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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734207/in-silico-designing-of-therapeutic-protein-enriched-with-branched-chain-amino-acids-for-the-dietary-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#1
Sunil L, Prasanna Vasu
Leucine, isoleucine, and valine are three essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) account for 40-45% of total essential amino acids. BCAA stimulates protein synthesis primarily in skeletal muscles, and it can directly transport to circulatory blood stream bypassing the liver. Hence, a protein enriched with BCAA is an important therapeutic target for the dietary treatment of chronic liver disease. The present study is to design a synthetic protein enriched with BCAA and the challenge is to maximize the BCAA content, keeping the balanced ratio of leucine, isoleucine, valine - 2: 1: 1...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732170/angiotensin-ii-receptors-modulation-of-calcium-homeostasis-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#2
Maud Kamal, Danielle Jacques, Ghassan Bkaily
Angiotensin II (AngII) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle function. However, little is known about AngII and its receptors AT1 (AT1R) and AT2 (AT2R) and their modulation of intracellular calcium in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in general and more particularly of human origin. Using western blots, our results showed that AT1Rs and AT2Rs are present in human VECs (hVECs). Using quantitative 3D confocal imaging, our results showed that AngII is present at the cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic levels and its relative density is lower in the nucleoplasm...
July 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732069/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-supplementation-reduces-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-ibs
#3
Paola Brun, Melania Scarpa, Chiara Marchiori, Gloria Sarasin, Valentina Caputi, Andrea Porzionato, Maria Cecilia Giron, Giorgio Palù, Ignazio Castagliuolo
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on intestinal neuromuscular anomalies in an IBS-type mouse model of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions elicited by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) exposure. METHODS: Mice were inoculated intranasally with HSV-1 (102 PFU) or vehicle at time 0 and 4 weeks later by the intragastric (IG) route (108 PFU). Six weeks after IG inoculum, mice were randomly allocated to receive oral gavage with either S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732027/serum-irisin-and-myostatin-levels-after-2-weeks-of-high-altitude-climbing
#4
Ewa Śliwicka, Tomasz Cisoń, Zbigniew Kasprzak, Alicja Nowak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732005/filamin-actin-binding-and-titin-binding-fulfill-distinct-functions-in-z-disc-cohesion
#5
Nicanor González-Morales, Tristan K Holenka, Frieder Schöck
Many proteins contribute to the contractile properties of muscles, most notably myosin thick filaments, which are anchored at the M-line, and actin thin filaments, which are anchored at the Z-discs that border each sarcomere. In humans, mutations in the actin-binding protein Filamin-C result in myopathies, but the underlying molecular function is not well understood. Here we show using Drosophila indirect flight muscle that the filamin ortholog Cheerio in conjunction with the giant elastic protein titin plays a crucial role in keeping thin filaments stably anchored at the Z-disc...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731988/roles-of-mitogen-activating-protein-kinase-kinase-kinase-kinase-3-map4k3-in-preterm-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cell-myogenesis-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-mtorc1-activation-regulation
#6
Chu-Yi Guo, Mu-Xue Yu, Jie-Min Dai, Si-Nian Pan, Zhen-Tong Lu, Xiao-Shan Qiu, Si-Qi Zhuang
BACKGROUND Preterm skeletal muscle genesis is a paradigm for myogenesis. The role of mitogen-activating protein kinase kinase kinase kinase-3 (MAP4K3) in preterm skeletal muscle satellite cells myogenesis or its relationship to mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity have not been previously elaborated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference technology was used to inhibit MAP4K3 expression. Leucine stimulation experiments were performed following MAP4K3-siRNA interference...
July 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731598/comparison-of-malnutrition-inflammation-score-anthropometry-and-biochemical-parameters-in-assessing-the-difference-in-protein-energy-wasting-between-normal-weight-and-obese-patients-undergoing-haemodialysis
#7
Elham Alipoor, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mitra Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mehdi Yaseri, Narges S Zahed
AIM: Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is prevalent in haemodialysis. Obesity is an independent risk factor of kidney insufficiency, but it is proposed to have beneficial roles in better outcomes in the final stage of disease. Better nutritional status and body reserves are among probable mechanisms, but direct examinations are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether obese patients have preferable nutritional status compared to normal weight patients based on malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and other PEW parameters in haemodialysis...
