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Whole cell patch clamp

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351460/macrophage-dependent-impairment-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-autoreceptor-function-in-sympathetic-neurons-from-doca-salt-but-not-high-fat-diet-induced-hypertensive-rats
#1
Ryan Kwun-Yee Mui, Roxanne Fernandes, Hannah Garver, Nico van Rooijen, James J Galligan
DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension are associated with inflammation and sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. Prejunctional α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) provide negative feedback to norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves through inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. Increased neuronal norepinephrine release in DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension occurs through impaired α2AR signaling, however, the mechanisms involved are unclear. Mesenteric arteries are resistance arteries that receive sympathetic innervation from the superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMCG)...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342363/differential-effects-of-inhibitory-g-protein-isoforms-on-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-k-currents-in-adult-murine-atria
#2
Muriel Nobles, David Montaigne, Sonia Sebastian, Lutz Birnbaumer, Andrew Tinker
G-protein gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels are the major inwardly rectifying K+ currents in cardiac atrial myocytes and an important determinant of atrial electrophysiology. Inhibitory G-protein alpha subunits can both mediate activation via acetylcholine but can also supress basal currents in the absence of agonist. We studied this phenomenon using whole cell patch clamping in murine atria from mice with global genetic deletion of Gαi2, combined deletion of Gαi1/Gαi3 and littermate controls...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341884/acute-stress-persistently-alters-locus-coeruleus-function-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#3
Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew D Flamini, Daniel J Chandler
Stress is a physiological state characterized by altered neuroendocrine signaling, behavioral arousal, and anxiety. Chronic or traumatic stress may predispose individuals for multiple somatic and psychiatric illnesses. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a major node in the stress response that integrates input from multiple stress responsive neural circuits and releases norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system to promote vigilance and anxiety. Many mood disorders associated with prior stress are characterized by chronically altered noradrenergic signaling, yet the long-term impact of an acute stressor on LC function is not clear...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335317/reduced-n-type-ca2-channels-in-atrioventricular-ganglion-neurons-are-involved-in-ventricular-arrhythmogenesis
#4
Dongze Zhang, Huiyin Tu, Liang Cao, Hong Zheng, Robert L Muelleman, Michael C Wadman, Yu-Long Li
BACKGROUND: Attenuated cardiac vagal activity is associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis and related mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Our recent study has shown that expression of N-type Ca2+ channel α-subunits (Cav2.2-α) and N-type Ca2+ currents are reduced in intracardiac ganglion neurons from rats with chronic heart failure. Rat intracardiac ganglia are divided into the atrioventricular ganglion (AVG) and sinoatrial ganglion. Ventricular myocardium receives projection of neuronal terminals only from the AVG...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330035/harmine-enhances-gabaergic-transmission-onto-basoamygdala-projection-neurons-in-mice
#5
Wei-Zhu Liu, Bo-Wei Huang, Wen-Jie You, Ping Hu, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Bin Xu, Zong-Yong Zhang, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang
Emerging evidence indicates that loss of inhibitory tone in amygdala with its subsequent overactivation contributes to the development of multiple mental disorders such as anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Harmine is a member of natural β-carboline alkaloids which can readily cross the blood brain barrier and displays significant antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in rodents. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, by using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in in vitro amygdala slices, we examined the effect of harmine on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission onto basal amygdala (BA) projection neurons (PNs)...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329401/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-non-fast-spiking-gabaergic-interneurons-in-layer-4-microcircuitry-of-rat-barrel-cortex
#6
Vishalini Emmenegger, Guanxiao Qi, Haijun Wang, Dirk Feldmeyer
GABAergic interneurons are notorious for their heterogeneity, despite constituting a small fraction of the neuronal population in the neocortex. Classification of interneurons is crucial for understanding their widespread cortical functions as they provide a complex and dynamic network, balancing excitation and inhibition. Here, we investigated different types of non-fast-spiking (nFS) interneurons in Layer 4 (L4) of rat barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with biocytin-filling. Based on a quantitative analysis on a combination of morphological and electrophysiological parameters, we identified 5 distinct types of L4 nFS interneurons: 1) trans-columnar projecting interneurons,2) locally projecting non-Martinotti-like interneurons, 3) supra-granular projecting Martinotti-like interneurons,4) intra-columnar projecting VIP-like interneurons,and5) locally projecting neurogliaform-like interneurons...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325900/orexin-b-modulates-synaptic-transmission-of-rod-bipolar-cells-in-rat-retina
#7
