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Infections in obstetrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905648/-a-new-fetal-death-classification-system
#1
Alfredo Ovalle, Ariel Fuentes, Valentina Chacón, Carolina Espinoza, Rodrigo González, Manuel Ramos, Jorge Geraldo, Letsy Osses, Elena Kakarieka
BACKGROUND: Stillbirth is the mayor contributor to perinatal mortality. AIM: To report a system for classification of fetal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 29,916 births with 258 fetal deaths that occurred in a public hospital. Data were obtained from audit reports of stillbirths. The method for classification “obstetric condition relevant to the death” was applied, based on obstetric and placental pathological findings analyzed exclusively by a single obstetrician and a single pathologist...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897023/-current-knowledge-about-hpv-infection
#2
A Mladěnka, A Kubečková, J Sláma
OBJECTIVE: Overview of current data on HPV infection. DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital in Ostrava, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital in Hradec Králové, Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, General University Hospital in Prague. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted pathogen that causes anogenital disorders...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896258/secondary-abdominal-pregnancy-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-woman
#3
Myoung Chan Kim, Hudson Manyanga, Flora Lwakatare
We report on an abdominal pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus-positive mother, currently on antiretroviral therapy, which was discovered incidentally while training the obstetric ultrasound capacity building program. Although abdominal pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, it may be more common in women with HIV infection because they tend to have a higher rate of sexually transmitted diseases than the general population. The positive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy is difficult to establish and is usually missed during prenatal assessment particularly in settings that lack routine ultrasound examination as is the case in most developing countries...
November 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895842/postoperative-outcome-of-caesarean-sections-and-other-major-emergency-obstetric-surgery-by-clinical-officers-and-medical-officers-in-malawi
#4
Garvey Chilopora, Caetano Pereira, Francis Kamwendo, Agnes Chimbiri, Eddie Malunga, Staffan Bergström
BACKGROUND: Clinical officers perform much of major emergency surgery in Malawi, in the absence of medical officers. The aim of this study was to validate the advantages and disadvantages of delegation of major obstetric surgery to non-doctors. METHODS: During a three month period, data from 2131 consecutive obstetric surgeries in 38 district hospitals in Malawi were collected prospectively. The interventions included caesarean sections alone and those that were combined with other interventions such as subtotal and total hysterectomy repair of uterine rupture and tubal ligation...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894194/current-status-of-syphilis-in-pregnant-women-in-japan
#5
Shunji Suzuki, Akihiko Sekizawa, Masanobu Tanaka, Takashi Okai, Katsuyuki Kinoshita, Tadaichi Kitamura
We examined the current status of syphilis-infected pregnant Japanese women, according to the results of syphilis screening and confirmation tests of women who gave birth in Japan between October, 2015 and March, 2016. We requested 2,458 obstetrical facilities to provide information of syphilis screening tests and 78.1% of them responded. Considering the response rate and the rate of implementation of confirmation tests, the number of syphilis-infected pregnant Japanese women was estimated to be 250 (1/4,022) per year...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886039/use-of-personal-digital-assistants-to-detect-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-egypt
#6
Elham Am El-Feky, Doa'a A Saleh, Jehan El-Kholy, Ahmed Mahmoud Sayed, Yasmeen Mansi, Mohamed Hashem
INTRODUCTION: Personal digital assistants (PDAs) used in electronic laboratory-based surveillance are a promising alternative to conventional surveillance to detect healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of the study was to monitor, detect, and analyze HAIs using PDAs in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODOLOGY: In this descriptive study, 1,053 neonates admitted to the NICU in the obstetrics and gynecology ward at the Cairo University hospital were included and evaluated for HAIs by collecting data using PDAs programmed by Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, with the definitions for HAIs provided by the National Healthcare Safety Network of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882439/obstetric-and-perinatal-outcome-of-babies-born-from-sperm-selected-by-macs-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Laura Romany, Nicolas Garrido, Ana Cobo, Belen Aparicio-Ruiz, Vicente Serra, Marcos Meseguer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess outcomes after magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) technology on obstetric and perinatal outcomes compared with those achieved after swim up from randomized controlled trial. METHODS: This is a two-arm, unicentric, prospective, randomized, and triple-blinded trial and has a total of 237 infertile couples, between October 2010 and January 2013. A total of 65 and 66 newborns from MACS and control group, respectively, were described...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879969/factors-associated-with-choice-of-approach-for-group-b-streptococcus-screening
