Rinaldi Colli
Understanding how and why biological communities are organized over space and time is a major challenge and can aid biodiversity conservation in times of global changes. Herein, spatial-temporal variation in the structure of velvet ant communities was examined along a forest-savanna gradient in the Brazilian Cerrado to assess the roles of environmental filters and interspecific interactions upon community assembly. Velvet ants were sampled using 25 arrays of Y-shaped pitfall traps with drift fences for one year along an environmental gradient from cerrado sensu stricto (open canopy, warmer, drier) to cerradão (closed canopy, cooler, moister)...
2017: PloS One
J D Scasta, B Stam, J L Windh
Pastoralists have dealt with livestock losses from predators for millennia, yet effective mitigation strategies that balance wildlife conservation and sustainable agriculture are still needed today. In Wyoming, USA, 274 ranchers responded to a retrospective survey, and rated the efficacy of predation mitigation strategies for foxes, dogs, coyotes, wolves, bobcats, mountain lions, bears, and birds (buzzards, eagles, hawks, ravens). Rancher reported efficacy of mitigation varied by predator species, mitigation strategy, and lethality of strategies, but not livestock type...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wayne Derman, Martin P Schwellnus, Esme Jordaan, Phoebe Runciman, Cheri Blauwet, Nick Webborn, Jan Lexell, Peter Van de Vliet, Yetsa Tuakli-Wosornu, James Kissick, Jaap Stomphorst
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of illness at the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. METHODS: A total of 3657 athletes from 78 countries, representing 83.5% of all athletes at the Games, were monitored on the web-based injury and illness surveillance system (WEB-IISS) over 51 198 athlete days during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. Illness data were obtained daily from teams with their own medical support through the WEB-IISS electronic data capturing systems...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Maykon Passos Cristiano, Tássia Tatiane Pontes Pereira, Laysa Peneda Simões, Vivian Eliana Sandoval-Gómez, Danon Clemes Cardoso
Here we use karyomorphometrical analysis to characterize and evaluate the karyotype of the turtle ant Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824). This is the first representative of this diverse ant genus to be cytogenetically studied. They bear a diploid chromosome set of 44 chromosomes, which, according to the centromeric index, are metacentric, submetacentric, and subtelocentric. This small ant is quite widely distributed in the Neotropics and seems to be well adapted to living in disturbed areas. Here we report the species nesting on dead trunks used to build fences at countryside houses and farms...
October 23, 2017: Insects
Chengyu Ma, Binghe Ma, Jinjun Deng, Weizheng Yuan, Zitong Zhou, Han Zhang
A new variant of MEMS surface fence is proposed for shear-stress estimation under high-speed, high-temperature flow conditions. Investigation of high-temperature resistance including heat-resistant mechanism and process, in conjunction with high-temperature packaging design, enable the sensor to be used in environment up to 400 °C. The packaged sensor is calibrated over a range of ~65 Pa and then used to examine the development of the transient flow of the scramjet ignition process (Mach 2 airflow, stagnation pressure, and a temperature of 0...
October 22, 2017: Sensors
Dorin Panescu, Max Nerheim, Mark W Kroll, Michael A Brave
INTRODUCTION: We have previously published about TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEW) compliance with international standards. CEWs deliver electrical pulses that can inhibit a person's neuromuscular control or temporarily incapacitate. An eXperimental Rotating-Field (XRF) waveform CEW and the X2 CEW are new 2-shot electrical weapon models designed to target a precise amount of delivered charge per pulse. They both can deploy 1 or 2 dart pairs, delivered by 2 separate cartridges...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Stig Arlinger, Peter Nordqvist, Marie Öberg
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze a database of completed International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) questionnaires obtained from over 100,000 clients fitted with new hearing aids in Sweden during the period of 2012-2016. Mean IOI-HA total scores were correlated with degree of hearing loss, unilateral versus bilateral fitting, first-time versus return clients, gender, and variation among dispensing clinics. The correlations with expectations, service quality, and technical functioning of the hearing aids were also analyzed...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
Hao Pan, Fumin Zhang, Chunzhao Shi, Xinghua Qu
The long fiber frequency sampling method is used to eliminate the nonlinearity of laser tuning in the frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW ladar) technique. However, although it has high precision, it is affected by the picket fence effect and spectrum leakage. In this paper, we propose a novel frequency estimation method, multiple signal classification (MUSIC), to be used instead of the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based algorithm in order to obtain better range precision...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Siebren van der Werf
A 13th-century text in Old Norse, Konungs Skuggsjá (translated as The King's Mirror), tells about a phenomenon that may be encountered in the Greenland Sea. It is called hafgerðingar (sea fences). The horizon is raised, and from there three giant waves come rolling in. Recently Lehn and Schroeder have explained the phenomenon as a superior mirage. I extend their analysis by introducing a periodic time dependence in the properties of the inversion layer, and show that also the illusion of incoming waves and an immediate danger may so be explained...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
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