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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656576/repurposing-carbamazepine-for-the-treatment-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-sod1-g93a-mouse-model
#1
Jing-Jing Zhang, Qin-Ming Zhou, Sheng Chen, Wei-Dong Le
AIMS: To investigate the effect and mechanisms of carbamazepine (CBZ) on the onset and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in SOD1-G93A mouse model. METHODS: Starting from 64 days of age, SOD1-G93A mice were orally administered with CBZ at 200 mg/kg once daily until death. The disease onset and life span of SOD1-G93A mice were recorded. Motor neurons (MNs) in anterior horn of spinal cord were quantified by Nissl staining and SMI-32 immunostaining...
April 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656559/shaping-eosinophil-identity-in-the-tissue-contexts-of-development-homeostasis-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Hiam Abdala-Valencia, Mackenzie E Coden, Sergio E Chiarella, Elizabeth A Jacobsen, Bruce S Bochner, James J Lee, Sergejs Berdnikovs
Eosinophils play homeostatic roles in different tissues and are found in several organs at a homeostatic baseline, though their tissue numbers increase significantly in development and disease. The morphological, phenotypical, and functional plasticity of recruited eosinophils are influenced by the dynamic tissue microenvironment changes between homeostatic, morphogenetic, and disease states. Activity of the epithelial-mesenchymal interface, extracellular matrix, hormonal inputs, metabolic state of the environment, as well as epithelial and mesenchymal-derived innate cytokines and growth factors all have the potential to regulate the attraction, retention, in situ hematopoiesis, phenotype, and function of eosinophils...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656548/effects-of-geranylgeranylacetone-upon-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
Shengqiang Zeng, Hong Wang, Zaihua Chen, Qianqiang Cao, Lin Hu, Yanqing Wu
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are an important family of protective proteins. They are involved actively in an array of cellular processes, including protective effects on the cardiovascular system in response to various stimuli. Increasing evidence shows that pharmacologic interventions that induce expression of HSPs may be a novel approach for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, agents that induce expression of HSPs used previously are toxic or have harmful side effects, which limit their clinical application...
April 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656508/the-3-rd-world-conference-on-kisspeptin-kisspeptin-2017-brain-and-beyond-unresolved-questions-challenges-and-future-directions-for-the-field
#4
REVIEW
Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen, Robert A Steiner, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Luhong Wang, Suzanne M Moenter, Aleisha M Moore, Robert L Goodman, Shel Hwa-Yeo, Stephanie L Padilla, Alexander S Kauffman, James Garcia, Martin J Kelly, Jenny Clarkson, Sally Radovick, Andy V Babwah, Silvia Leon, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Alex Comninos, Stephanie Seminara, Waljit S Dhillo, Jon Levine, Ei Terasawa, Ariel Negron, Allan E Herbison
The 3rd World Conference on Kisspeptin, "Kisspeptin 2017: Brain and Beyond" was held March 30-31 at the Rosen Centre Hotel in Orlando, Florida, providing an international forum for multidisciplinary scientists to meet and share cutting-edge research on kisspeptin biology and its relevance to human health and disease. The meeting built upon previous world conferences focused on the role of kisspeptin and associated peptides in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and reproduction...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656472/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-an-interleukin-15-antagonist-peptide-by-metabolic-stability-99m-tc-labeling-and-biological-activity-assays
#5
Yunier Rodríguez-Álvarez, Ania Cabrales-Rico, Alejandro Perera-Pintado, Anais Prats-Capote, Hilda E Garay-Pérez, Osvaldo Reyes-Acosta, Erik Pérez-García, Araceli Chico-Capote, Alicia Santos-Savio
Interleukin (IL)-15 is an inflammatory cytokine that constitutes a validated therapeutic target in some immunopathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previously, we identified an IL-15 antagonist peptide named [K6T]P8, with potential therapeutic application in RA. In the current work, the metabolic stability of this peptide in synovial fluids from RA patients was studied. Moreover, [K6T]P8 peptide was labeled with 99m Tc to investigate its stability in human plasma and its biodistribution pattern in healthy rats...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656453/chlorogenic-acid-protects-against-oxldl-induced-oxidative-damage-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-by-modulating-sirt1-in-endothelial-cells
#6
Kun-Ling Tsai, Ching-Hsia Hung, Shih-Hung Chan, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Hsiu-Chung Ou, Yung-Hsin Cheng, Pei-Ming Chu
SCOPE: Endothelial dysfunction is an important mechanism in the development of atherosclerosis and is thought to be critical for predicting cardiovascular diseases. Previous reports suggested that Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound. The molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of CGA on oxLDL-induced oxidative injuries in human endothelial cells are still largely unknown. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that CGA protects against oxLDL-facilitated oxidative stress by upregulating SIRT1 and to explore the role of AMPK/PGC-1 pathway and mitochondrial biogenesis...
