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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324811/serum-acute-phase-response-induced-by-different-vaccination-protocols-against-circovirus-type-2-and-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-in-piglets
#1
Iván Hernández-Caravaca, Sebastian Figueras Gourgues, Víctor Rodríguez, Edgar Díaz Estrada, José J Cerón, Damián Escribano
The purpose of this study was to compare the acute phase reaction (APR) induced by different vaccination protocols used against Porcine Circovirus (PCV) type-2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M.hyo), studying two acute phase proteins (APPs) and changes in rectal temperature (RT). In addition, the possible influence of the time of vaccination and breed were analysed. In the first experiment, 40 commercial crossbred piglets were vaccinated, on the day of weaning, with FLEXcombo® (group A, n=20) or Porcilis PCV® and Stellamune® One (group B, n=20)...
March 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324248/incorporation-of-flaxseed-flour-as-a-dietary-source-for-ala-increases-bone-density-and-strength-in-post-partum-female-rats
#2
Danielle Cavalcante Ribeiro, Aline D'Avila Pereira, Fernanda Carvalho de Santana, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Eduardo Moreira da Silva, Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa, Gilson Teles Boaventura
In women, bone mass undergoes changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period, which has a risk for subsequent development of osteoporosis. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of flaxseed flour in femur quality during post-weaning of dam rats. After weaning, the rats were divided into control (C, n = 7) and experimental (F, n = 7) groups treated with a diet containing 25 g of flaxseed flour in the lactating period and 15 g in the maintenance period. After 51 days post-partum, serum hormone, fatty acids composition, bone compartments, computed tomography, and biomechanical analyses were determined...
March 21, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324207/fructooligosaccharide-intake-promotes-epigenetic-changes-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-in-growing-and-ageing-rats
#3
Glaucia Carielo Lima, Vivian Cristine Correa Vieira, Cinthia Baú Betim Cazarin, Rafaela da Rosa Ribeiro, Stanislau Bogusz Junior, Cibele Lima de Albuquerque, Ramon Oliveira Vidal, Claudia Cardoso Netto, Áureo Tatsumi Yamada, Fabio Augusto, Mário Roberto Maróstica Junior
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fructooligosaccharide (FOS) intake at different life stages of Wistar rats and its stimulatory effects on intestinal parameters. METHODS: Recently weaned and ageing female rats were divided into growing and ageing treatments, which were fed diets that partially replaced sucrose with FOS for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Dietary FOS intake induced a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in growing rats...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324105/thyroid-hormone-dependent-epigenetic-regulation-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-levels-in-female-offspring-of-obese-rats
#4
T Tabachnik, T Kisliouk, A Marco, N Meiri, A Weller
Maternal obesity is a risk factor for offspring obesity. Melanocortin 4 receptor (Mc4r) is one of the mediators of food intake and energy balance. This study examines epigenetic mechanisms underlying altered Mc4r levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in offspring of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese dams, and aims to elucidate the role of thyroid hormones in epigenetic regulation and tagging of their nucleosome at the Mc4r promoter. Female Wistar rats were fed HFD or chow from weaning through gestation and lactation...
January 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324067/gestational-protein-restriction-impairs-glucose-disposal-in-the-gastrocnemius-muscles-of-female-rats
#5
C S Blesson, V Chinnathambi, S Kumar, C Yallampalli
Gestational low protein (LP) diet causes hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in adult offspring but the mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we explored the role of insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP exposed female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery. Normal diet was given to mothers after delivery and to pups after weaning until necropsy. Offspring were euthanized at 4 months and gastrocnemius muscles were treated with insulin ex vivo for 30 min...
January 30, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319268/developmental-changes-in-feeding-behaviors-of-infant-chimpanzees-at-mahale-tanzania-implications-for-nutritional-independence-long-before-cessation-of-nipple-contact
#6
Takuya Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: Weaning of chimpanzees is considered to occur at 4-5-years-old with complete cessation of nipple contact and timing of reconception calculated by inter-birth interval minus gestation length. This is also the basis of "early weaning" in humans (i.e., approximately 2.5-years-old). However, recent studies of the survival of orphans and the first molar (M1) eruption in wild chimpanzees have predicted that infants move toward nutritional independence at 3-years-old. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate ontogeny of feeding behavior at around 3-years-old in wild infant chimpanzees...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318464/effects-of-a-dietary-crude-fibre-concentrate-on-growth-in-weaned-piglets
#7
P Superchi, R Saleri, P Borghetti, G Ferrarini, V Cavalli, M Sereni, S Zavattini, A Sabbioni
Many fibre sources can help the adaptation of piglets at weaning, improving the growth. In this study, the effects of a dietary crude fibre concentrate (CFC) on piglet's growth was investigated. From 31 to 51 days of age, 108 weaned piglets (D×(Lw×L)), had access to two isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets, supplemented with 1% of CFC (CFC group) or not (control (CON) group). From days 52 to 64 all piglets received the same starter diet. During the dietary treatment period the CFC group showed higher average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed efficiency (P<0...
