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muscle protein

Silvania da Silva Teixeira, Carly Filgueira, Douglas H Sieglaff, Cindy Benod, Rosa Villagomez, Laurie J Minze, Aijun Zhang, Paul Webb, Maria Tereza Nunes
AIM: Thyroid hormones regulate metabolic response. While triiodothyronine (T3) is usually considered to be the active form of thyroid hormone, one form of diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) exerts T3-like effects on energy consumption and lipid metabolism. 3,5-T2 also improves glucose tolerance in rats and 3,5-T2 levels correlate with fasting glucose in humans. Presently, however, little is known about mechanisms of 3,5-T2 effects on glucose metabolism. Here, we set out to compare effects of T3, 3,5-T2 and another form of T2 (3,3-T2) in a mouse model of diet induced obesity and determined effects of T3 and 3,5-T2 on markers of classical insulin sensitization to understand how diiodothyronines influence blood glucose...
October 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Stefan Pittner, Bianca Ehrenfellner, Angela Zissler, Victoria Racher, Wolfgang Trutschnig, Arne C Bathke, Alexandra M Sänger, Walter Stoiber, Peter Steinbacher, Fabio C Monticelli
Awareness of postmortem degradation processes in a human body is fundamental to develop methods for forensic time since death estimation (TDE). Currently, applied approaches are all more or less limited to certain postmortem phases, or have restrictions on behalf of circumstances of death. Novel techniques, however, rarely exceed basic research phases due to various reasons. We report the first application of a novel method, based on decay of muscle proteins, in a recent case of murder-suicide, where other TDE methods failed to obtain data...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Panat Anuracpreeda, Amaya Watthanadirek, Runglawan Chawengkirttikul, Prasert Sobhon
A number of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against the 16 kDa antigen of Paramphistomum gracile (16 kDaAgPg) were produced in vitro by hybridoma technique. Reactivity and specificity of these MoAbs were evaluated by ELISA and immunoblotting assays. Seven MoAb clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1D10, 2D7, 3B10, 3D9, 4F1, 4G4, and 5G12. It was found to be IgM and kappa light chain isotypes. By immunoblotting and ELISA, all MoAbs reacted with purified 16 kDaAgPg at molecular weight (MW) of 16 kDa and with the native 16 kDa antigen at MW of 16 kDa in the whole body (WB) and excretory-secretory (ES) fractions, but not with tegumental antigens (TA) of adult fluke...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
E Kamanga-Sollo, K J Thornton, M E White, W R Dayton
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters in several countries. Treatment with E2 stimulates protein synthesis rate and suppresses protein degradation rate in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not known with certainty. Although the genomic effects of E2 mediated through the classical estrogen receptors have been characterized, recent studies indicate that binding of E2 to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 mediates nongenomic effects of E2 on cellular function...
September 13, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Andrea B Agarwal, Cheng-Yuan Feng, Amy L Altick, David R Quilici, Dan Wen, L Alan Johnson, Christopher S von Bartheld
Purpose: To determine whether structural protein composition and expression of key regulatory genes are altered in strabismic human extraocular muscles. Methods: Samples from strabismic horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with normal muscles from organ donors. We used proteomics, standard and customized PCR arrays, and microarrays to identify changes in major structural proteins and changes in gene expression. We focused on muscle and connective tissue and its control by enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Te-Chih Wong, Hsiu-Yueh Su, Yu-Tong Chen, Pei-Yu Wu, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Tso-Hsiao Chen, Yung-Ho Hsu, Shwu-Huey Yang
Recent studies have indicated that the ratio of C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP-Alb ratio) is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with disease. We examined the predictive value of this ratio in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In this cross-sectional study, 91 eligible adult HD patients were analyzed, and the correlation between the CRP-Alb ratio and skeletal muscle mass normalized for body weight (SMM/wt; estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer) was investigated. The mean age of the study participants was 54...
