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Whole cell patch clamp

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924669/effects-of-15%C3%A2-hz-square-wave-magnetic-fields-on-the-voltage-gated-sodium-and-potassium-channels-in-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons
#1
Yu Zheng, Jun-Rong Dou, Yang Gao, Lei Dong, Gang Li
PURPOSE: Although magnetic fields have significant effects on neurons, little is known about the mechanisms behind their effects. The present study aimed to measure the effects of magnetic fields on ion channels in cortical pyramidal neurons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cortical pyramidal neurons of Kunming mice were isolated and then subjected to 15 Hz, 1 mT square wave (duty ratio 50%) magnetic fields stimulation. Sodium currents (INa), transient potassium currents (IA) and delayed rectifier potassium currents (IK) were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp method...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923876/stellate-and-pyramidal-neurons-in-goldfish-telencephalon-respond-differently-to-anoxia-and-gaba-receptor-inhibition
#2
Nariman Hossein-Javaheri, Michael P Wilkie, Wudu E Lado, Leslie T Buck
With oxygen deprivation, the mammalian brain undergoes hyper-activity and neuronal death while this does not occur in the anoxia tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus). Anoxic survival of the goldfish may rely on neuromodulatory mechanisms to suppress neuronal hyper-excitability. Since γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain, we decided to investigate its potential role in suppressing the electrical activity of goldfish telencephalic neurons. Utilizing whole-cell patch-clamp recording we recorded the electrical activities of both excitatory (pyramidal) and inhibitory (stellate) neurons...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923665/nicotine-enhances-gabaergic-inhibition-of-oxytocin-mrna-expressing-neuron-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-vitro-in-rats
#3
Ke-Min Zhang, Guo-Yan Zhao, Bin-Bin Zhang, Qi Xu, Chun-Ping Chu, Hua Jin, De-Lai Qiu
We recently found that extracellular administration of nicotine indirectly excited hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA-expressing neurons. In this study, we studied the effect of nicotine on PVN oxytocin (OT) mRNA-expressing neuron in vitro in rats, by whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique, immunohistochemistry methods and single-cell reverse-transcription multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SC-RT-mPCR) methods Our results showed that 79.3% (73/92) of the 92 PVN putative magnocellular neurons co-expressed GAPDH mRNA and OT mRNA...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917616/effect-of-redox-modifying-agents-on-the-activity-of-channelrhodopsin-2
#4
Bao-Ming Wu, Tian-Dong Leng, Koichi Inoue, Jun Li, Zhi-Gang Xiong
BACKGROUND: The algal protein Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) has been widely used in recent years in optogenetic technique to investigate the functions of complex neuronal networks through minimally invasive and temporally precise photostimulation of genetically defined neurons. However, as with any other new technique, current optogentic approaches have various limitations. In addition, how ChR2 may behave in response to complex biochemical changes associated with various physiological/pathological conditions is largely unknown...
December 4, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915058/larger-rate-dependence-of-late-sodium-current-in-cardiac-purkinje-cells-a-potential-link-to-arrhythmogenesis
#5
Wei Li, Ying Yu, Jian-Wen Hou, Zhi-Wen Zhou, Kai Guo, Peng-Pai Zhang, Zhi-Quan Wang, Jian-Hua Yan, Jian Sun, Qing Zhou, Yue-Peng Wang, Yi-Gang Li
BACKGROUND: Purkinje cells (PCs) have steeper rate-dependence of repolarization and are more susceptible to arrhythmic activity than ventricular myocytes (VMs). Late sodium current (INaL) is rate-dependent and contributes to rate-dependence of repolarization. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to test our hypothesis that PCs have larger rate-dependence of INaL, contributing to their steeper rate-dependence of repolarization and higher susceptibility to arrhythmic activity than VMs...
November 30, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914611/restoration-of-uridine-5-triphosphate-suppressed-delayed-rectifying-k-currents-by-an-no-activator-kmup-1-involves-rhoa-rho-kinase-signaling-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
Zen-Kong Dai, Chang-Ling Kao, Su-Ling Hsieh, Ing-Jun Chen, Bin-Nan Wu
We have demonstrated that KMUP-1 (7-[2-[4-(2-chlorobenzene)piperazinyl]ethyl]-1,3-dimethylxanthine) blunts monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by altering Ca(2+) sensitivity, K(+)-channel function, endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) expression. This study further investigated whether KMUP-1 impedes uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP)-inhibited delayed rectifying K(+) (KDR) current in rat pulmonary arteries involved the RhoA/ROCK signaling. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were enzymatically dissociated from rat pulmonary arteries...
