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Immune reconstitutional syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762345/neutrophil-activation-and-enhanced-release-of-granule-products-in-hiv-tb-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-erratum
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749873/fatal-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-an-aids-patient-complicated-with-immune-reconstitution-syndrome-refractory-to-prolonged-amphotericin-b-treatment
#2
Thilinie D Bandaranayake, Onyema E Ogbuagu, Amit Mahajan, Alexander O Vortmeyer, Merceditas S Villanueva
Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous encapsulated environmental yeast that can cause severe central nervous system disease, primarily in immune compromised hosts. In patients with AIDS, the spectrum of cryptococcal central nervous system disease includes meningitis, cystic lesions, and mass-like cryptococcomas. We report a fatal case of meningitis and cerebritis caused by C. neoformans in an AIDS patient refractory to multiple courses of liposomal amphotericin B despite immune recovery with antiretroviral therapy...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727296/croi-2018-advances-in-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Hong-Van Tieu, Barbara S Taylor, Joyce Jones, Timothy J Wilkin
The 2018 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) showcased exciting data on new investigational agents including MK-8591 and tri-specific antibody targeting 3 highly conserved epitopes on HIV-1 in a single antibody. Clinical trials of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) and switch studies involving bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide were presented. Intensification of initial ART with integrase strand transfer inhibitors did not increase the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome...
May 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725611/fingolimod-associated-pml-with-mild-iris-in-ms-a-clinicopathologic-study
#4
Shuhei Nishiyama, Tatsuro Misu, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Yoshiki Takai, Kentarou Takei, Naoki Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kuroda, Ryuta Saito, Mika Watanabe, Teiji Tominaga, Ichiro Nakashima, Kazuo Fujihara, Masashi Aoki
Objective: To clarify the clinical, neuropathologic, and virologic characteristics of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and its immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a patient with fingolimod-treated MS. Methods: A case study. Results: A 34-year-old patient with MS using fingolimod for 4 years had a gradual progression of right hemiparesis and aphasia with a new subcortical white matter lesion in the precentral gyrus by initial MRI...
January 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694639/assessing-endocrine-and-immune-parameters-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-before-and-after-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#5
Liliana Rateni, Sergio Lupo, Liliana Racca, Jorge Palazzi, Sergio Ghersevich
Objective The present study compares immune and endocrine parameters between HIV-infected patients who underwent the Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS-P) during antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV-patients who did not undergo the syndrome (non-IRIS-P). Materials and methods Blood samples were obtained from 31 HIV-infected patients (15 IRIS-P and 16 non-IRIS-P) before ART (BT) and 48 ± 2 weeks after treatment initiation (AT). Plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-18 (IL-18) were determined by ELISA...
February 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685294/epstein-barr-virus-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-as-possible-cause-of-fulminant-multiple-sclerosis-relapse-after-natalizumab-interruption
#6
Barbara Serafini, Stephanie Zandee, Barbara Rosicarelli, Eleonora Scorsi, Caterina Veroni, Catherine Larochelle, Sandra D'Alfonso, Alexandre Prat, Francesca Aloisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670625/immunology-of-cryptococcal-infections-developing-a-rational-approach-to-patient-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Waleed Elsegeiny, Kieren A Marr, Peter R Williamson
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is responsible for upwards of 15% of HIV-related deaths worldwide and is currently the most common cause of non-viral meningitis in the US, affecting both previously healthy and people with immune suppression caused by cancer chemotherapy, transplantation, and biologic therapies. Despite a continued 30-50% attributable mortality, recommended therapeutic strategies have remained largely unchanged since the 1950s. Recent murine models and human studies examining the role of the immune system in both susceptibility to the infection as well as host damage have begun to influence patient care decisions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663282/the-frozen-brain-state-of-cryptococcus-gattii-a-globe-trotting-tropical-neurotropic-fungus
#8
Paul T Akins, Brian Jian
Initially reported in tropical regions, Cryptococcus gattii infection is now diagnosed globally. METHODS: case report; Literature review. Although initial reports described outbreaks of pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) disease in tropical regions such as Australia and New Guinea, it is now clear that Cryptococcus gattii is a global, neurotropic pathogen. In contrast with C. neoformans, C. gattii patients are more likely to present with cryptococcomas in the brain and lungs and are often HIV negative...
April 16, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643006/cerebellar-degeneration-and-progressive-ataxia-associated-with-hiv-virus-infection
#9
José Luiz Pedroso, Thiago Cardoso Vale, Maria Thereza Drumond Gama, Gustavo Ribas, Julio C G Kristochik, Francisco M B Germiniani, Maria Cristina Domingues da Silva Fink, Augusto Cesar Penalva de Oliveira, Helio A G Teive, Orlando G Barsottini
INTRODUCTION: The spectrum of neurologic disorders associated with HIV infection is very broad, resulting from direct virus invasion, opportunistic infections, malignancies and toxic effects of drugs. METHODS: Among a large cohort of ataxia patients (N = 1050) evaluated between 2008 and 2017, we detected four patients with HIV-infection who developed a pure progressive cerebellar ataxia syndrome combined with cerebellar atrophy. RESULTS: Adverse drug effects, opportunistic infections and malignancies as well as immune-reconstitution syndrome were ruled out based on history and laboratory data...