July 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731505/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-kinase-2-camkii-mediates-epac-induced-spontaneous-transient-outward-currents-stocs-in-rat-vascular-smooth-muscle
#8
Edward S A Humphries, Tomoko Kamishima, John M Quayle, Caroline Dart
Activation of the major cAMP effector, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), induces vascular smooth muscle relaxation by increasing the activity of ryanodine (RyR)-sensitive release channels on the peripheral sarcoplasmic reticulum. Resultant Ca(2+) sparks activate plasma membrane Ca(2+) -activated K(+) (BKCa ) channels, evoking spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) that hyperpolarize the cell and reduce voltage-dependent Ca(2+) entry. In this study we investigate the mechanism by which Epac increases STOC activity...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731378/experimental-infection-of-cattle-with-a-novel-prion-derived-from-atypical-h-type-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy
#9
Hiroyuki Okada, Kentaro Masujin, Kohtaro Miyazawa, Yoshihumi Iwamaru, Morikazu Imamura, Yuichi Matsuura, Shozo Arai, Shigeo Fukuda, Yuichi Murayama, Takashi Yokoyama
H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE in cattle. During passaging of H-BSE in transgenic bovinized (TgBoPrP) mice, a novel phenotype of BSE, termed BSE-SW emerged and was characterized by a short incubation time and host weight loss. To investigate the biological and biochemical properties of the BSE-SW prion, a transmission study was conducted in cattle, which were inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenate from BSE-SW-infected TgBoPrP mice. The disease incubation period was approximately 15 months...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731188/hispidin-rescues-palmitate%C3%A2-induced-insulin-resistance-in-c2c12-myotubes
#10
Jong Seok Lee, Jun Myoung Park, Sarah Lee, Hye Jin Lee, Hee-Sun Yang, Joohong Yeo, Ki Rim Lee, Byung Hyun Choi, Eock Kee Hong
Skeletal muscle serves an important role in the utilization of glucose during insulin‑stimulated conditions. Excessive saturated fatty acids are considered to be a major contributing factor to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells. The present study investigated the effects of hispidin on palmitate‑induced insulin resistance in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes via an MTT assay, glucose uptake assay, Oil‑Red‑O staining and western blot analysis. Hispidin reversed the palmitate‑induced inhibition of glucose uptake, and inhibited palmitate‑induced intracellular lipid accumulation...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731181/mir%C3%A2-21-promotes-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-sma-and-collagen-i-expression-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-via-the-smad7-signaling-pathway
#11
Rong-Quan Fu, Dan-Ping Hu, Yi-Bing Hu, Liang Hong, Qing-Feng Sun, Ji-Guang Ding
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)‑21 in regulating collagen I and Smad7 expression in activated rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Rat HSCs were isolated by single‑step density gradient centrifugation with Nycodenz. Cellular content of miR‑21, SMAD7, α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), collagen type I alpha 1 (COLLA1) and COLL alpha 2 (A2) mRNA was examined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR), and cellular content of Smad7 and α‑SMA protein was detected by western blotting...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731157/curcumin-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-matrix-metalloproteinase%C3%A2-2-activity-via-the-ras-mek1-2-signaling-pathway-in-rat-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#12
Yi Zhong, Jian Feng, Jiafu Li, Zhongcai Fan
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of curcumin treatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) activity, and assess whether the effects are mediated by the Ras/mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMCs were isolated from male Sprague‑Dawley rats. Protein expression levels were analyzed by western blotting. The activity of MMP‑2 was measured with gelatin zymography, and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to detect the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB)...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730836/effects-of-rapid-or-slow-body-weight-reduction-on-intramuscular-protein-degradation-pathways-during-equivalent-weight-loss-on-rats
#13
Y Nonaka, S Urashima, M Inai, S Nishimura, K Higashida, S Terada
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term fasting-induced rapid weight loss with those of slower but equivalent body weight loss induced by daily calorie restriction on muscle protein degradation pathways and muscle protein content. Male Fischer rats were subjected to either 30 % calorie restriction for 2 weeks to slowly decrease body weight (Slow) or 3-day fasting to rapidly decrease body weight by a comparable level of that of the Slow group (Rapid). The final body weights were about 15 % lower in both the Slow and Rapid groups than in the Con group (p<0...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730748/extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-activation-in-the-spinal-cord-contributes-to-visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-craniofacial-injury-followed-by-stress
#14
Y-J Zhao, J-H Li, B Hu, Y Wang, X-F Chang, R J Traub, D-Y Cao
BACKGROUND: We previously developed an animal model to examine mechanisms that underlie the emergence of visceral hypersensitivity modeling pain characteristics of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with comorbid irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In ovariectomized (OVx) rats with estradiol (E2) replacement, visceral hypersensitivity developed subsequent to masseter muscle inflammation followed by repeated forced swim (FS) stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the spinal cord contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in this overlapping pain model...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730707/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-novel-murine-model-of-pancreatic-cancer-cachexia