December 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913590/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#7
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) at low stimulation frequency (0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895555/spike-timing-rigidity-is-maintained-in-bursting-neurons-under-pentobarbital-induced-anesthetic-conditions
#8
Risako Kato, Masanori Yamanaka, Eiko Yokota, Noriaki Koshikawa, Masayuki Kobayashi
Pentobarbital potentiates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission by prolonging the open time of GABAA receptors. However, it is unknown how pentobarbital regulates cortical neuronal activities via local circuits in vivo. To examine this question, we performed extracellular unit recording in rat insular cortex under awake and anesthetic conditions. Not a few studies apply time-rescaling theorem to detect the features of repetitive spike firing. Similar to these methods, we define an average spike interval locally in time using random matrix theory (RMT), which enables us to compare different activity states on a universal scale...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889432/decrease-of-high-voltage-ca-2-currents-in-the-dentate-gyrus-granule-cells-by-entorhinal-amyloidopathy-is-reversed-by-calcium-channel-blockade
#9
Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Nima Naderi, Hadi Mirzapour Delavar, Mahshid Hosseinzadeh, Nasrin Mehranfard, Fariba Khodagholi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Fereshteh Motamedi
In the Alzheimer's disease (AD), entorhinal-hippocampal circuit is one of the earliest affected networks. There are some evidences indicating abnormal neuronal excitability and impaired synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) of AD animal model. However, the underlying mechanism leading to DG dysfunction particularly in the early phase of AD is not known. Since calcium dyshomeostasis has a critical role in the etiology of AD, it is possible that this phenomenon precedes electrophysiological alteration in the DG...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888546/sex-differences-in-depolarizing-actions-of-gabaa-receptor-activation-in-rat-embryonic-hypothalamic-neurons
#10
Franco R Mir, Hugo F Carrer, María J Cambiasso
GABAA receptor activation exerts trophic actions in immature neurons through depolarization of resting membrane potential. The switch to its classical hyperpolarizing role is developmentally regulated. Previous results suggest that a hormonally biased sex difference exists at the onset of the switch in hypothalamic neurons. The aim of this work was to evaluate sex differences in GABAA receptor function of hypothalamic neurons before brain masculinization by gonadal hormones. Hypothalamic cells were obtained from embryonic day 16 male and female rat foetuses, 2 days before the peak of testosterone production by the foetal testis, and grown in vitro for 9 days...
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886375/modulation-of-chloride-currents-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells-exposed-to-exogenous-oxidative-stress
#11
Rita Canella, Marta Martini, Roberta Borriello, Carlotta Cavicchio, Ximena M Muresan, Mascia Benedusi, Franco Cervellati, Giuseppe Valacchi
Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting 9 out of 10 individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Respiratory tract is the organ most exposed to gas pollution and ozone has been shown to be one of the most noxious pollutants to which living organisms are exposed. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of 0.1 ppm of ozone on chloride currents in human lung epithelial cells (A549 line) and whether this effect could be modulated by vitamin E pre-treatment. Whole-cell patch clamp technique was applied to not excitable cells in order to obtain information about chloride currents behavior, important for epithelial lung cells homeostasis...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884956/regional-effects-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-on-shortening-and-calcium-transport-in-epicardial-and-endocardial-myocytes-from-rat-left-ventricle
#12
Manal M A Smail, Muhammad A Qureshi, Anatoliy Shmygol, Murat Oz, Jaipaul Singh, Vadym Sydorenko, Alya Arabi, Frank C Howarth, Lina Al Kury
In the heart, the left ventricle pumps blood at higher pressure than the right ventricle. Within the left ventricle, the electromechanical properties of ventricular cardiac myocytes vary transmurally and this may be related to the gradients of stress and strain experienced in vivo across the ventricular wall. Diabetes is also associated with alterations in hemodynamic function. The aim of this study was to investigate shortening and Ca(2+) transport in epicardial (EPI) and endocardial (ENDO) left ventricular myocytes in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881847/epigenetic-regulation-of-l-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-in-mesenteric-arteries-of-aging-hypertensive-rats
#13
Jingwen Liao, Yanyan Zhang, Fang Ye, Lin Zhang, Yu Chen, Fanxing Zeng, Lijun Shi
Accumulating evidence has shown that epigenetic regulation is involved in hypertension and aging. L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs), the dominant channels in vascular myocytes, greatly contribute to arteriole contraction and blood pressure (BP) control. We investigated the dynamic changes and epigenetic regulation of LTCC in the mesenteric arteries of aging hypertensive rats. LTCC function was evaluated by using microvascular rings and whole-cell patch-clamp in the mesenteric arteries of male Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats at established hypertension (3 month old) and an aging stage (16 month old), respectively...