April 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656422/role-of-lactoferrin-and-lactoferrin-derived-peptides-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Kabilan Velliyagounder, Dania Bahdila, Siddhi Pawar, Daniel H Fine
The oral cavity harbors different taxonomic groups, the evolutionary co-existence of which develops the oral ecosystem. These resident microorganisms can alter the balance between the physiologic and pathologic conditions that affect the host, both locally and systemically. This highly sophisticated nature of the oral cavity poses a significant therapeutic challenge. Numerous human and animal studies have been conducted to potentiate the efficacy and competence of current treatments of pathologic conditions as well as to develop novel therapeutic modalities...
April 14, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656411/study-on-a-65-mer-peptide-mimetic-enzyme-with-gpx-and-sod-dual-function
#8
Juxin Yin, Jianjian Zhuang, Shaowu Lv, Ying Mu
Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are harmful to the body. The peroxidase, GPx, and the superoxide dismutase, SOD, are important antioxidant enzymes for preventing ROS-induced damage. Se-CuZn-65P is an enzyme mimetic with dual GPx and SOD antioxidant function. However, currently, its production is mainly based on the cysteine auxotrophic expression technique, which is inefficient, expensive, and time consuming. In this study, we combined protein engineering and the chemical mutation method to synthesize Se-CuZn-65P...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656378/exopolysaccharides-from-lactobacillus-plantarum-induce-biochemical-and-physiological-alterations-in-tomato-plant-against-bacterial-spot
#9
Juliane Mendes Lemos Blainski, Argus Cesar da Rocha Neto, Eder Carlos Schimidt, José Afonso Voltolini, Márcio José Rossi, Robson Marcelo Di Piero
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum in controlling bacterial spot and eliciting defense mechanisms, and verify alterations in the tomato plant physiological responses. Tomato plants with five definitive leaves were sprayed with EPS, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, positive control), or distilled water (negative control) and inoculated with Xanthomonas gardneri after 3 days. Local and systemic protection was evaluated 7, 15, and 21 days after inoculation...
April 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656375/does-erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate-reflect-and-discriminate-flare-from-infection-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-correlation-with-clinical-and-laboratory-parameters-of-disease-activity
#10
Valentin Sebastian Schäfer, Katharina Weiß, Andreas Krause, Wolfgang Andreas Schmidt
To examine disease activity parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experiencing flare, infection, both, or neither condition, focusing on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). This study is a retrospective analysis of 371 consecutive inpatient SLE cases from 2006 to 2015. Cases were classified as flare (n = 147), infection (n = 48), both (n = 23), or neither (n = 135). ESR levels were correlated to C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, anti-dsDNA antibodies, complement C3 reduction, serositis, and erythrocyturia with proteinuria (Pearson's correlation)...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656373/evaluation-of-disease-activity-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-treated-with-tofacitinib-by-rapid3-post-hoc-analyses-from-two-phase-3-trials
#11
Vibeke Strand, Eun Bong Lee, Yusuf Yazici, Ara Dikranian, Bethanie Wilkinson, Liza Takiya, Chuanbo Zang, Eustratios Bananis, Martin J Bergman
Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We evaluated the relationship between disease activity, according to Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) after 6-month treatment with tofacitinib, and long-term outcomes at 24 months. This was a post hoc analysis of two 24-month, phase 3, randomized controlled trials in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve (ORAL Start [NCT01039688]) or MTX-inadequate responder patients (ORAL Scan [NCT00847613]) receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID) as monotherapy or with background MTX...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656372/serum-calprotectin-may-reflect-inflammatory-activity-in-patients-with-active-rheumatoid-arthritis-despite-normal-to-low-c-reactive-protein
#12
Jana Hurnakova, Hana Hulejova, Jakub Zavada, Martin Komarc, Lucie Andres Cerezo, Herman Mann, Jiri Vencovsky, Karel Pavelka, Ladislav Senolt
Approximately half of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have normal C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Calprotectin is a promising and likely more specific biomarker of disease activity than conventionally used acute phase reactants. We aimed to analyse the levels of serum calprotectin in RA patients with clinically active disease and with normal/low CRP. A total of 160 RA patients underwent clinical examination (DAS28-ESR and CDAI). The levels of calprotectin were analysed in patients with moderate to high disease activity with normal/low CRP levels and in 32 healthy subjects...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656366/sodium-selenite-ameliorates-both-intestinal-and-extra-intestinal-changes-in-acetic-acid-induced-colitis-in-rats
#13
Samar M Soliman, Walaa Wadie, Samia A Shouman, Afaf A Ainshoka
Selenium and its derivatives including sodium selenite (sod sel) belong to the group of essential trace elements needed for proper health and nutrition. They are fairly safe and possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of present investigation was to elucidate the effect of sod sel on experimental colitis model in rats. Colitis was induced by intrarectal instillation of 4% (v/v) acetic acid. Two hours later, sod sel was given to rats on a daily basis for 15 consecutive days. Clinical symptoms, colon mass index, spleen weight inflammatory markers, hematological, biochemical, macroscopic, and histological changes were determined...
