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Whole cell patch clamp

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781517/a-homozygous-scn5a-mutation-associated-with-atrial-standstill-and-sudden-death
#1
Reina Bianca Tan, Ivan Gando, Lei Bu, Frank Cecchin, William Coetzee
BACKGROUND: Atrial standstill is an arrhythmogenic condition characterized by the absence of spontaneous electrical and mechanical atrial activity or in response to stimulation. There are few reported familial cases which have been associated with SCN5A mutations co-segregating with GJA5 or RYR2 however isolated SCN5A mutations are rare. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and biophysical consequence of a novel SCN5A mutation identified in a family with progressive atrial standstill and sudden death...
May 21, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781252/subtype-selective-inhibition-of-acid-sensing-ion-channel-3-by-a-natural-flavonoid
#2
Xiao-Gang Yan, Wei-Guang Li, Xin Qi, Jia-Jie Zhu, Chen Huang, Shao-Ling Han, Qin Jiang, Tian-Le Xu, Jian-Hua Liu
AIMS: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are extracellular proton-gated cation channels that have been implicated in multiple physiological and pathological processes, and peripheral ASIC3 prominently participate into the pathogenesis of chronic pain, itch, and neuroinflammation, which necessitates the need for discovery and development of novel modulators in a subtype-specific manner. METHODS: Whole-cell patch clamp recordings and behavioral assays were used to examine the effect of several natural compounds on the ASIC-mediated currents and acid-induced nocifensive behavior, respectively...
May 20, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778809/effects-of-propofol-on-ipscs-in-ca1-and-dentate-gyrus-cells-of-rat-hippocampus-propofol-effects-on-hippocampal-cells-ipscs
#3
Masanori Ishiguro, Suguru Kobayashi, Kiyoji Matsuyama, Takashi Nagamine
Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol) is one of the most popular intravenous anesthetic agents. In this study, we compared the effects of propofol on inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) induced by single and paired electrical stimulations in CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1-PCs) and dentate gyrus granule cells (DG-GCs) in rat hippocampal slices using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. In the absence of propofol, the amplitude of evoked IPSC by single stimulation and decay time constants were stable in both CA1-PCs and DG-GCs for 30 min...
May 17, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778719/effect-of-heptanol-and-ethanol-on-excitation-wave-propagation-in-a-neonatal-rat-ventricular-myocyte-monolayer
#4
A D Podgurskaya, V A Tsvelaya, S R Frolova, I Y Kalita, N N Kudryashova, K I Agladze
In this work, the action of heptanol and ethanol was investigated in a two-dimensional (2D) model of cardiac tissue: the neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayer. Heptanol is known in electrophysiology as a gap junction uncoupler but may also inhibit voltage-gated ionic channels. Ethanol is often associated with the occurrence of arrhythmias. These substances influence sodium, calcium, and potassium channels, but the complete mechanism of action of heptanol and ethanol remains unknown. The optical mapping method was used to measure conduction velocities (CVs) in concentrations of 0...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775644/redox-signal-mediated-trpm2-promotes-ang-ii-induced-adipocyte-insulin-resistance-via-ca-2-dependent-camkii-jnk-cascade
#5
Min Gao, Yu Du, Jing-Wen Xie, Jing Xue, Yi-Ting Wang, Li Qin, Ming-Ming Ma, Yong-Bo Tang, Xiao-Yan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Redox-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+ -permeable, nonselective cation channel which plays a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, little is known whether TRPM2 is involved in adipocyte dysfunction during hypertension. In the present study, we determined the role of TRPM2 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Ang II-induced adipocyte insulin resistant model was conducted...
May 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774881/-effect-of-down-regulation-of-iks-repolarization-reserve-on-ventricular-arrhythmogenesis-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-cardiac-hypertrophy
#6
Hegui Wang, Ting Huang, Zheng Wang, Nannan Ge, Yongsheng Ke
To observe the changes of rapidly activated delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr) and slowly activated delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKs) in cardiac hypertrophy and to evaluate the effects of IKr and IKs blocker on the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in guinea pigs with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).
 Methods: Guinea pigs were divided into a sham operation group and a left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) group. LVH model was prepared. Whole cell patch-clamp technique was used to record IKr and IKs tail currents in a guinea pig model with LVH...
