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membrane diffusing capacity

Yanju Wang, Xiaoqin Zou, Lei Sun, Huazhen Rong, Guangshan Zhu
Membrane desalination has been proposed as a promising strategy to address the worldwide challenge of water scarcity. The development of membrane desalination is impeded by the limited availability of membrane materials, thus, selective membranes with high water fluxes are in high demand. Therefore, the synthesis of a zeolite-like aluminophosphate membrane for water desalination is reported herein. An AlPO4 -18 membrane without visible cracks was prepared on stainless steel nets via a seeded approach. The specific adsorption and diffusion properties of the AlPO4 -18 membrane toward water were simultaneously investigated by vapor adsorption measurements and molecular simulation...
March 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Claudio Ronco, William R Clark
Haemodialysis is an extracorporeal process in which the blood is cleansed via removal of uraemic retention products by a semipermeable membrane. Traditionally, dialysis membranes have been broadly classified on the basis of their composition (cellulosic or noncellulosic) and water permeability (low flux or high flux). However, advances in materials technology and polymer chemistry have led to the development of membranes with specific characteristics and refined properties that mandate a reconsideration of traditional membrane classification systems...
May 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Shinuo Liu, Magdalena A Lam, Alisha Sial, Sarah J Hemley, Lynne E Bilston, Marcus A Stoodley
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. Although fluid dynamics have been studied in the brain, little is known about spinal cord fluid inflow and outflow. Understanding the normal fluid physiology of the spinal cord may give insight into the pathogenesis of spinal cord oedema and CSF disorders such as syringomyelia...
April 29, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Umma Habiba, Tawsif A Siddique, Jacky Jia Li Lee, Tan Chin Joo, Bee Chin Ang, Amalina M Afifi
The chitosan/polyvinyl Alcohol/zeolite electrospun composite nanofibrous membrane was fabricated for adsorption of methyl orange. The EDX, TGA and tensile test were carried out for the characterization of the membrane. The Young's Modulus of the nanofibrous membranes increased by more than 100% with the addition of zeolite to chitosan/PVA. The batch adsorption tests were conducted by varying the initial concentration of methyl orange, contact time and pH of the dye solution. UV-vis results showed that most of the dye was adsorbed within 6 min...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Giuseppe Castaldelli, Vassilis Aschonitis, Fabio Vincenzi, Elisa Anna Fano, Elisa Soana
The extended networks of canals and ditches in agricultural landscapes provide high buffer capacity towards nitrogen (N) excess. Their N mitigation potential depends on several biotic and abiotic factors, among which water velocity is poorly explored and generally omitted from the parameterization of this remarkable ecosystem service. The present work reports new insights on the role of flow velocity in regulating N removal via denitrification in sediments colonized by Phragmites australis. Denitrification was investigated in outdoor mesocosms in the presence and absence of P...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Takao Tsuji, Kazutetsu Aoshiba, Hiroyuki Nakamura
In Europe and America, the newly-developed, simultaneous measurement of diffusing capacity for CO (DLCO ) and NO (DLNO ) has replaced the classic DLCO measurement for detecting the pathophysiological abnormalities in the acinar regions. However, simultaneous measurement of DLCO and DLNO is currently not used by Japanese physicians. To encourage the use of DLNO in Japan, the authors reviewed aspects of simultaneously-estimated DLCO and DLNO from previously published manuscripts. The simultaneous DLCO -DLNO technique identifies the alveolocapillary membrane-related diffusing capacity (membrane component, DM ) and the blood volume in pulmonary microcirculation (VC ); VC is the principal factor constituting the blood component of diffusing capacity (DB ,DB =θ·VC where θ is the specific gas conductance for CO or NO in the blood)...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Kejia Ji, Hongjie Xu, Xiaodong Ma, Jie Yin, Xuesong Jiang
Porous membranes with uniform nanostructures and selective adsorption can realize molecular filtration with high flux and have gained great attention because of their wide application in water treatment and industrial separation. Herein, a novel hyperbranched poly(ether amine)@poly(vinylidene fluoride) (hPEA@PVDF) porous membrane with oriented nanostructures and selective adsorption of guest molecules was fabricated by applying the combined crystallization and diffusion method for the functionalization of the PVDF membrane...
