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Laura Ciaffi, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Adrien Bruno Sawadogo, Cheik Tidiane Ndour, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Pretty Rosereine Mbouyap, Liliane Ayangma, Jacques Zoungrana, Ndeye Fatou Ngom Gueye, Mohamadou Diallo, Suzanne Izard, Guillaume Bado, Coumba Toure Kane, Avelin Fobang Aghokeng, Martine Peeters, Pierre Marie Girard, Vincent Le Moing, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte
BACKGROUND: Despite satisfactory efficacy of WHO-recommended second-line antiretroviral treatment for patients with HIV in low-income countries, the need for simplified, low-cost, and less-toxic maintenance strategies remains high. We compared boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy with dual therapy with boosted protease inhibitor plus lamivudine in patients on second-line antiretrovial therapy (ART). METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, parallel, open-label, superiority, trial in the HIV services of five hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa (Yaoundé, Cameroon; Dakar, Senegal; and Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso)...
May 26, 2017: Lancet HIV
E Kowalczyk, E Patyra, A Grelik, K Kwiatek
A high performance liquid chromatography combined with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was developed for determination of five ergot alkaloids (EA): ergometrine, ergotamine, ergocornine, ergocrypine and ergocristine in animal feedingstuffs. The method was based on the application of QuEChERS salts for extraction and modified QuEChERS dispersive SPE for the cleanup step. Alkaloids separation was performed on a C18, 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm column with the mobile phase containing ammonium carbonate and acetonitrile...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
James L Klotz, Glen E Aiken, Jessica R Bussard, Andrew P Foote, David L Harmon, Ben M Goff, F Neal Schrick, James R Strickland
Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and α-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+; Epichlöe coenophialia) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The objective of this experiment was to determine the period of time necessary for the vascular effects of ergot alkaloids to subside. Two experiments were conducted to investigate changes in vascular contractile response and vasoconstriction over time relative to removal from an ergot alkaloid-containing E+ tall fescue pasture...
September 22, 2016: Toxins
Shinji Kishimoto, Michio Sato, Yuta Tsunematsu, Kenji Watanabe
Varieties of alkaloids are known to be produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, as secondary metabolites that exhibit useful bioactivities. However, understanding of how those metabolites are biosynthesized still remains limited, because most of these compounds are isolated from plants and at a trace level of production. In this review, we focus on recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of those nitrogen-containing natural products and elucidating the mechanisms involved in the biosynthetic processes...
August 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jordi Navarro, Adrian Curran, Joaquin Burgos, Ariadna Torrella, Inma Ocaña, Vicenç Falcó, Manuel Crespo, Esteban Ribera
An HIV-infected patient treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine/elvitegravir/cobicistat developed severe acute ischaemia of both legs during a migraine episode. After being interrogated he admitted taking an ergotamine-containing preparation. Ergotism due to interaction between ergotics and cobicistat was diagnosed. We describe the first reported case of this interaction.
August 22, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Anelize Bauermeister, Fernando Armani Aguiar, Lucas Maciel Mauriz Marques, Jose Dos Santos Malta, Fábio Barros, Daniel Roberto Callejon, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes de Oliveira, Norberto Peporine Lopes
Dihydroergotamine is a semisynthetic natural product derived from ergotamine, an ergot alkaloid. It is used to treat migraines, a neurological disease characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches. In this work, the in vitro metabolism of dihydroergotamine was evaluated in a biomimetic phase I reaction, aiming to verify all possible formed metabolites. Dihydroergotamine was submitted to an in vitro metabolism assay using rat liver microsomes, and the metabolites were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. The biomimetic reactions were performed with Jacobsen catalyst for scaling up production of oxidized metabolites...