April 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768434/plasma-membrane-insertion-of-kca2-3-sk3-is-dependent-upon-the-snare-proteins-syntaxin-4-and-snap23
#7
Claudia A Bertuccio, Tony T Wang, Kirk L Hamilton, Diego J Rodriguez-Gil, Steven B Condliffe, Daniel C Devor
We previously demonstrated endocytosis of KCa2.3 is caveolin-1-, dynamin II- and Rab5-dependent. KCa2.3 then enters Rab35/EPI64C- and RME-1-containing recycling endosomes and is returned to the plasma membrane (PM). Herein, we report on the mechanism by which KCa2.3 is inserted into the PM during recycling and following exit from the Golgi. We demonstrate KCa2.3 colocalizes with SNAP-23 and Syntaxin-4 in the PM of HEK and endothelial cells by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. We further show KCa2.3 can be co-immunoprecipitated with SNAP-23 and Syntaxin-4...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759541/the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-a-mutation-hotspot-responsible-for-the-short-qt-syndrome
#8
Dan Hu, Yang Li, Jiancheng Zhang, Ryan Pfeiffer, Michael H Gollob, Jeff Healey, Daniel Toshio Harrell, Naomasa Makita, Haruhiko Abe, Yaxun Sun, Jihong Guo, Li Zhang, Ganxin Yan, Douglas Mah, Edward P Walsh, Harris B Leopold, Carla Giustetto, Fiorenzo Gaita, Agnieszka Zienciuk-Krajka, Andrea Mazzanti, Silvia G Priori, Charles Antzelevitch, Hector Barajas-Martinez
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the phenotypic and functional expression of an apparent hotspot mutation associated with short QT syndrome (SQTS). BACKGROUND: SQTS is a rare channelopathy associated with a high risk of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). METHODS: Probands diagnosed with SQTS and their family members were evaluated clinically and genetically. KCNH2 wild-type (WT) and mutant genes were transiently expressed in HEK293 cells, and currents were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp and action potential (AP) clamp techniques...
July 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755550/the-effects-of-buthotus-schach-scorpion-venom-on-electrophysiological-properties-of-magnocellular-neurons-of-rat-supraoptic-nucleus
#9
Akram Aboutorabi, Nima Naderi, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Hossein Zolfagharian, Hossein Vatanpour
Bothutous Schach  (BS) scorpion venom consists of several polypeptides that could modulate ion channels. In this study, the effects of BS crude venom on passive and active electrophysiological properties of rat neurons in supraoptic nucleus (SON) of hypothalamus was investigated using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that bath application of BS venom produced significant change in passive properties of SON neurons, namely a decrease in resting membrane potential and an increase in input resistance of the cells...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752983/orexin-b-modulates-spontaneous-excitatory-and-inhibitory-transmission-in-lamina-ii-neurons-of-adult-rat-spinal-cord
#10
Chong Wang, Tsugumi Fujita, Eiichi Kumamoto
Cellular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive properties of orexins, a group of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus, in the spinal dorsal horn have not been thoroughly investigated. We examined how orexin B affects spontaneous synaptic transmission in lamina II neurons, which play a pivotal role in regulating nociceptive transmission, by applying a whole-cell patch-clamp technique to lamina II neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices. In 66% of neurons tested, bath-applied orexin B concentration-dependently produced an inward current at -70 mV and/or increased the frequency of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) without changing its amplitude, in a manner resistant to the voltage-gated Na+ -channel blocker tetrodotoxin...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751228/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-alters-postsynaptic-ampa-receptors-and-glutamate-neurotransmission-within-the-laterodorsal-tegmentum-ldt-of-juvenile-mice
#11
Filip S Polli, Kristi A Kohlmeier
Despite dissemination of information regarding the harm on fetal development of smoking while pregnant, the number of pregnancies associated with nicotine exposure appears to have stagnated. Presence of nicotine during neural formulation is associated with a higher susceptibility of drug dependence, suggesting an altered development of neurons in circuits involved in saliency and motivation. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) plays a role in coding stimuli valence via afferents to mesolimbic nuclei. Accordingly, alterations in development of neural mechanisms in the LDT could be involved in vulnerability to drug dependency...
April 25, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750015/symmetric-dimeric-adamantanes-for-exploring-the-structure-of-two-viroporins-influenza-virus-m2-and-hepatitis-c-virus-p7
#12
Yasmine M Mandour, Ulrike Breitinger, Chunlong Ma, Jun Wang, Frank M Boeckler, Hans-Georg Breitinger, Darius P Zlotos
Background: Adamantane-based compounds have been identified to interfere with the ion-channel activity of viroporins and thereby inhibit viral infection. To better understand the difference in the inhibition mechanism of viroporins, we synthesized symmetric dimeric adamantane analogs of various alkyl-spacer lengths. Methods: Symmetric dimeric adamantane derivatives were synthesized where two amantadine or rimantadine molecules were linked by various alkyl-spacers...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748580/modulation-of-sympathetic-preganglionic-neuron-activity-via-adrenergic-receptors
#13
Yoshino Minoura, Hiroshi Onimaru, Kamon Iigaya, Youichi Kobayashi
The sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) play a key role in the sympathetic nervous system. Previous reports have suggested that norepinephrine (NE) directly affects SPNs via both inhibitory hyperpolarization interactions mediated by α2 receptors and excitatory depolarization interactions mediated by α1 receptors. It remains poorly understood, however, whether the excitability of SPNs can be inhibited indirectly (presynaptically) as well as directly (postsynaptically). We intracellularly recorded 41 SPNs using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in spinal cord slice preparations of neonatal rats...
