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membrane diffusing capacity

Melissa M Bouwsema, Vincent Tedjasaputra, Michael K Stickland
Previous work suggests that women may exhibit a greater respiratory limitation to exercise compared to height-matched men. Diffusion capacity (DLCO) increases with incremental exercise, and the smaller lungs of women may limit membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) in response to the increased oxygen demand. We hypothesized that females would have a lower DLCO, DLCO relative to cardiac output (DLCO/Q), Dm, Vc, and pulmonary transit time, secondary to lower Vc at peak exercise...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Colin Dr Borland, Hervé Guénard
The DL,NO (TL,NO) had its unexpected origins in the Paris "events" of 1968 and the unsuccessful efforts of the UK tobacco industry in the 1970's to create a "safer cigarette". Adoption of the technique has been slow due to the instability of NO in air, lack of standardisation of the technique and lack of agreement as to whether DL,NO is equal to or merely reflects membrane diffusing capacity (DM.) With the availability of inexpensive analysers, standardisation of the technique and publication of reference equations we believe that its worldwide use will increase...
December 1, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Vanessa Maria Pfankuche, Mohamed Sayed-Ahmed, Vanessa Bono Contioso, Ingo Spitzbarth, Karl Rohn, Reiner Ulrich, Ulrich Deschl, Arno Kalkuhl, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Christina Puff
Histiocytic sarcomas represent rare but fatal neoplasms in humans. Based on the absence of a commercially available human histiocytic sarcoma cell line the frequently affected dog displays a suitable translational model. Canine distemper virus, closely related to measles virus, is a highly promising candidate for oncolytic virotherapy. Therapeutic failures in patients are mostly associated with tumour invasion and metastasis often induced by misdirected cytoskeletal protein activities. Thus, the impact of persistent canine distemper virus infection on the cytoskeletal protein cortactin, which is frequently overexpressed in human cancers with poor prognosis, was investigated in vitro in a canine histiocytic sarcoma cell line (DH82)...
2016: PloS One
Dahu Ding, Zhenya Zhang, Rongzhi Chen, Tianming Cai
The selective removal of radionuclides with extremely low concentrations from environmental medium remains a big challenge. Ammonium molybdophosphate possess considerable selectivity towards cesium ion (Cs(+)) due to the specific ion exchange between Cs(+) and NH4(+). Ammonium molybdophosphate - polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) membrane was successfully prepared for the first time in this study. Efficient removal of Cs(+) (95.7%, 94.1% and 91.3% of 1mgL(-1)) from solutions with high ionic strength (400mgL(-1) of Na(+), Ca(2+) or K(+)) was achieved by AMP-PAN composite...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Bryan J Taylor, Eric M Snyder, Maile L Richert, Courtney M Wheatley, Steven C Chase, Lyle J Olson, Bruce D Johnson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) whether stable heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have elevated extravascular lung water (EVLW) when compared with healthy control subjects; and (2) the effect of acute β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist inhalation on lung fluid balance. METHODS: Twenty-two stable HFrEF patients and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were studied. Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) (via re-breathe) and lung tissue volume (Vtis) (via computed tomography) were assessed before and within 30 minutes after administration of nebulized albuterol...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Yanpeng Mao, Wenlong Wang, Chunyuan Ma
As one of the major soluble organic compounds in membrane bioreactors, soluble microbial product (SMP) can combine the surface sites on hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), which can compete with HFO for the uptake of phosphate. In this study, SMP was extracted from an MBR plant with long-term stable operation, and the effects of SMP on phosphate adsorption onto fresh HFO (FHFO) were investigated at pH values of 6.0 and 7.8 in a two-phase system composed of FHFO (solid phase) and SMP/phosphate (liquid phase). The phosphate adsorption capacity of FHFO was found to decrease significantly with increase in the pH value and SMP concentration...
November 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Yen-Liang Liu, Evan P Perillo, Cong Liu, Peter Yu, Chao-Kai Chou, Mien-Chie Hung, Andrew K Dunn, Hsin-Chih Yeh
Whereas important discoveries made by single-particle tracking have changed our view of the plasma membrane organization and motor protein dynamics in the past three decades, experimental studies of intracellular processes using single-particle tracking are rather scarce because of the lack of three-dimensional (3D) tracking capacity. In this study we use a newly developed 3D single-particle tracking method termed TSUNAMI (Tracking of Single particles Using Nonlinear And Multiplexed Illumination) to investigate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trafficking dynamics in live cells at 16/43 nm (xy/z) spatial resolution, with track duration ranging from 2 to 10 min and vertical tracking depth up to tens of microns...