October 2016: Planta Medica
Thomas A White, Anton Barty, Wei Liu, Andrii Ishchenko, Haitao Zhang, Cornelius Gati, Nadia A Zatsepin, Shibom Basu, Dominik Oberthür, Markus Metz, Kenneth R Beyerlein, Chun Hong Yoon, Oleksandr M Yefanov, Daniel James, Dingjie Wang, Marc Messerschmidt, Jason E Koglin, Sébastien Boutet, Uwe Weierstall, Vadim Cherezov
We describe the deposition of four datasets consisting of X-ray diffraction images acquired using serial femtosecond crystallography experiments on microcrystals of human G protein-coupled receptors, grown and delivered in lipidic cubic phase, at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The receptors are: the human serotonin receptor 2B in complex with an agonist ergotamine, the human δ-opioid receptor in complex with a bi-functional peptide ligand DIPP-NH2, the human smoothened receptor in complex with an antagonist cyclopamine, and finally the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor in complex with the selective antagonist ZD7155...
August 1, 2016: Scientific Data
Guadalupe C Vidal-Cantú, Mildred Jiménez-Hernández, Héctor I Rocha-González, Carlos M Villalón, Vinicio Granados-Soto, Enriqueta Muñoz-Islas
Sumatriptan, dihydroergotamine and methysergide inhibit 1% formalin-induced nociception by activation of peripheral 5-HT1B/1D receptors. This study set out to investigate the pharmacological profile of the antinociception produced by intrathecal and intraplantar administration of ergotamine (a 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT5A/5B receptor agonist) and valerenic acid (a partial agonist at 5-HT5A receptors). Intraplantar injection of 1% formalin in the right hind paw resulted in spontaneous flinching behavior of the injected hindpaw of female Wistar rats...
June 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
A Donnet, D Braunstein, V Pradel, V Sciortino, V Allaria-Lapierre, J Micallef, M Lanteri-Minet
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate and to characterize the actual patterns of ergot use and overuse in France using a drug reimbursement database. METHODS: We included all people covered by the French General Health Insurance System (GHIS) from the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur (PACA) and Corsica administrative areas who had at least one prescription of ergot between May 2010 and December 2011. All prescriptions of ergots, migraine prophylactic treatment, and psychotropic medications were extracted from the GHIS database...
March 2016: Headache
Dorota Latek, Marek Bajda, Sławomir Filipek
The recent GPCR Dock 2013 assessment of serotonin receptor 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B, and smoothened receptor SMO targets, exposed the strengths and weaknesses of the currently used computational approaches. The test cases of 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B demonstrated that both the receptor structure and the ligand binding mode can be predicted with the atomic-detail accuracy, as long as the target-template sequence similarity is relatively high. On the other hand, the observation of a low target-template sequence similarity, e...
April 25, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Ninett Louise Find, Rossana Terlizzi, Signe Bruun Munksgaard, Lars Bendtsen, Cristina Tassorelli, Giuseppe Nappi, Zaza Katsarava, Miguel Lainez, Maria Teresa Goicochea, Beatriz Shand, Ricardo Fadic, Santiago Spadafora, Marco Pagani, Rigmor Jensen
BACKGROUND: Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a very disabling and costly disorder due to indirect costs, medication and healthcare utilization. The aim of the study was to describe general demographic and clinical characteristics of MOH, along with the national referral pathways and national painkillers distribution in several European and Latin American (LA) Countries. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional observational study included 669 patients with MOH referred to headache-centers in Europe and LA as a part of the COMOESTAS project...
2015: Journal of Headache and Pain
Stephanie Coufal-Majewski, Kim Stanford, Tim McAllister, Barry Blakley, John McKinnon, Alexandre Vieira Chaves, Yuxi Wang
The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total), reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Thomas Pokorny, Katrin H Preller, Rainer Kraehenmann, Franz X Vollenweider
The mixed serotonin (5-HT) 1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptor agonist psilocybin dose-dependently induces an altered state of consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by changes in sensory perception, mood, thought, and the sense of self. The psychological effects of psilocybin are primarily mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. However, accumulating evidence suggests that 5-HT1A or an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors may contribute to the overall effects of psilocybin. Therefore, we used a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subject design to investigate the modulatory effects of the partial 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (20mg p...