#8
H Sefty, A Klivitsky, M Bromberg, R Dichtiar, M Ben Ami, T Shohat, A Glatman-Freedman
BACKGROUND: The crude rate of early-onset Group B streptococcus disease (EOGBS) in Israel has been consistently under 0.5 for 1000 live births for the past 8 years. The Israeli Ministry of Health has adapted the risk factor based approach for preventing EOGBS and universal bacteriological screening for GBS is not recommended. In spite of this policy, there are indications that many pregnant women in Israel undergo bacteriological screening for GBS. The objective of this study is to assess the rate and characteristics of pregnant women who undergo screening for group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization in Israel...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875320/association-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-with-preterm-birth-our-experience-and-meta-analysis
#9
Ai-Min Cui, Jian-Guo Shao, Hai-Bo Li, Yi Shen, Zhi-Xian Chen, Sheng Zhang, Zhao-Lian Bian, Gang Qin, Xiao-Yan Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with preterm birth (PTB). METHODS: A cohort of 20,498 pregnant women (497 HBV carriers with 20,001 non-HBV controls) with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels was selected from the Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Nantong University. The clinical parameters and PTB incidence were compared between HBV carriers and non-HBV subjects. For the meta-analysis, we searched the PubMed, Ovid and Cochrane Library databases for studies comparing PTB incidence between individuals with chronic HBV infection and non-HBV subjects...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874978/the-treatment-of-bacterial-vaginosis-in-pregnancy-with-clindamycin-to-reduce-the-risk-of-infection-related-preterm-birth-a-response-to-the-danish-society-of-obstetrics-and-gynaecology-guideline-group-s-clinical-recommendations
#10
Ronald F Lamont, Jeffrey A Keelan, Per Goran Larsson, Jan Stener Jørgensen
Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Infection/inflammation is responsible for a significant percentage of preterm birth, particularly at early gestations. A recent clinical recommendation by a guidelines group of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (DSOG) advised against the use of clindamycin for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy to reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm birth based on lack of evidence of efficacy. We believe that the evidence for the use of clindamycin for this indication is robust and that this recommendation was reached erroneously on the basis of flawed inclusion criteria: the inclusion of an unpublished study with poorly diagnosed bacterial vaginosis and the exclusion of an important pivotal study on the use of clindamycin in early pregnancy for the prevention of preterm birth...
November 22, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870929/a-clinical-study-of-cutaneous-changes-in-pregnancy
#11
Vinitha V Panicker, Najeeba Riyaz, P K Balachandran
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women experience a myriad of physiological and metabolic changes that affect different organ systems in the body. Cutaneous and appendageal alterations that manifest during pregnancy are largely modulated by hormonal, immunologic, and metabolic factors. Detailed reports encompassing physiological changes and specific dermatoses of pregnancy and effects of various dermatoses on pregnant women are scanty in literature. This study was conducted to examine in detail both physiological changes and specific dermatoses...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870738/persistent-pain-after-cesarean-delivery-and-vaginal-delivery-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
J Petter Kainu, Erja Halmesmäki, Kari T Korttila, P Johanna Sarvela
BACKGROUND: Persistent pain after cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery has been the subject of only a few research articles. The primary outcome of our prospective study was the incidence of persistent pain and its association to mode of delivery. We also studied the nature and intensity of pain after delivery. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed on postpartum day 2 to 1052 women who had given birth vaginally and to 502 who had undergone cesarean delivery in a tertiary maternity hospital in Helsinki, Finland, in 2010...
December 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863981/physician-s-perceived-roles-as-well-as-barriers-toward-caring-for-women-sex-assault-survivors
#13
Priyanka Amin, Raquel Buranosky, Judy C Chang
BACKGROUND: Sexual assault (SA) affects about 40% of women in the United States and has many mental and physical health sequelae. Physicians often do not address SA with patients, although SA survivors describe a desire to talk to physicians to obtain additional help. Little information exists on how providers perceive their roles regarding caring for women SA survivors and what barriers they face in providing this care. METHODS: We performed a qualitative study using semistructured one-on-one interviews with 16 faculty physicians from five specialties: obstetrics and gynecology (n = 4), internal medicine (n = 4), family medicine (n = 1), emergency medicine (n = 3), and psychiatry (n = 4)...