April 5, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604982/hiv-neuropathology
#10
Susan Morgello
Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neuropathologies can affect all levels of the neuraxis and occur in all stages of natural history disease. Some, like HIV encephalitis, HIV myelitis, and diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis of peripheral nerve, reflect productive infection of the nervous system; others, like vacuolar myelopathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, and central and peripheral nervous system demyelination, are not clearly related to regional viral replication, and reflect more complex cascades of dysregulated host immunity and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604974/cns-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#11
Lauren Bowen, Avindra Nath, Bryan Smith
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) describes a syndrome of aberrant reconstituted immunity, often in association with HIV infection, beginning with a normalization of CD4+ T-cell counts resulting in a dysregulated immune response against an infecting opportunistic pathogen and the host. In this chapter, we discuss the unique nature of IRIS when present in the central nervous system (CNS IRIS) and the changes experienced with each host pathogen and its unique influence on the immune system. Consensus on the mechanism of action of the immune system in IRIS pathology is less clear and multiple theories have been proposed...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604972/cryptococcal-meningitis-in-aids
#12
Andrej Spec, William G Powderly
Cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality amongst patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The prevalence in the developed world has decreased as HIV is being diagnosed earlier, but is still significant, and the prevalence in resource-limited settings is exceedingly high. The presenting symptoms usually include a headache, fever, and, less often, cranial nerve abnormalities. Space-occupying lesions do occur, but are rare. Once diagnosed, patients should be treated with a combination of amphotericin and flucytosine, with step-down therapy to fluconazole for a minimum of a year, or until the CD4 count is above 100 cells/μL, whichever is longer...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604971/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#13
Shaun Zhai, Bruce James Brew
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a relatively common complication of HIV disease. In this chapter changes to the epidemiology are discussed along with an update in its pathogenesis and treatment. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is increasingly frequent in PML; accordingly management strategies and prognosis are detailed.
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604970/central-nervous-system-infection-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#14
Christina M Marra
Central nervous system infection by Toxoplasma gondii, or Toxoplasma encephalitis, is the most common cause of brain mass lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It usually presents as one or more brain abscesses, but it can also cause a diffuse encephalitis or ventriculitis. Individuals who are Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G-seropositive, who have peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell concentrations below 200/μL, are not on antiretroviral therapy, and are not taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia, are at particular risk for Toxoplasma encephalitis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593721/vitamin-d-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-influence-on-immunity-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
María Ángeles Jiménez-Sousa, Isidoro Martínez, Luz María Medrano, Amanda Fernández-Rodríguez, Salvador Resino
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection typically have hypovitaminosis D, which is linked to a large number of pathologies, including immune disorders and infectious diseases. Vitamin D (VitD) is a key regulator of host defense against infections by activating genes and pathways that enhance innate and adaptive immunity. VitD mediates its biological effects by binding to the Vitamin D receptor (VDR), and activating and regulating multiple cellular pathways. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes from those pathways have been associated with protection from HIV-1 infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574652/extracorporeal-life-support-for-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-hiv-patients-with-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia
#16
Kollengode Ramanathan, Julian K Svasti, Graeme MacLaren
Patients with immunosuppression from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been traditionally considered poor candidates for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) because of high in-hospital mortality and poor long-term survival. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved survival rates in compliant HIV patients and reversible severe respiratory failure may warrant ECMO in this group. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) involves excessive inflammatory response to a pathogen with paradoxical clinical deterioration following HAART initiation and may present as severe respiratory failure...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569815/paradoxical-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-disseminated-tuberculosis-infection-in-an-unrelated-donor-cord-blood-transplant-recipient
#17
Yeon Joo Lee, Melissa Bacchus, Elizabeth Schmidt, Mohit Chawla, Juliet N Barker, Genovefa A Papanicolaou
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infrequent infection after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), with associated mortality up to 30%. The utility of universal screening for latent TB in HCT candidates is controversial due to the lack of sensitive screening tests. We describe a case of disseminated TB infection complicated by immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an adult double unit umbilical cord blood transplant recipient who originated from the United Arab Emirates.
March 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567430/ipex-due-to-an-exon-7-skipping-foxp3-mutation-with-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus-cured-by-selective-t-reg-cell-engraftment
#18
Thomas Magg, Volker Wiebking, Raffaele Conca, Stefan Krebs, Stefan Arens, Irene Schmid, Christoph Klein, Michael H Albert, Fabian Hauck
Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a rare inherited disorder leading to severe organ-specific autoimmunity. IPEX is caused by hemizygous mutations in FOXP3, which codes for a master transcription factor of regulatory T (TReg ) cell development and function. We describe a four-year-old boy with typical but slightly delayed-onset of IPEX with autoimmune diabetes mellitus, enteropathy, hepatitis and skin disease. We found the unreported FOXP3 splice site mutation c...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561424/nonopportunistic-infection-leading-to-rapidly-progressive-dementia-in-a-patient-with-hiv-aids-a-case-report
#19
Johannes Eimer, Jan Vesterbacka, Irina Savitcheva, Rayomand Press, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Piotr Nowak
RATIONALE: Cognitive dysfunction is a common presenting symptom in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is usually directly associated with HIV infection or due to opportunistic infection. Rapidly progressive dementia, however, is rarely observed in acute HIV infection or during immune reconstitution. Recently, a case of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) has been reported in a patient with chronic HIV infection. The incidence of CJD is not known to be increased among immunocompromised patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting with secondary behavioral changes and disorientation...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545423/disseminated-tuberculous-lymphadenitis-presenting-as-cervical-mass-in-patient-with-hiv-infection-worsening-after-antiretroviral-initiation-diagnosis-and-treatment-challenges
#20
Alain Bruno Tagne Nouemssi
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to represent an important public health challenge in the world and the USA, especially given its association with HIV infection and population migration. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis represents the most common extrapulmonary presentation of TB in the USA. Considerations for other causes of neck mass often contribute to delay in diagnosis. In this report, we describe the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with painful swelling of the neck and was diagnosed with tuberculous lymphadenitis, complicated by HIV therapy-associated immune reconstitution syndrome...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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