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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892887/active-surveillance-of-health-care-associated-infections-in-neurosurgical-patients
#1
Reshu Agarwal, Sarita Mohapatra, Girija Prasad Rath, Arti Kapil
INTRODUCTION: Health Care Associated Infections (HCAI) are frequent complications in neurosurgery. There is limited data available on the incidence and burden of HCAI in neurosurgical patients of Southeast Asian region. AIM: To identify various HCAIs, associated aetiological agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among the patients admitted in the neurosurgery unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational prospective study was carried out for three months duration on all neurosurgical patients admitted to a tertiary-care center...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871825/the-effects-of-ex-vivo-ozone-treatment-on-human-erythrocyte-carbonic-anhydrase-enzyme
#2
Gülten Erken, Haydar Ali Erken, Cigdem Bilen, Nahit Gencer
Ozone autohemotherapy is used in the treatment of some diseases. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes and play a role in homeostatic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ozone on human red blood cell CA (hCA) enzyme activity. Blood samples were treated with different doses of ozone (10, 20, 30 µg/ml) and the erythrocyte total CA activities were determined. Also, purified hCAI and hCAII isozymes were treated with the same doses of ozone and the enzyme activities were measured...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859352/new-approaches-to-prevent-healthcare-associated-infection
#3
Philippe Brouqui, Sophia Boudjema, Alberto Soto Aladro, Eric Chabrière, Olga Florea, Hoa Nguyen, Jean Charles Dufour
Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) in hospitals mainly results from unsolved but well-identified causes such as hand hygiene, overuse of catheters, and to a lesser extent, the airborne transmission of infectious agents caused by the misuse of respiratory precautions. The aims of the Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection are to develop new approaches to fight HCAIs. Among them, new technologies that allow for the traceability of care and good practices reminders have been developed concomitantly to an anthropological approach, facilitating acceptability by healthcare workers...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802173/fungicidal-activity-of-copper-sputtered-flexible-surfaces-under-dark-and-actinic-light-against-azole-resistant-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata
#4
Myriam K S Ballo, Sami Rtimi, John Kiwi, César Pulgarin, José M Entenza, Alain Bizzini
Candida spp. are able to survive on hospital surfaces and causes healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). Since surface cleaning and disinfecting interventions are not totally effective to eliminate Candida spp., new approaches should be devised. Copper (Cu) has widely recognized antifungal activity and the use of Cu-sputtered surfaces has recently been proposed to curb the spread of HCAIs. Moreover, the activity of Cu under the action of actinic light remains underexplored. We investigated the antifungal activity of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces (Cu-PES) against azole-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata under dark and low intensity visible light irradiation (4...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660816/the-role-of-antimicrobial-sutures-in-preventing-surgical-site-infection
#5
REVIEW
D Leaper, P Wilson, O Assadian, C Edmiston, M Kiernan, A Miller, G Bond-Smith, J Yap
INTRODUCTION Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) are falling following widespread and enforced introduction of guidelines, particularly those that have addressed antibiotic resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus or emergent pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, but no such decline has been seen in the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI), either in the UK, the EU or the US. SSI is one of the HCAIs, which are all avoidable complications of a surgical patient's pathway through both nosocomial and community care...
July 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638594/high-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-critical-care-unit-of-nepal
#6
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Keshab Parajuli, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) and antimicrobial resistance are principal threats to the patients of intensive care units and are the major determining factors for patient outcome. They are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, excess hospitalization and financial costs. The present study is an attempt to investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates involved in healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in the patients of a critical care unit at a tertiary care university hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571171/a-goal-unrealized-patient-empowerment-on-hand-hygiene-a-web-based-survey-from-india
#7
S Vijayalakshmi, S Ramkumar, K A Narayan, P Vaithiyanathan
INTRODUCTION: Each year, millions of patients around the world are affected by Health Care Associated Infections (HCAIs). Understanding and assessing the global burden of HCAI is one of the key areas of work to improve the hand hygiene. AIM: To assess the patient empowerment and awareness on hand hygiene among online users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted during September 2013 to December 2013 among adults...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549880/risk-factors-for-health-care-associated-infections-from-better-knowledge-to-better-prevention
#8
Etelvina Ferreira, Elaine Pina, Mafalda Sousa-Uva, António Sousa-Uva
BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections (HCAIs) are preventable with adoption of recognized preventive measures. The first step is to identify patients at higher risk of HCAI. This study aimed to identify patient risk factors (RFs) present on admission and acquired during inpatient stay which could be associated with higher risk of acquiring HCAI. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in adult patients admitted during 2011 who were hospitalized for >48 hours...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483725/opportunities-for-system-level-improvement-in-antibiotic-use-across-the-surgical-pathway
#9
E Charani, R Ahmad, C Tarrant, G Birgand, A Leather, M Mendelson, S R Moonesinghe, N Sevdalis, S Singh, A Holmes
Optimizing antibiotic prescribing across the surgical pathway (before, during, and after surgery) is a key aspect of tackling important drivers of antimicrobial resistance and simultaneously decreasing the burden of infection at the global level. In the UK alone, 10 million patients undergo surgery every year, which is equivalent to 60% of the annual hospital admissions having a surgical intervention. The overwhelming majority of surgical procedures require effectively limited delivery of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infections...