November 15, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Javier Pizarro-Delgado, Jude T Deeney, Barbara E Corkey, Jorge Tamarit-Rodriguez
We have previously demonstrated that islet depolarization with 70 mM KCl opens Cx36 hemichannels and allows diffusion of small metabolites and cofactors through the β-cell plasma membrane. We have investigated in this islet "permeabilized" model whether glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates stimulate insulin secretion and how it correlates with ATP production (islet content plus extracellular nucleotide accumulation). Glycolytic intermediates (10 mM) stimulated insulin secretion and ATP production similarly...
2016: PloS One
Lingjun Li, Ming Xu, Qi Yao, Zhaoyong Chen, Liubin Song, Zhian Zhang, Chunhui Gao, Peng Wang, Ziyang Yu, Yanqing Lai
Nickel-rich layered oxide cathode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries have received much attention recently because of their high specific capacities and significant reduction of cost. However, these cathodes are facing a fundamental challenge of loss in performance as a result of surface lithium residue, side reactions with the electrolyte and structure rearrangement upon long-term cycling. Herein, by capturing the lithium residue on the surface of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM) cathode material as Li source, we propose a hybrid coating strategy incorporating lithium ions conductor LixAlO2 with superconductor LixTi2O4 to overcome those obstinate issues...
November 2, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Natalie E Taylor, Sarah E Baker, Thomas P Olson, Sophie Lalande, Bruce D Johnson, Eric M Snyder
BACKGROUND: Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are located throughout the body including airway and alveolar cells. The β2ARs regulate lung fluid clearance through a variety of mechanisms including ion transport on alveolar cells and relaxation of the pulmonary lymphatics. We examined the effect of an inhaled β2-agonist (albuterol) on alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) in healthy humans. METHODS: We assessed the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following nebulized albuterol (2...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
Hongmei Xia, Yinxiang Xu, Zhiqing Cheng, Yongfeng Cheng
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) was extracted from Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. The compound is known to have a variety of medicinal functions; in particular, it is used for the treatment of cerebral ischemic diseases. TMP-loaded hydrogels offer an excellent preparation with the capacity to bypass the blood-brain barrier, allowing treatment of the brain through intranasal administration. We prepared TMP-loaded hydrogels using carbomer 940 and evaluated the release of TMP from the hydrogel. We determined the release rate using Franz-type diffusion cell experiments with a subcutaneous-mucous-membrane model and also by a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation...
October 14, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Longsheng Zhang, Wei Fan, Tianxi Liu
It is still very challenging to achieve effective combination of carbon nanofibers and graphene sheets. In this study, a novel and facile method is developed to prepare flexible graphene/carbon nanofiber (GCNF) membranes with every carbon nanofiber wrapped by conductive graphene sheets, resulting in a remarkable improvement of their electrical conductivity. This method only entails a moderate process of soaking the pre-oxidized electrospun polyacrylonitrile (oPAN) nanofiber membranes in graphene oxide (GO) aqueous dispersion, and subsequent carbonization of the GO/oPAN hybrid membranes...