2016: PloS One
Lorenza Brocca, Luana Toniolo, Carlo Reggiani, Roberto Bottinelli, Marco Sandri, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Muscle atrophy is a complex process that is in common with many different catabolic diseases including disuse/inactivity and ageing. The signalling pathways that control the atrophy program in the different disuse/inactivity conditions have not yet been completely dissected. It has been recently reported that inhibition of FoxO only partially spared muscle mass after denervation. The purposes of this study were: (i) to determine the involvement of FoxOs in hindlimb suspension disuse model, (ii) to define whether the molecular events of protein breakdown are shared among different unloaded muscles and finally (iii) to compare the data obtained in this model with another model of inactivity such as denervation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Min Joo Kim, Young Do Koo, Min Kim, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Sung Soo Chung, Hak C Jang, Kyong Soo Park
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng has glucose-lowering effects, some of which are associated with the improvement in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Because mitochondria play a pivotal role in the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, we investigated the effects of the ginsenoside Rg3, one of the active components of P. ginseng, on mitochondrial function and biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes. METHODS: C2C12 myotubes were treated with Rg3 for 24 hours. Insulin signaling pathway proteins were examined by Western blot...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Yukio Ozaki, Shogo Tamura, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
Platelets play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of hemostasis and thrombus formation. However, platelet functions beyond thrombosis and hemostasis have been increasingly identified in recent years. A large body of evidence now exists which suggests that platelets also play a key role in inflammation, immunity, malignancy, and furthermore in organ development and regeneration, such as the liver. We have recently identified CLEC-2 on the platelet membrane, which induces intracellular activation signals upon interaction of a snake venom, rhodocytin...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Yonghui Yu, Xiao Li, Lingying Liu, Jiake Chai, Zhang Haijun, Wanli Chu, Huinan Yin, Li Ma, Hongjie Duan, Mengjing Xiao
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common clinical feature among patients with severe burns. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs play critical roles in the regulation of stress-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Our previous study showed that burn-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is mediated by miR-628. In this study, compared with sham rats, rats subjected to burn injury exhibited skeletal muscle atrophy, as well as significantly decreased insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein expression and significantly increased skeletal muscle cell apoptosis...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Leandro H Manfredi, D Lustrino, Juliano Machado, Wilian Assis Silveira, Neusa Maria Zanon, Luiz C Navegantes, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut
Previous studies have shown that catecholamines in vivo and in vitro inhibit the activity of Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in skeletal muscles under basal conditions. In the present study we sought to investigate the role of catecholamines in regulating the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rats acutely exposed to cold. Overall proteolysis, the activity of proteolytic systems as well as protein levels and gene expression of different components of calpain system were investigated in rats submitted to adrenodemedullation (ADMX) and exposed to cold for 24 h...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Justin D La Favor, Gabriel S Dubis, Huimin Yan, Joseph D White, Margaret A M Nelson, Ethan J Anderson, Robert C Hickner
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) on microvascular endothelial function in obese human subjects and the efficacy of an aerobic exercise intervention on alleviating obesity-associated dysfunctionality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Young, sedentary men and women were divided into lean (body mass index 18-25; n=14), intermediate (body mass index 28-32.5; n=13), and obese (body mass index 33-40; n=15) groups...