April 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
C Alberti
Among the secondary forms of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), that drug-induced shows very intriguing aspects given both the broad range of involved pharmaceuticals and the considerable interest arisen from the related pathogenetic mechanisms. The particular incidence, in the last four decades past century, of the RPF due to long-term use of ergot alkaloid derivatives (ergotamine, methysergide, pergolide, bromocriptine, cabergoline) and specific L-dopa derived agents, such as methyldopa, as well as to different analgesics, came progressively down given that their long-term use for either the prevention of migraine attacks or the therapy of chronic pathologies (Parkinson's disease, prolactinoma, pain management, etc) has been, year after year, supplanted or even made unavailable in many countries...
July 2015: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Michael H Bennett, Christopher French, Alexander Schnabel, Jason Wasiak, Peter Kranke, Stephanie Weibel
BACKGROUND: Migraine and cluster headaches are severe and disabling. Migraine affects up to 18% of women, while cluster headaches are much less common (0.2% of the population). A number of acute and prophylactic therapies are available. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the therapeutic administration of 100% oxygen at environmental pressures greater than one atmosphere, while normobaric oxygen therapy (NBOT) is oxygen administered at one atmosphere. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 3, 2008 under the title 'Normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen for migraine and cluster headache'...
December 28, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Kadarkarai Murugan, Mathath Roni, Al Thabiani Aziz, Udaiyan Suresh, Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Pari Madhiyazhagan, Jayapal Subramaniam, Devakumar Dinesh, Marcello Nicoletti, Akon Higuchi, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Murugan A Munusamy, Suresh Kumar, Nicolas Desneux, Giovanni Benelli
Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine. There is an urgent need to investigate new and effective sources of antimalarial drugs. This research proposed a novel method of fern-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap plant extract of Pteridium aquilinum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
March 2016: Parasitology Research
Amégninou Mawuko Yao Adigo, Lama Kegdigoma Agoda-Kousséma, Ignéza Komi Agbotsou, Kokou Adambounou, Kpalma Duga Bakpatina-Batako, Oni Djagnikpo, Komlanvi Victor Adjénou
Cervicogenic headaches are a nosologic entity recently recognized. In our common practice, we have noticed a relative frequency of the atlas spina-bifida occulta during the brain CT scan realized for headaches without cranio-encephalic causes or any other anomaly of the upper cervical region. The aim of this study was to determine a possible connection between cervicogenic headaches (CEH) and atlas spina-bifida occulta. A 2 years prospective and descriptive study in 20 black patients having an atlas spina-bifida occulta diagnosed with a brain CT scan...
2015: SpringerPlus
Yang Jia, David L Harmon, Michael D Flythe, James L Klotz
It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isoflavones formononetin (F), biochanin A (B), or an ergovaline-containing tall fescue seed extract (EXT) and their combinations affect ergotamine (ERT)-induced contractility. Multiple segments of mesenteric artery and vein supporting the ileal flange of the small intestine were collected from Angus heifers at slaughter (n = 5, bodyweight = 639 ± 39 kg)...
2015: Frontiers in Nutrition
Anne Francke Christensen, Ann-Louise Esserlind, Thomas Werge, Hreinn Stefánsson, Kári Stefánsson, Jes Olesen
OBJECTIVE: Specific acute treatments of migraine are 5HT1B/D receptor agonists; triptans and ergotamine, but only two-thirds of patients respond well without side effects. No migraine-prophylactic drugs are specific to migraine. Prophylactic drugs are selected by time-consuming "trial and error." Personalized treatment is therefore much needed. The objective of this study was to test the effect of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with migraine on migraine drug responses...
June 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Beatriz Shand, Maria Teresa Goicochea, Raul Valenzuela, Ricardo Fadic, Rigmor Jensen, Cristina Tassorelli, Giuseppe Nappi
BACKGROUND: Data on the characteristics of Medication Overuse Headache (MOH) in Latin American (LA) are scarce. Here we report the demographic and clinical features of the MOH patients from Argentina and Chile enrolled in the multinational COMOESTAS project in the period 2008-2010. METHODS: The LA population was formed by 240 MOH subjects, 110 from Chile and 130 from Argentina, consecutively attending the local headache centres. In each centre, specifically trained neurologist interviewed and confirmed the diagnosis according to the ICHD-II criteria...
2015: Journal of Headache and Pain
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