September 15, 2016: Nanoscale
Daniel Pliquett, Peter S Schulz, Frank W Heinemann, Angela Bause, Peter Wasserscheid
A series of silver tris(perfluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (Ag[FAP]) complexes with various ligands (acetonitrile ACN, chloroacetonitrile Cl-ACN, acrylonitrile acryl-CN, pyridine py, ethylenediamine en and propene C3H6) have been synthesized starting from Ag[NO3] and K[FAP] using three different routes. Physicochemical properties as well as crystal structures ([Ag(ACN)2/4][FAP], [Ag(py)2][FAP]) were determined and the suitability of such Ag salts for propene/propane separation processes was investigated. The investigated silver complexes exhibit either low melting points or form liquid complexes when contacted with gaseous propene at 30 °C...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
M El Khalifi, J Bentin, E Duverger, T Gharbi, H Boulahdour, F Picaud
The behavior of confined anticancer carboplatin (CPT) molecules in a single (10, 10) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Our study revealed a very large storage capacity of BNNT. Analysis of the energy profiles depending on the number of confined molecules, and on their spatial organization allowed us to quantify the ability of BNNT to vectorize CPT. Indeed, BNNT despite its small radius presented a large inner volume that favored stable encapsulation of multiple active anticancer molecules...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tom Trapphoff, Martyna Heiligentag, Jenny Simon, Nora Staubach, Thorsten Seidel, Kathrin Otte, Thomas Fröhlich, Georg J Arnold, Ursula Eichenlaub-Ritter
STUDY QUESTION: Can supplementation of media with a glutathione (GSH) donor, glutathione ethyl ester (GEE), prior to vitrification protect the mouse oocyte from oxidative damage and critical changes in redox homeostasis, and thereby improve cryotolerance? SUMMARY ANSWER: GEE supplementation supported redox regulation, rapid recovery of spindle and chromosome alignment after vitrification/warming and improved preimplantation development of mouse metaphase II (MII) oocytes...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Egidio Beretta, Francesca Lanfranconi, Simone Grasso Gabriele, Manuela Bartesaghi, Alemayehu Hailu Kinfu, Giuseppe Miserocchi
DLCO measured in hypoxia must be corrected due to the higher affinity (increase in coefficient θ) of CO with Hb. We propose an adjustment accounting for individual changes in the equation relating DLCO to subcomponents Dm (membrane diffusive capacity) and Vc (lung capillary volume): 1/DLCO=1/Dm+1/θVc. We adjusted the individual DLCO measured in hypoxia (HA, 3269m) by interpolating the 1/DLCO to the sea level (SL) 1/θ value. Nineteen healthy subjects were studied at SL and HA. Based on the proposed adjustment, DLCO increased in HA in 53% of subjects, reflecting the increase in Dm that largely overruled the decrease in Vc...
September 2, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Mohammad Taghi Taghizadeh, Morteza Vatanparast
Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles were fabricated successfully via ultrasonic-assisted method using ZrO(NO3)2·H2O, ethylenediamine and hydrazine as precursors in aqueous solution. Morphology, structure and composition of the obtained products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Then, the synthesized nanoparticles were used to prepare Nafion/ZrO2 nanocomposite membranes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Muhammad Imran, Anne-Marie Revol-Junelles, Grégory Francius, Stéphane Desobry
Application of nano-biotechnology to improve the controlled release of drugs or functional agents is widely anticipated to transform the biomedical, pharmaceutical, and food safety trends. The purpose of the current study was to assess and compare the release rates of fluorescently labeled antimicrobial peptide nisin (lantibiotic/biopreservative) from liposomal nanocarriers. The elevated temperature, high electrostatic attraction between anionic bilayers and cationic nisin, larger size, and higher encapsulation efficiency resulted in rapid and elevated release through pore formation...
August 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Julien Alassimone, Satoshi Fujita, Verónica G Doblas, Maritza van Dop, Marie Barberon, Lothar Kalmbach, Joop E M Vermeer, Nelson Rojas-Murcia, Luca Santuari, Christian S Hardtke, Niko Geldner
Casparian strips are precisely localized and aligned ring-like cell wall modifications in the root of all higher plants. They set up an extracellular diffusion barrier analogous to animal tight junctions, and are crucial for maintaining the homeostatic capacity of plant roots. Casparian strips become localized because of the formation of a highly stable plasma membrane domain, consisting of a family of small transmembrane proteins called Casparian strip membrane domain proteins (CASPs). Here we report a large-scale forward genetic screen directly visualizing endodermal barrier function, which allowed us to identify factors required for the formation and integrity of Casparian strips...
2016: Nature Plants
Pranjal Taskar, Akshaya Tatke, Soumyajit Majumdar
Ocular drug delivery is presented with many challenges, taking into account the distinctive structure of the eye. The prodrug approach has been, and is being, employed to overcome such barriers for some drug molecules, utilizing a chemical modification approach rather than a formulation-based approach. A prodrug strategy involves modification of the active moiety into various derivatives in a fashion that imparts some advantage, such as membrane permeability, site specificity, transporter targeting and improved aqueous solubility, over the parent compound...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
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