April 3, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Eda Yuhana Ariffin, Yook Heng Lee, Dedi Futra, Ling Ling Tan, Nurul Huda Abd Karim, Nik Nuraznida Nik Ibrahim, Asmat Ahmad
A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor for ultrasensitive and selective quantitation of Escherichia coli DNA based on aminated hollow silica spheres (HSiSs) has been successfully developed. The HSiSs were synthesized with facile sonication and heating techniques. The HSiSs have an inner and an outer surface for DNA immobilization sites after they have been functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. From field emission scanning electron microscopy images, the presence of pores was confirmed in the functionalized HSiSs...
March 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Elena Cutrín Gómez, Soledad Anguiano Igea, José Luis Gómez Amoza, Francisco J Otero Espinar
Soluble derivatives of β-cyclodextrin (CD) have a high capacity to solubilise hydrophobic molecules and to interact with proteins and membrane component. As consequence CD derivatives shows a significant activity as drug absorption enhancers through different delivery routes, such as the oral, nasal, ocular or topical route. In this paper, the effect of two CD derivatives -methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPB)- on the structure and permeability of the nail plate has been studied using the drug model ciclopirox olamine...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Amrita Rath, P M Geethu, Santhosh Mathesan, Dillip K Satapathy, Pijush Ghosh
We report the controlled reversible and irreversible folding behavior of a biopolymer film simply by tuning the solvent characteristics. Generally, solvent triggered folding of soft membranes or film is achieved by unfolding. Here, we show that this unfolding behavior can be suppressed/delayed or even completely eliminated by altering the intrinsic nature of the solvent. A reversible folding of biopolymer film is observed in response to water, whereas, an irreversible folding is observed in the presence of an aromatic alcohol (AA) solution of different molar concentrations...
February 28, 2018: Soft Matter
Paraskevi S Gerogianni, Maria V Chatziathanasiadou, Dimitrios A Diamantis, Andreas G Tzakos, Dimitrios Galaris
Phenolic acids represent abundant components contained in human diet. However, the negative charge in their carboxylic group limits their capacity to diffuse through biological membranes, thus hindering their access to cell interior. In order to promote the diffusion of rosmarinic acid through biological membranes, we synthesized several lipophilic ester- and amide-derivatives of this compound and evaluated their capacity to prevent H2 O2 -induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cultured human cells. Esterification of the carboxylic moiety with lipophilic groups strongly enhanced the capacity of rosmarinic acid to protect cells...
May 2018: Redox Biology
Steven C Chase, Caitlin C Fermoyle, Courtney M Wheatley, Jacob J Schaefer, Lyle J Olson, Bruce D Johnson
AIMS: The effect of extravascular lung water (EVLW) and relationship to functional status as a result of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are not well understood. We sought to quantify changes in clinical variables, EVLW, airway anatomy, spirometry, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide before and after treatment for ADHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen patients were recruited within 24 h of hospital admission. Spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and surrogates of EVLW by computed tomography were measured and were then repeated within 24 h of discharge...
January 18, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Hannah H Tuson, Matthew H Foley, Nicole M Koropatkin, Julie S Biteen
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) is a prominent member of the human gut microbiota with an extensive capacity for glycan harvest. This bacterium expresses a five-protein complex in the outer membrane, called the starch utilization system (Sus), which binds, degrades, and imports starch into the cell. Sus is a model system for the many glycan-targeting polysaccharide utilization loci found in Bt and other members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Our previous work has shown that SusG, a lipidated amylase in the outer membrane, explores the entire cell surface but diffuses more slowly as it interacts with starch...