#15
Katherine A Michaelis, Xinxia Zhu, Kevin G Burfeind, Stephanie M Krasnow, Peter R Levasseur, Terry K Morgan, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a complex metabolic and behavioural syndrome lacking effective therapies. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most important conditions associated with cachexia, with >80% of PDAC patients suffering from the condition. To establish the cardinal features of a murine model of PDAC-associated cachexia, we characterized the effects of implanting a pancreatic tumour cell line from a syngeneic C57BL/6 KRAS(G12D) P53(R172H) Pdx-Cre(+/+) (KPC) mouse...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730509/effect-of-a-2000-m-running-test-on-antioxidant-and-cytokine-response-in-plasma-and-circulating-cells
#16
Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Lorena Funes, Miguel Sánchez-Martos, Pascual Martinez-Peinado, José M Sempere, Antoni Pons, Vicente Micol, Enrique Roche
Exercise intensity usually correlates with increased oxidative stress and enhanced cytokine production. However, it is unknown if all types of exercise that induce muscle damage can cause a parallel response in the oxidation balance and cytokine production. To this end, the effect of a 2000-m running test in a group of volunteers that regularly train in aerobic routines was studied. Different circulating parameters were measured, oxidative stress markers (protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzyme activity, and cytokine levels in plasma as well as in the main circulating cells of blood samples obtained in basal conditions and after test execution...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729925/patterns-of-production-of-collagen-rich-deposits-in-peripheral-nerves-in-response-to-injury-a-pilot-study-in-a-rabbit-model
#17
Michael Rivlin, Andrew Miller, Jacob Tulipan, Pedro K Beredjiklian, Mark L Wang, Jolanta Fertala, Andrzej Steplewski, James Kostas, Andrzej Fertala
INTRODUCTION: Although collagen-rich deposits are the main component of neural scars, the patterns of their formation are ill defined. Essential to the biosynthesis of collagen fibrils are enzymes catalyzing posttranslational modifications and chaperones that control the formation of the collagen triple helix. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) and heat shock protein-47 (HSP47) play a key role, and their production is upregulated during scar formation in human tissues. Alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) is also produced during fibrotic processes in myofibroblasts that participate in fibrotic response...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729853/role-of-melatonin-galanin-and-rfamide-neuropeptides-qrfp26-and-qrfp43-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#18
REVIEW
Iacopo Gesmundo, Tania Villanova, Dana Banfi, Giacomo Gamba, Riccarda Granata
Glucose homeostasis is finely regulated by a number of hormones and peptides released mainly from the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and muscle, regulating pancreatic secretion through cellular receptors and their signal transduction cascades. The endocrine function of the pancreas is controlled by islets within the exocrine pancreatic tissue that release hormones like insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and ghrelin. Moreover, both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions are regulated by a variety of hormonal and neural mechanisms, such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, or the inhibitory peptide somatostatin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729395/relationship-between-exercise-volume-and-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-a-rat-model-of-resistance-exercise
#19
Riki Ogasawara, Yuki Arihara, Junya Takegaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
Resistance exercise (RE) volume is recognized as an important factor that stimulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and is considered, at least in part, to be involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-associated signaling. However, the effects of relatively high doses of muscle contractions on mTORC1 and MPS remain unclear. In the present study, we used an animal model of RE to investigate the relationship between RE volume and MPS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to RE, and muscle samples were obtained 6 h after performing 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 sets of RE...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729389/severe-energy-deficit-up-regulates-leptin-receptors-leptin-signaling-and-ptp1b-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#20
Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jesus Gustavo Ponce-Gonzalez, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Jose Losa-Reyna, Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Alfredo Santana, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Jose A L Calbet
In obesity, leptin receptors (OBR) and leptin signaling in skeletal muscle are down-regulated. To determine whether OBR and leptin signaling are up-regulated with a severe energy deficit fifteen overweight men were assessed before (PRE), after 4 days of caloric restriction (3.2 Kcal/kg BW/day) in combination with prolonged exercise (CRE) (8h walking + 45min single-arm cranking/day) to induce an energy deficit of ~5500 Kcal/d, and following 3 days of control diet (isoenergetic) and reduced exercise (CD). During CRE, the diet consisted solely of whey protein (n=8) or sucrose (n=7) (0...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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