Gong Zhang, Xiao-Hua Wu, Guo-Zhong Xu, Shi-Jun Weng, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong
Orexin-A, -B play a crucial role in arousal and feeding by activating two G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). Orexins, along with orexin receptors, are expressed in retinal neurons, and they have been shown to differentially modulate excitatory AMPA receptors of amacrine and ganglion cells in the inner retina. In this work we report that orexin-B modulates the activity of rod bipolar cells (RBCs) located in the outer retina of rat. Intravitreal injection of orexin-B increased the amplitude of the scotopic electroretinographic b-wave, a reflection of RBC activity, recorded in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324898/the-etomidate-analog-et-26-hcl-retains-superior-myocardial-performance-comparisons-with-etomidate-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#8
Xingxing Liu, Haibo Song, Jun Yang, Cheng Zhou, Yi Kang, Linghui Yang, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: (R)-2-methoxyethyl1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a novel etomidate analogue. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether ET-26 HCl could retain the superior myocardial performance of etomidate in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: In vivo, the influence of ET-26 HCl and etomidate on the cardiac function of dogs was confirmed using echocardiography and electrocardiogram. In vitro, a Langendorff preparation was used to examine direct myocardial performance in isolated rat hearts, and a whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to study effects on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318456/voltage-dependence-of-the-ca2-transient-in-endocardial-and-epicardial-myocytes-from-the-left-ventricle-of-goto-kakizaki-type-2-diabetic-rats
#9
Lina Al Kury, Vadym Sydorenko, Manal M A Smail, Muhammad Anwar Qureshi, Anatoliy Shmygol, Murat Oz, Jaipaul Singh, Frank Christopher Howarth
Diabetes mellitus is a major global health disorder and, currently, over 450 million people have diabetes with 90% suffering from type 2 diabetes. Left untreated, diabetes may lead to cardiovascular diseases which are a leading cause of death in diabetic patients. Calcium is the trigger and regulator of cardiac muscle contraction and derangement in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, which can result in heart failure and sudden cardiac death. It is of paramount importance to investigate the regional involvement of Ca2+ in diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315524/neonatal-phenobarbital-exposure-disrupts-gabaergic-synaptic-maturation-in-rat-ca1-neurons
#10
Nour Al-Muhtasib, Alberto Sepulveda-Rodriguez, Stefano Vicini, Patrick A Forcelli
OBJECTIVE: Phenobarbital is the most commonly utilized drug for the treatment of neonatal seizures. The use of phenobarbital continues despite growing evidence that it exerts suboptimal seizure control and is associated with long-term alterations in brain structure, function, and behavior. Alterations following neonatal phenobarbital exposure include acute induction of neuronal apoptosis, disruption of synaptic development in the striatum, and a host of behavioral deficits. These behavioral deficits include those in learning and memory mediated by the hippocampus...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306897/critical-roles-of-xirp-proteins-in-cardiac-conduction-and-their-rare-variants-identified-in-sudden-unexplained-nocturnal-death-syndrome-and-brugada-syndrome-in-chinese-han-population
#11
Lei Huang, Kuo-Ho Wu, Liyong Zhang, Qinchuan Wang, Shuangbo Tang, Qiuping Wu, Pei-Hsiu Jiang, Jim Jung-Ching Lin, Jian Guo, Lin Wang, Shih-Hurng Loh, Jianding Cheng
BACKGROUND: Sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) remains an autopsy negative entity with unclear etiology. Arrhythmia has been implicated in SUNDS. Mutations/deficiencies in intercalated disc components have been shown to cause arrhythmias. Human cardiomyopathy-associated 1 (XIRP1) and 3 (XIRP2) are intercalated disc-associated, Xin repeats-containing proteins. Mouse Xirp1 is necessary for the integrity of intercalated disc and for the surface expression of transient outward and delayed rectifier K+ channels, whereas mouse Xirp2 is required for Xirp1 intercalated disc localization...
January 6, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306322/curcumin-attenuates-collagen-induced-inflammatory-response-through-the-gut-brain-axis
#12
Yannong Dou, Jinque Luo, Xin Wu, Zhifeng Wei, Bei Tong, Juntao Yu, Ting Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Yan Yang, Xusheng Yuan, Peng Zhao, Yufeng Xia, Huijuan Hu, Yue Dai
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of curcumin exhibited an anti-arthritic effect despite its poor bioavailability. The present study aimed to explore whether the gut-brain axis is involved in the therapeutic effect of curcumin. METHODS: The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model was induced by immunization with an emulsion of collagen II and complete Freund's adjuvant. Sympathetic and parasympathetic tones were measured by electrocardiographic recordings...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305938/ca2-dependent-potassium-channels-and-cannabinoid-signaling-in-the-endothelium-of-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-before-plaque-formation
#13
Alexander I Bondarenko, Olga Panasiuk, Iryna Okhai, Fabrizio Montecucco, Karim J Brandt, François Mach
Endothelial Ca2+-dependent K+ channels (KCa) regulate endothelial function. We also know that stimulation of type 2 cannabinoid (CB2) receptors ameliorates atherosclerosis. However, whether atherosclerosis is accompanied by altered endothelial KCa- and CB2 receptor-dependent signaling is unknown. By utilizing an in situ patch-clamp approach, we directly evaluated the KCa channel function and the CB2 receptor-dependent electrical responses in the endothelium of aortic strips from young ApoE-/- and C57Bl/6 mice...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303989/characterization-of-different-types-of-excitability-in-large-somatosensory-neurons-and-its-plastic-changes-in-pathological-pain-states