November 15, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862850/does-place-and-attendance-at-birth-improve-early-neonatal-mortality-secondary-analysis-of-nine-demographic-and-health-surveys
#14
S Bellizzi, H L Sobel, M Mathai, M Temmerman
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relation between place and skilled birth attendance at birth and early neonatal mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis using data from Demographic and Health Surveys on obstetric complications. SETTING: Nine low and middle income countries between 2006 and 2013. POPULATION: 71 758 women aged 15-49 years. METHODS: A secondary analysis was carried out to investigate the occurrence and effect of obstetric complications on early neonatal mortality and association with place and attendance at birth...
November 15, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856532/management-of-hermansky-pudlak-syndrome-in-pregnancy-and-review-of-literature
#15
Freya Van Avermaete, Joke Muys, Yves Jacquemyn
We report on the obstetric outcome of a woman aged 27 years with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). She underwent a caesarean section after failed induction of labour. Platelet transfusion was administered in a set schedule for 36 hours, starting 2 hours before delivery. The child had good Apgar scores and there were no significant problems of prolonged bleeding during the procedure. 72 hours postpartum, a haematoma developed at the site of the wound, subsequently complicated by a secondary infection for which she received antibiotics...
November 17, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843081/hepatitis-e-virus-emerging-from-the-shadows-in-developed-countries
#16
REVIEW
Harry R Dalton, Jerard Seghatchian
Following the discovery of HEV in the 1980s, it became apparent that HEV is endemic in a number of developing countries in Asia, Africa and Mexico. In these geographical settings HEV is spread oral faecally by HEV genotypes (gt) 1 and 2, which are obligate human pathogens. Infection occurs oro-faecally, often as a result in the breakdown of fragile sanitary infrastructure allowing drinking water supplies to become contaminated with human sewage. Hepatitis E usually causes a self-limiting hepatitis in young adults with sporadic cases and occasional dramatic outbreaks involving hundreds or thousands of cases...
November 1, 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837336/perivaginal-benign-masses-diagnosis-and-therapy-in-a-series-of-66-women
#17
Anna-Lena Liaci, Hans Boesmueller, Markus Huebner, Sara Yvonne Brucker, Christl Reisenauer
PURPOSE: Benign perivaginal masses (PVM) are relatively rare. The aim of this study is, to create a higher awareness for these entities and to point out reliable diagnostics and an accurate treatment. METHODS: The medical records of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Tuebingen were searched for number and type of urogynecological surgery in general, and a surgery, which took place particularly owing to benign PVM, over a period of 5 years. Diagnostics, treatment, histology and postoperative management were summarized and analyzed...
November 12, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836808/mycoplasma-genitalium-and-trichomonas-vaginalis-in-france-a-point-prevalence-study-in-people-screened-for-sexually-transmitted-diseases
#18
Sabine Pereyre, Cécile Laurier Nadalié, Cécile Bébéar
OBJECTIVES: Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common causes of sexually transmitted infections but limited prevalence data are available in France. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis infections and to assess prevalence by gender, age, sample collection sites and clinical symptoms. A multicentre collection of specimens was intended to obtain a nationwide overview of the epidemiology. METHODS: Between September 2014 and January 2015, 2652 consecutive urogenital specimens submitted to the microbiology diagnostic departments of 16 French university hospitals for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection were collected...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829570/a-multi-state-analysis-of-postpartum-readmissions-in-the-united-states
#19
Mark A Clapp, Sarah E Little, Jie Zheng, Julian N Robinson
BACKGROUND: Readmission rates are used as a quality metric in medical and surgical specialties; however, little is known about obstetrics readmissions. OBJECTIVE: Our goals for this study were to describe the trends in postpartum readmissions over time; to characterize the common indications and associated diagnoses for readmissions; and to determine maternal, delivery, and hospital characteristics that may be associated with readmission. STUDY DESIGN: Postpartum readmissions occurring within the first 6 weeks after delivery in California, Florida, and New York were identified between 2004 and 2011 in State Inpatient Databases...
July 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824755/risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-conversion-to-laparotomy-of-laparoscopic-hysterectomy-in-benign-gynecology
#20
Courtney S Lim, Erika L Mowers, Nichole Mahnert, Bethany D Skinner, Neil Kamdar, Daniel M Morgan, Sawsan As-Sanie
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and factors for conversion to laparotomy in women scheduled for laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign gynecologic indications and to examine the effect of conversion on patient outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of a Michigan multicenter prospective database was abstracted from January 1, 2013, through July 2, 2014. Participants were collected from an all-payer quality and safety database maintained by the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative...
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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