November 24, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872583/ablation-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-subtype-3-impairs-hippocampal-neuron-excitability-in-vitro-and-spatial-working-memory-in-vivo
#14
Daniela Weth-Malsch, Michiel Langeslag, Dimitra Beroukas, Luca Zangrandi, Iris Kastenberger, Serena Quarta, Philipp Malsch, Theodora Kalpachidou, Christoph Schwarzer, Richard L Proia, Rainer V Haberberger, Michaela Kress
Understanding the role of the bioactive lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) within the central nervous system has recently gained more and more attention, as it has been connected to major diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Even though much data about the functions of the five S1P receptors has been collected for other organ systems, we still lack a complete understanding for their specific roles, in particular within the brain. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to further elucidate the role of S1P receptor subtype 3 (S1P3) in vivo and in vitro with a special focus on the hippocampus...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869701/the-role-of-individual-disulfide-bonds-of-%C3%AE-conotoxin-giiia-in-the-inhibition-of-nav1-4
#15
Penggang Han, Kang Wang, Xiandong Dai, Ying Cao, Shangyi Liu, Hui Jiang, Chongxu Fan, Wenjian Wu, Jisheng Chen
μ-Conotoxin GIIIA, a peptide toxin isolated from Conus geographus, preferentially blocks the skeletal muscle sodium channel NaV1.4. GIIIA folds compactly to a pyramidal structure stabilized by three disulfide bonds. To assess the contributions of individual disulfide bonds of GIIIA to the blockade of NaV1.4, seven disulfide-deficient analogues were prepared and characterized, each with one, two, or three pairs of disulfide-bonded Cys residues replaced with Ala. The inhibitory potency of the analogues against NaV1...
November 18, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864268/de-novo-gabrg2-mutations-associated-with-epileptic-encephalopathies
#16
Dingding Shen, Ciria C Hernandez, Wangzhen Shen, Ningning Hu, Annapurna Poduri, Beth Shiedley, Alex Rotenberg, Alexandre N Datta, Steffen Leiz, Steffi Patzer, Rainer Boor, Kerri Ramsey, Ethan Goldberg, Ingo Helbig, Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez, Johannes R Lemke, Eric D Marsh, Robert L Macdonald
Epileptic encephalopathies are a devastating group of severe childhood onset epilepsies with medication-resistant seizures and poor developmental outcomes. Many epileptic encephalopathies have a genetic aetiology and are often associated with de novo mutations in genes mediating synaptic transmission, including GABAA receptor subunit genes. Recently, we performed next generation sequencing on patients with a spectrum of epileptic encephalopathy phenotypes, and we identified five novel (A106T, I107T, P282S, R323W and F343L) and one known (R323Q) de novo GABRG2 pathogenic variants (mutations) in eight patients...
November 17, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861438/cardiotoxic-antiemetics-metoclopramide-and-domperidone-block-cardiac-voltage-gated-na-channels
#17
Carsten Stoetzer, Marc Voelker, Thorben Doll, Joerg Heineke, Florian Wegner, Andreas Leffler
BACKGROUND: Metoclopramide and domperidone are prokinetic and antiemetic substances often used in clinical practice. Although domperidone has a more favorable side effect profile and is considered the first-line agent, severe cardiac side effects were reported during the administration of both substances. Cardiac Na channels are common targets of therapeutics inducing cardiotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the differential cardiotoxicities of metoclopramide and domperidone correlate with the block of Na channels...
November 17, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859335/extracellular-protons-enable-activation-of-the-calcium-dependent-chloride-channel-tmem16a-ano1
#18
Silvia Cruz-Rangel, José J De Jesus-Pérez, Iván A Aréchiga-Figueroa, Aldo A Rodríguez-Menchaca, Patricia Pérez-Cornejo, H Criss Hartzell, Jorge Arreola
TMEM16A (ANO1), the pore forming subunit of a Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) channel (CaCC), is activated by direct, voltage-dependent, binding of intracellular Ca(2+) . Endogenous CaCCs are regulated by extracellular protons; however, the molecular basis of such regulation remains unidentified. Here, we evaluated the effects of different extracellular proton concentrations ([H(+) ]o ) on mouse TMEM16A expressed in HEK-293 cells using whole-cell and inside-out patch clamp recordings. We found that increasing the [H(+) ]o from 10(-10) to 10(-5...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852780/functional-organization-of-flash-induced-v1-offline-reactivation
#19
Kenta Funayama, Nobuhiro Hagura, Hiroshi Ban, Yuji Ikegaya
: The primary visual cortex exhibits a late, long response with a latency of >300 ms and an immediate early response that occurs ∼100 ms after a visual stimulus. The late response is thought to contribute to visual functions such as sensory perception, iconic memory, working memory, and forming connections between temporally separated stimuli. However, how the visual late response is generated and organized is not completely understood. In the mouse primary visual cortex in vivo, we isolated long-delayed responses by using a brief light-flash stimulus for which the stimulus late response occurred long after the stimulus offset and was not contaminated by the instantaneous response evoked by the stimulus...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847463/metabolic-therapy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-a-dish-investigating-mechanisms-of-ketogenic-diet-using-electrophysiological-recordings-in-hippocampal-slices
#20
REVIEW
Masahito Jr Kawamura, David N Ruskin, Susan A Masino
The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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