January 12, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Milène Nitenberg, Anaïs Bénarouche, Ofelia Maniti, Estelle Marion, Laurent Marsollier, Julie Géan, Erick J Dufourc, Jean-François Cavalier, Stéphane Canaan, Agnès P Girard-Egrot
Mycolactone is a lipid-like endotoxin synthesized by an environmental human pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer disease. Mycolactone has pleiotropic effects on fundamental cellular processes (cell adhesion, cell death and inflammation). Various cellular targets of mycolactone have been identified and a literature survey revealed that most of these targets are membrane receptors residing in ordered plasma membrane nanodomains, within which their functionalities can be modulated...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
David Nicolas Østedgaard-Munck, Jacopo Catalano, Mette Birch Kristensen, Anders Bentien
This article elaborates on the design and optimization of a specialized flow cell for the measurement of direct conversion of pressure into electrical energy (Electrokinetic Energy Conversion, EKEC) which has been presented in Østedgaard-Munck et al. (2017) [1]. Two main flow cell parameters have been monitored and optimized: A) the hydraulic pressure profile on each side of the membrane introduced by pumps recirculating the electrolyte solution through the flow fields and B) the electrical resistance between the current collectors across the combined flow cell...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Astrid Walrant, Sébastien Cardon, Fabienne Burlina, Sandrine Sagan
Living organisms have to maintain a stable balance in molecules and ions in the changing environment in which they are living, a process known as homeostasis. At the level of cells, the plasma membrane has a major role in homeostasis, since this hydrophobic film prevents passive diffusion of large and hydrophilic molecules between the extracellular and intracellular milieu. Living organisms have evolved with highly sophisticated transport systems to control exchanges across this barrier: import of nutrients and fuel essential for their survival; recognition of chemical or physical messengers allowing information interchanges with surrounding cells...
December 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
F J Sayyed, G H Wadkar
OBJECTIVE: The present investigation was undertaken to assess the hypoglycemic potential of ethanolic (ECB) and aqueous extracts (ACB) of root bark of Caesalpinia bonducella using various in vitro techniques. METHOD: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of root bark of C. bonducella were studied for their effects on glucose adsorption capacity, in vitro glucose diffusion, in-vitro amylolysis kinetics and glucose transport across membrane of yeast cells. RESULT: It was observed that the extracts under study adsorbed glucose and the adsorption of glucose increased remarkably with an increase in glucose concentration...
January 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Shunli Wan, Jiayu Wu, Shanshan Zhou, Rui Wang, Bin Gao, Feng He
Hydrated manganese oxide (HMO) nanoparticles were impregnated into a peanut shell-derived biochar (BC) to obtain a remarkable nanocomposite adsorbent, HMO-BC, which overcomes the technical barriers of singly applying either HMO or BC in practical heavy metal-containing wastewater treatment. HMO-BC can effectively sequestrate Pb(II) and Cd(II) in a wide pH range of 3-7 and exhibited more preferable sorption than bare BC in the presence of high-level competing cations. BC also significantly lowered the Mn leaching at acidic pH...
March 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jinsong He, Anan Cui, Shihuai Deng, J Paul Chen
Dye containing wastewater has increasingly become an important contamination due to operation of various industries such as textile industry. In this study, a micro-scale biochar particles/polysulfone mixed matrix hollow fiber membrane (MMM) was applied for the removal of methylene blue from water. The static and dynamic adsorption performance was investigated. We found that the MMM exhibited a high removal efficiency of methylene blue under a wide pH range of 4-10. The adsorption process on biochar and MMM obeyed the intraparticle surface diffusion model and Langmuir isotherm model...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bruno Degano, Thibaud Soumagne, Thomas Delaye, Patrick Berger, Thierry Perez, Alicia Guillien, Jean-Luc Pellegrin, David Launay, Nadine Magy-Bertrand, Christian Agard, Kiet Phong Tiev, Thông Hua-Huy, Catherine Tardiff, Véronique Diaz, Arnaud Chambellan, Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan
Screening is important to determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) have pulmonary hypertension because earlier pulmonary hypertension treatment can improve survival in these patients. Although decreased transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) is currently considered the best pulmonary function test for screening for pulmonary hypertension in SSc, small series have suggested that partitioning TLCO into membrane conductance (diffusing capacity) for carbon monoxide (DMCO) and alveolar capillary blood volume (VC) through combined measurement of TLCO and transfer factor of the lung for nitric oxide (TLNO) is more effective to identify pulmonary hypertension in SSc patients compared with TLCO alone...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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