April 14, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656363/2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline-reduces-neuroinflammatory-environment-in-the-mptp-model-of-parkinson-disease
#14
Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Alessio Filippo Peritore, Ramona D'Amico, Enrico Gugliandolo, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Current pharmacological management of Parkinson disease (PD) does not provide for disease modification, but addresses only symptomatic features. Here, we explore a new approach to neuroprotection based on the use of 2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline (PEA-OXA), the oxazoline derivative of the fatty acid amide signaling molecule palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in an experimental model of PD. Daily oral treatment with PEA-OXA (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced behavioral impairments and neuronal cell degeneration of the dopaminergic tract induced by four intraperitoneal injections of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on 8-week-old male C57 mice...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656361/characterization-of-the-mitochondrial-aerobic-metabolism-in-the-pre-and-perisynaptic-districts-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
Silvia Ravera, Tiziana Bonifacino, Martina Bartolucci, Marco Milanese, Elena Gallia, Francesca Provenzano, Katia Cortese, Isabella Panfoli, Giambattista Bonanno
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle wasting, weakness, and spasticity due to a progressive degeneration of cortical, brainstem, and spinal motor neurons. The etiopathological causes are still largely obscure, although astrocytes definitely play a role in neuronal damage. Several mechanisms have been proposed to concur to neurodegeneration in ALS, including mitochondrial dysfunction. We have previously shown profound modifications of glutamate release and presynaptic plasticity in the spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656339/role-of-ampk-in-atherosclerosis-via-autophagy-regulation
#16
REVIEW
Hanxiao Ou, Chuhao Liu, Wenjie Feng, Xinwen Xiao, Shengsong Tang, Zhongcheng Mo
Atherosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of lipids and deposition of fibrous elements in the vascular wall, which is the primary cause of cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor of energy metabolism that regulates multiple physiological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism and the normalization of energy imbalances. Overwhelming evidence indicates that AMPK activation markedly attenuates atherosclerosis development. Autophagy inhibits cell apoptosis and inflammation and promotes cholesterol efflux and efferocytosis...
April 12, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656319/nlrp3-inflammasome-involves-in-the-acute-exacerbation-of-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Huaying Wang, Chun'er Lv, Shi Wang, Huajuan Ying, Yuesong Weng, Wanjun Yu
The NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multi-protein complex, produces the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, which may contribute to the development of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between circulating and local airway NLRP3 inflammasome activation with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). mRNA levels of NLRP3, Caspase (Casp)-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), IL-18, and IL-1β in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bronchial tissues were determined by real-time PCR in 32 smokers, 65 patients with AECOPD, 50 COPD patients in recovery stage, and 30 COPD patients in stable stage...
April 14, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656315/acamprosate-protects-against-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-rats-via-blocking-the-erk-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#18
Jun Pan, Rilong Jin, Miaoda Shen, Ronghuan Wu, Sanzhong Xu
Osteoarthritis is a type of joint disease that results from the breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone and is believed to be caused by mechanical stress on the joint and low-grade inflammatory processes. Acamprosate significantly ameliorates the pathological features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis due to its anti-inflammatory effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate the anti-arthritis activities of acamprosate and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant...
April 14, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656250/exposure-to-environmental-level-phenanthrene-induces-a-nash-like-phenotype-in-new-born-rat
#19
Jiaojiao Guo, Chonggang Wang, Zhizhun Guo, Zhenghong Zuo
More and more evidence indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Phenanthrene (Phe) is a kind of POP which existed extensively in the environment, but whose toxicity on mammals has so far received less focus. Subcutaneously injection of Phe (0.5, 5, 50 μg/kg) for 21 days induced significant NAFLD/NASH symptoms in new born rats. Exposure to environmental levels of Phe decreased body weight and liver-somatic index; impaired histology of liver; influenced the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) signaling and lipid metabolism in liver; stimulated oxidative stress in the rats' liver; induced the variation of NFκB pathway and liver inflammatory response; and caused liver fibrosis via transforming growth factor β1 (tgfβ1)...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656244/human-organoid-cultures-transformative-new-tools-for-human-virus-studies
#20
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Sue E Crawford, Sarah E Blutt, Mary K Estes
Studies of human infectious diseases have been limited by the paucity of functional models that mimic normal human physiology and pathophysiology. Recent advances in the development of multicellular, physiologically active organotypic cultures produced from embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, as well as from stem cells isolated from biopsies and surgical specimens are allowing unprecedented new studies and discoveries about host-microbe interactions. Here, we summarize recent developments in the use of organoids for studying human viral pathogens, including intestinal infections with human rotavirus, norovirus, enteroviruses and adenoviruses (intestinal organoids and enteroids), neuronal infections with Zika virus (cerebral organoids) and respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus in (lung bud organoids)...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
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