October 20, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Juan Guillermo Cárcamo, Marcelo N Aguilar, Constanza F Carreño, Tamara Vera, Luis Arias-Darraz, Jaime E Figueroa, Alex P Romero, Marco Alvarez, Alejandro J Yañez
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Meng Li, Xin Li, Jianzeng Xin, Zheng Li, Guixia Li, Yan Zhang, Manting Du, Qingwu W Shen, Dequan Zhang
The influence of protein phosphorylation on meat color stability was investigated in this study. Phosphatase and protein kinase inhibitors were added to minced ovine Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle to manipulate the global phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. The data obtained show that the rate and extent of pH decline, along with lactate accumulation in postmortem muscle, were related to protein phosphorylation. Analysis of meat color and the relative content of myoglobin redox forms revealed that meat color stability was inversely related to the phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
C O Brito, J L L Dutra, T N Dias, L T Barbosa, C S Nascimento, A P G Pinto, L F T Albino, R P M Fernandes, M S Macário, J S Melo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine on performance, protein deposition and respiratory chain gene expression in male broilers. A total of 252 Cobb 500 broilers were distributed, in a completely randomized design, into four treatments with seven replicates of nine birds per experimental unit. Experimental treatments consisted of diets based on corn and soybean meal, with four levels of digestible lysine: 1.016%, 1.099%, 1.182% and 1.265%. The increase in the level of digestible lysine in the diet provided higher weight gains, feed efficiency and body protein deposition...
October 21, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Gamze Cebi, Şenol Yildiz, Gunalp Uzun, Yeşim Oztas, Suna Sabuncuoglu, Ayhan Kutlu, Yasin Ilgaz, Iclal Karatop-Cesur, Eyup Dogan, Emin Oztas
Myoglobinuric acute renal failure (MARF) may develop after severe muscle injury. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-response protein, has been implicated as a protective agent against MARF. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) may alleviate MARF by inducing renal HO-1 expression. Wistar-Albino rats were randomly assigned into three groups: Control (n = 4), MARF (n = 8), MARF + HBO (n = 8). MARF was induced by intramuscular glycerol (50%, 8 mL/kg) injection. Saline (8 mL/kg) was injected into the hind limb of the animals in the control group...
October 20, 2016: Renal Failure
Jeong Hyo Lee, Si Won Kim, Tae Sub Park
Objective: Based on rapid advancement of genetic modification techniques, genomic editing is expected to become the most efficient tool for improvement of economic traits in livestock as well as poultry. In this study, we examined and verified the nickase of mutated CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) to modulate the specific target gene in chicken DF1 cells. Methods: Chicken myostatin which inhibits muscle cell growth and differentiation during myogenesis was targeted to be deleted and mutated by the Cas9-D10A nickase...
October 19, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Janine Donaldson, Michael Taurai Madziva, Kennedy Honey Erlwanger
Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods: Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22 % coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil or sunflower oil) for 12 weeks...
October 20, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Francesca Megiorni, Simona Camero, Simona Ceccarelli, Heather P McDowell, Olga Mannarino, Francesco Marampon, Barry Pizer, Rajeev Shukla, Antonio Pizzuti, Cinzia Marchese, Anna Clerico, Carlo Dominici
Aberrant DNA methylation has been frequently observed in many human cancers, including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. To date, the expression and function of the de novo DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B in RMS have not yet been investigated. Our study show for the first time a significant up-regulation of DNMT3B levels in 14 RMS tumour samples and 4 RMS cell lines in comparison to normal skeletal muscle. Transfection of RD and TE671 cells, two in vitro models of embryonal RMS (ERMS), with a synthetic DNMT3B siRNA decreased cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase, as demonstrated by the reduced expression of Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E2, and by the concomitant up-regulation of the checkpoint regulators p21 and p27...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Jeffrey J Widrick, Matthew Alexander, Benjamin Sanchez, Devin Gibbs, Genri Kawahara, Alan Beggs, Louis Kunkel
Sapje zebrafish lack the protein dystrophin and are the smallest vertebrate model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Their small size makes them ideal for large-scale drug discovery screens. However, the extent that sapje mimic the muscle dysfunction of higher vertebrate models of DMD is unclear. We used an optical birefringence assay to differentiate affected dystrophic sapje larvae from their unaffected siblings and then studied trunk muscle contractility at 4-7 days post fertilization. Preparation cross-sectional area (CSA) was similar for affected and unaffected larvae, yet tetanic forces of affected preparations were only 30-60% of normal...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
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