May 10, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746171/increased-task-channel-mediated-currents-underlie-high-fat-diet-induced-vagal-afferent-dysfunction
#14
Sung Jin Park, Yang Yu, Brittany Wagner, William C Valinsky, Alan E Lomax, Michael J Beyak
We have previously demonstrated that satiety sensing vagal afferent neurons are less responsive to meal-related stimuli in obesity, due to reduced electrical excitability. As leak K+ currents are key determinants of membrane excitability, we hypothesized that leak K+ currents are increased in vagal afferents during obesity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) was induced by feeding C57Bl/6J mice a high fat fed diet (60% energy from fat - HFF) for 8-10 weeks. In vitro extracellular recordings were performed on jejunal afferent nerves...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742416/electromechanics-and-volume-dynamics-in-nonexcitable-tissue-cells
#15
Florence Yellin, Yizeng Li, Varun K A Sreenivasan, Brenda Farrell, Manu B Johny, David Yue, Sean X Sun
Cell volume regulation is fundamentally important in phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and embryogenesis. How the cell size is set, maintained, and changed over a cell's lifetime is not well understood. In this work we focus on how the volume of nonexcitable tissue cells is coupled to the cell membrane electrical potential and the concentrations of membrane-permeable ions in the cell environment. Specifically, we demonstrate that a sudden cell depolarization using the whole-cell patch clamp results in a 50% increase in cell volume, whereas hyperpolarization results in a slight volume decrease...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740286/optogenetic-control-of-neural-circuits-in-the-mongolian-gerbil
#16
Stefan Keplinger, Barbara Beiderbeck, Stylianos Michalakis, Martin Biel, Benedikt Grothe, Lars Kunz
The Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ) is widely used as a model organism for the human auditory system. Its hearing range is very similar to ours and it uses the same mechanisms for sound localization. The auditory circuits underlying these functions have been characterized. However, important mechanistic details are still under debate. To elucidate these issues, precise and reversible optogenetic manipulation of neuronal activity in this complex circuitry is required. However, genetic and genomic resources for the Mongolian gerbil are poorly developed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739981/dual-actions-of-psalmotoxin-at-asic1a-and-asic2a-heteromeric-channels-asic1a-2a
#17
Yi Liu, Rebecca Hagan, Jeffrey Schoellerman
Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) are gated by extracellular protons and play important roles in physiological and pathological states, such as pain and stroke. ASIC1a and ASIC2a, two of the most highly expressed subunits in the brain, form functional homo- and hetero-meric (ASIC1a/2a) channels. The function of ASIC1a has been widely studied using psalmotoxin (PcTx1), a venom-derived peptide, as an ASIC1a-selective antagonist. Here, using whole-cell patch clamp, we show that PcTx1 has dual actions at ASIC1a/2a...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739425/naked-mole-rat-cortical-neurons-are-resistant-to-acid-induced-cell-death
#18
Zoé Husson, Ewan St John Smith
Regulation of brain pH is a critical homeostatic process and changes in brain pH modulate various ion channels and receptors and thus neuronal excitability. Tissue acidosis, resulting from hypoxia or hypercapnia, can activate various proteins and ion channels, among which acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) a family of primarily Na+ permeable ion channels, which alongside classical excitotoxicity causes neuronal death. Naked mole-rats (NMRs, Heterocephalus glaber) are long-lived, fossorial, eusocial rodents that display remarkable behavioral/cellular hypoxia and hypercapnia resistance...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739131/intravenous-anesthetic-propofol-affects-synaptic-responses-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#19
Kwan Young Lee, Yujin Jang, Min Hee Lee, Young Im Kim, Sung-Cherl Jung, Seung-Yun Han, Se Hoon Kim, Hyung Seo Park, Dong Kwan Kim
Objective: Propofol is an intravenously administered anesthetic that enhances γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition in the central nerve system. Other mechanisms may also be involved in general anesthesia. Propofol has been implicated in movement disorders. The cerebellum is important for motor coordination and motor learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the propofol effect on excitatory synaptic transmissions in cerebellar cortex. Methods: Excitatory postsynaptic currents by parallel fiber stimulation and complex spikes by climbing fiber stimulation were monitored in Purkinje cells of Wister rat cerebellar slice using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737971/differential-electrical-responses-in-retinal-ganglion-cell-subtypes-effects-of-synaptic-blockade-and-stimulating-electrode-location
#20
Chih Yu Yang, David Tsai, Tianruo Guo, Socrates Dokos, Gregg J Suaning, John W Morley, Nigel H Lovell
OBJECTIVE: Visual prostheses have shown promising results in restoring visual perception to blind patients. The ability to differentially activate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) subtypes could further improve the efficacy of these medical devices. APPROACH: Using whole-cell patch clamp, we investigated membrane potential differences between ON and OFF RGCs in the mouse retina when their synaptic inputs were blocked by synaptic blockers, and examined the differences in stimulation thresholds under such conditions...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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