#14
Rou-Gang Xie, Wen-Guang Chu, San-Jue Hu, Ceng Luo
Sensory neuron types have been distinguished by distinct morphological and transcriptional characteristics. Excitability is the most fundamental functional feature of neurons. Mathematical models described by Hodgkin have revealed three types of neuronal excitability based on the relationship between firing frequency and applied current intensity. However, whether natural sensory neurons display different functional characteristics in terms of excitability and whether this excitability type undergoes plastic changes under pathological pain states have remained elusive...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302214/antidepressant-drug-paroxetine-blocks-the-open-pore-of-kv3-1-potassium-channel
#15
Hyang Mi Lee, Ok Hee Chai, Sang June Hahn, Bok Hee Choi
In patients with epilepsy, depression is a common comorbidity but difficult to be treated because many antidepressants cause pro-convulsive effects. Thus, it is important to identify the risk of seizures associated with antidepressants. To determine whether paroxetine, a very potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), interacts with ion channels that modulate neuronal excitability, we examined the effects of paroxetine on Kv3.1 potassium channels, which contribute to highfrequency firing of interneurons, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298904/multiple-lines-of-evidence-indicate-that-gliotransmission-does-not-occur-under-physiological-conditions
#16
Todd A Fiacco, Ken D McCarthy
A major controversy persists within the field of glial biology concerning whether or not, under physiological conditions, neuronal activity leads to Ca2+-dependent release of neurotransmitters from astrocytes, a phenomenon known as gliotransmission. Our perspective is that, while we and others can apply techniques to cause gliotransmission, there is considerable evidence gathered using astrocyte-specific and more physiological approaches which suggests that gliotransmission is a pharmacological phenomenon rather than a physiological process...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298877/molecular-basis-for-potentiation-of-cx36-gap-junction-channel-conductance-by-n-alcohols-and-general-anesthetics
#17
Vytautas Raškevičius, Vaidas Jotautis, Lina Rimkutė, Alina Marandykina, Mintautė Kazokaitė, Visvaldas Kairys, Vytenis Arvydas Skeberdis
In our recent study, we have demonstrated that short carbon chain n -alcohols (up to octanol) stimulated while long carbon chain n -alcohols inhibited the conductance of connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junction (GJ) channels. In contrast, GJ channels composed of other types of Cxs all were inhibited by n -alcohols independently on their carbon chain length. To identify the putative structural domains of Cx36, responsible for the dual effect of n -alcohols, we performed structural modeling of Cx36 protein docking with hexanol and isoflurane that stimulated as well as nonanol and carbenoxolone that inhibited the conductance of Cx36 GJs and revealed their multiple common docking sites and a single pocket accessible only to hexanol and isoflurane...
January 3, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297466/multi-neuron-intracellular-recording-in-vivo-via-interacting-autopatching-robots
#18
Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah, Francisco J Flores, Gregory L Holst, Annabelle C Singer, Xue Han, Emery N Brown, Edward S Boyden, Craig R Forest
The activities of groups of neurons in a circuit or brain region are important for neuronal computations that contribute to behaviors and disease states. Traditional extracellular recordings have been powerful and scalable, but much less is known about the intracellular processes that lead to spiking activity. We present a robotic system, the multipatcher, capable of automatically obtaining blind whole-cell patch clamp recordings from multiple neurons simultaneously. The multipatcher significantly extends automated patch clamping, or 'autopatching', to guide four interacting electrodes in a coordinated fashion, avoiding mechanical coupling in the brain...
January 3, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285118/anti-epileptic-effect-of-ifenprodil-on-neocortical-pyramidal-neurons-in-patients-with-malformations-of-cortical-development
#19
Xiongfei Wang, Xun He, Tianfu Li, Yousheng Shu, Songtao Qi, Guoming Luan
Ifenprodil has been demonstrated to reduce spontaneous action potentials observed by local field potential in animal models. To investigate whether ifenprodil exerts an anti-epileptic effect on neuronal levels in humans, whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used to study the electrophysiological membrane properties of neocortical pyramidal neurons in human brain tissues. Electrophysiological membrane properties and spontaneous spikes of neocortical pyramidal neurons were investigated by using whole-cell patch clamp recordings, prior to and following the application of ifenprodil...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259649/chloroform-extract-of-artemisia-annua-l-relaxes-mouse-airway-smooth-muscle
#20
Jun Huang, Li-Qun Ma, Yongle Yang, Nana Wen, Wan Zhou, Congli Cai, Qing-Hua Liu, Jinhua Shen
Artemisia annua L. belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is indigenous to China. It has valuable pharmacological properties, such as antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. However, whether it possesses antiasthma properties is unknown. In the current study, chloroform extract of Artemisia annua L. (CEAA) was prepared, and we found that CEAA completely eliminated acetylcholine (ACh) or high K+-elicited (80 mM) contractions of mouse tracheal rings (TRs). Patch-clamp technique and ion channel blockers were employed to explore the underlying mechanisms of the relaxant effect of CEAA...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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