July 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469734/role-of-surface-energy-and-nano-roughness-in-the-removal-efficiency-of-bacterial-contamination-by-nonwoven-wipes-from-frequently-touched-surfaces
#10
Nicholas W M Edwards, Emma L Best, Simon D Connell, Parikshit Goswami, Chris M Carr, Mark H Wilcox, Stephen J Russell
Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) are responsible for substantial patient morbidity, mortality and economic cost. Infection control strategies for reducing rates of transmission include the use of nonwoven wipes to remove pathogenic bacteria from frequently touched surfaces. Wiping is a dynamic process that involves physicochemical mechanisms to detach and transfer bacteria to fibre surfaces within the wipe. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which systematic changes in fibre surface energy and nano-roughness influence removal of bacteria from an abiotic polymer surface in dry wiping conditions, without liquid detergents or disinfectants...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453429/anti-microbial-coating-innovations-to-prevent-infectious-diseases-amici-cost-action-ca15114
#11
Colum P Dunne, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola, Anne Kahru, Birgit Teunissen, Hulya Olmez, Isabel Gouveia, Luis Melo, Kazimierz Murzyn, Martina Modic, Merja Ahonen, Pete Askew, Theofilos Papadopoulos, Christian Adlhart, Francy R L Crijns
Worldwide, millions of patients are affected annually by healthcare-associated infection (HCAI), impacting up to 80,000 patients in European Hospitals on any given day. This represents not only public health risk, but also an economic burden. Complementing routine hand hygiene practices, cleaning and disinfection, antimicrobial coatings hold promise based, in essence, on the application of materials and chemicals with persistent bactericidal or -static properties onto surfaces or in textiles used in healthcare environments...
April 28, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433398/multi-state-survey-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-acute-care-hospitals-in-brazil
#12
C Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, M C Padoveze, C R Veiga Kiffer, A L Barth, Irna C do Rosário Souza Carneiro, H I Garcia Giamberardino, J L Nobre Rodrigues, L Santos Filho, M J Gonçalves de Mello, M Severino Pereira, P Pinto Gontijo Filho, M Rocha, E A Servolo de Medeiros, A C Campos Pignatari
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) challenge public health in developing countries such as Brazil, which harbour social inequalities and variations in the complexity of healthcare and regional development. AIM: To describe the prevalence of HCAIs in hospitals in a sample of hospitals in Brazil. METHODS: A prevalence survey conducted in 2011-13 enrolled 152 hospitals from the five macro-regions in Brazil. Hospitals were classified as large (≥200 beds), medium (50-199 beds) or small sized (<50 beds)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415553/promising-silicones-modified-with-cationic-biocides-for-the-development-of-antimicrobial-medical-devices
#13
Sarah Ghamrawi, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Oksana Tarasyuk, Sergiy Rogalsky, Lyudmila Lyoshina, Olga Bulko, Jean-François Bardeau
We have tested silicones containing 2% or 5% of the cationic biocides polyhexamethylene guanidine dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PHMG-DBS), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (OMIM-BF4) or 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (DMIM-BF4) against the major relevant bacterial and yeast species in health care-associated infections (HCAI). Study conducted according to the international standard ISO 22196 revealed that silicones containing 2% or 5% DMIM-BF4 or 5% PHMG-DBS presented the highest antimicrobial activity, leading to a logarithmic growth reduction of 3...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376546/association-of-nursing-overtime-nurse-staffing-and-unit-occupancy-with-health-care-associated-infections-in-the-nicu
#14
Marc Beltempo, Régis Blais, Guy Lacroix, Michèle Cabot, Bruno Piedboeuf
Objective This study aims to assess the association of nursing overtime, nurse staffing, and unit occupancy with health care-associated infections (HCAIs) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Study Design A 2-year retrospective cohort study was conducted for 2,236 infants admitted in a Canadian tertiary care, 51-bed NICU. Daily administrative data were obtained from the database "Logibec" and combined to the patient outcomes database. Median values for the nursing overtime hours/total hours worked ratio, the available to recommended nurse staffing ratio, and the unit occupancy rate over 3-day periods before HCAI were compared with days that did not precede infections...
August 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325579/burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-china-results-of-the-2015-point-prevalence-survey-in-dong-guan-city
#15
J Wang, J Hu, S Harbarth, D Pittet, M Zhou, W Zingg
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are a major health threat. There are few data about HCAI and antibiotic use in the People's Republic of China in the English literature. AIM: To describe and discuss the prevalence of HCAI and antibiotic use from the 2015 point prevalence survey (PPS) in Dong Guan City. METHODS: In 2015, the Dong Guan (City) Nosocomial Infection Control and Quality Improvement Centre organized its yearly PPS in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals of Dong Guan City...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259049/survey-of-attitudes-and-practices-of-irish-nursing-students-towards-hand-hygiene-including-handrubbing-with-alcohol-based-hand-rub
#16
Liz M Kingston, Nuala H O'Connell, Colum P Dunne
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is widely recognised as the most important measure a healthcare worker can take in preventing the spread of healthcare associated infections. As a member of the healthcare team, nursing students have direct patient contact during clinical practice; hence, good hand hygiene practice among nursing students is essential. Low to moderate levels of hand hygiene knowledge and poor attitudes and practices are reported among nursing students. However, less is known about their attitudes and practices of handrubbing with ABHR, even though handrubbing is the recommended optimum practice in most situations...
May 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256371/synthesis-of-bulky-tailed-sulfonamides-incorporating-pyrido-2-3-d-1-2-4-triazolo-4-3-a-pyrimidin-1-5h-yl-moieties-and-evaluation-of-their-carbonic-anhydrases-i-ii-iv-and-ix-inhibitory-effects
#17
Mohamed Fares, Radwa A Eladwy, Alessio Nocentini, Soha R Abd El Hadi, Hazem A Ghabbour, Ashraf Abdel-Megeed, Wagdy M Eldehna, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz, Claudiu T Supuran
Using celecoxib as lead, two novel series of sulfonamides incorporating the pyridotriazolopyrimidine scaffold have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro as inhibitors against four relevant human (h) carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), the cytosolic and ubiquitous hCA I and II as well as the transmembrane hCA IV and hCA IX. Most of the reported sulfonamides acted as efficient, low micromolar inhibitors of hCAI, II and IV, whereas they displayed higher efficacy in inhibiting the tumor-associated isoform hCA IX...
February 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138385/prospective-surveillance-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-cambodian-pediatric-hospital
#18
Pasco Hearn, Thyl Miliya, Soklin Seng, Chanpheaktra Ngoun, Nicholas P J Day, Yoel Lubell, Claudia Turner, Paul Turner
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are the most common preventable adverse events following admission to healthcare facilities. Data from low-income countries are scarce. We sought to prospectively define HAI incidence at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC), a Cambodian pediatric referral hospital. METHODS: Prospective HAI surveillance was introduced for medical admissions to AHC. Cases were identified on daily ward rounds and confirmed using locally adapted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018930/intra-abdominal-infections-the-role-of-anaerobes-enterococci-fungi-and-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#19
Gil Marcus, Samuel Levy, Ghaleb Salhab, Bethlehem Mengesha, Oran Tzuman, Shira Shur, Erica Burke, Rebecca Cruz Mayeda, Lior Cochavi, Idan Perluk, Ronit Zaidenstein, Tsilia Lazarovitch, Mor Dadon, Dror Marchaim
BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) constitute a common reason for hospitalization. However, there is lack of standardization in empiric management of (1) anaerobes, (2) enterococci, (3) fungi, and (4) multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). The recommendation is to institute empiric coverage for some of these organisms in "high-risk community-acquired" or in "healthcare-associated" infections (HCAI), but exact definitions are not provided. METHODS: Epidemiological study of IAI was conducted at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center (May-November 2013)...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007308/a-point-prevalence-survey-of-healthcare-associated-infection-in-fifty-two-chinese-hospitals
#20
Y Chen, J Y Zhao, X Shan, X L Han, S G Tian, F Y Chen, X T Su, Y S Sun, L Y Huang, L Han
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) represents a major problem for patient safety worldwide. AIM: To demonstrate the prevalence, causative agents, and risk factors for HCAI in Chinese hospitals. METHODS: A one-day point-prevalence survey was conducted in 52 Chinese hospitals between October 2014 and March 2015. A web-based software system was developed for data entry and management. FINDINGS: Among 53,939 patients surveyed, the prevalence of patients with at least one HCAI was 3...
January 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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