March 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315940/a-multi-faceted-strategy-to-reduce-ventilation-associated-mortality-in-brain-injured-patients-the-bi-vili-project-a-nationwide-quality-improvement-project
#8
Karim Asehnoune, Ségolène Mrozek, Pierre François Perrigault, Philippe Seguin, Claire Dahyot-Fizelier, Sigismond Lasocki, Anne Pujol, Mathieu Martin, Russel Chabanne, Laurent Muller, Jean Luc Hanouz, Emmanuelle Hammad, Bertrand Rozec, Thomas Kerforne, Carole Ichai, Raphael Cinotti, Thomas Geeraerts, Djillali Elaroussi, Paolo Pelosi, Samir Jaber, Marie Dalichampt, Fanny Feuillet, Véronique Sebille, Antoine Roquilly
PURPOSE: We assessed outcomes in brain-injured patients after implementation of a multi-faceted approach to reduce respiratory complications in intensive care units. METHODS: Prospective nationwide before-after trial. Consecutive adults with acute brain injury requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥24 h in 20 French intensive care units (ICUs) were included. The management of invasive ventilation in brain-injured patients admitted between 1 July 2013 and 31 October 2013 (4 months) was monitored and analysed...
March 18, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#9
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315651/what-goes-around-can-come-around-an-unexpected-deleterious-effect-of-using-mouse-running-wheels-for-environmental-enrichment
#10
Renee Y M Leduc, Gail Rauw, Glen B Baker, Heather E McDermid
Environmental enrichment items such as running wheels can promote the wellbeing of laboratory mice. Growing evidence suggests that wheel running simulates exercise effects in many mouse models of human conditions, but this activity also might change other aspects of mouse behavior. In this case study, we show that the presence of running wheels leads to pronounced and permanent circling behavior with route-tracing in a proportion of the male mice of a genetically distinct cohort. The genetic background of this cohort includes a mutation in Arhgap19, but genetic crosses showed that an unknown second-site mutation likely caused the induced circling behavior...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315650/retrospective-analysis-of-reproductive-performance-of-pair-bred-compared-with-trio-bred-mice
#11
Katherine Wasson
Federal guidelines provide recommendations regarding the minimum of floor space that should be allotted for breeding laboratory rodents. Mouse mating systems used by a variety of institutions frequently deviate from these recommendations. Regulatory agencies suggest that deviations from established guidelines should be assessed on an institutional basis and recommend periodic review by the local IACUC. Mouse breeding data, collected in a laboratory animal management software program at a single institution, were retrospectively analyzed to determine the effects of 2 breeding schemes on reproductive performance...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304319/a-case-of-infant-delirium-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#12
L E Edwards, L B Hutchison, C D Hornik, P B Smith, C M Cotten, M Bidegain
Infant delirium is an under-recognized clinical entity in neonatal intensive care, and earlier identification and treatment could minimize morbidities associated with this condition. We describe a case of a 6-month-old former 32 weeks gestation infant undergoing a prolonged mechanical ventilation course diagnosed with delirium related to the combination of his underlying illness and the use of multiple sedative and analgesic mediations. Initiation of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone allowed for weaning from continuous infusions of benzodiazepines and opiods, and lower dosages of bolus-dosed sedation and analgesics...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303977/assessment-of-knowledge-and-practices-about-breastfeeding-and-weaning-among-working-and-non-working-mothers
#13
Asif Khaliq, Mehak Qamar, Syed Abdullah Hussaini, Kiran Azam, Nosheen Zehra, Mujtaba Hussain, Huzaifa Ali Jaliawala
OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and practices of working and non-working mothers regarding breastfeeding and weaning. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involving working and non-working mothers was conducted from May 2015 to May 2016 at different hospitals of Karachi. Data was collected from women who had at least one child aged below 5 years and who had previously breastfed their child. Non-probability quota sampling technique was used. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301546/five-decades-on-use-of-historical-weaning-size-data-reveals-that-a-decrease-in-maternal-foraging-success-underpins-the-long-term-decline-in-population-of-southern-elephant-seals-mirounga-leonina
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299849/erythrocyte-osmotic-fragility-and-general-health-status-of-adolescent-sprague-dawley-rats-supplemented-with-hibiscus-sabdariffa-aqueous-calyx-extracts-as-neonates-followed-by-a-high-fructose-diet-post-weaning
#15
K G Ibrahim, B W Lembede, E Chivandi, K Erlwanger
High-fructose diets (HFD) can cause oxidative damage to tissues including erythrocyte cell membranes. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has protective antioxidant properties. Rats were used to investigate whether the consumption of HS by neonates would result in long-term effects on their erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) and general health when later fed a high-fructose diet post-weaning through adolescence. Eighty of four-day-old Sprague Dawley rat pups were divided randomly into three treatment groups. The controls (n = 27) received distilled water at 10 ml/kg b...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299836/involvement-of-pka-signalling-in-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-chitosan-oligosaccharides-in-ipec-j2-porcine-epithelial-cells
#16
J W Yang, G Tian, D W Chen, Y Yao, J He, P Zheng, X B Mao, J Yu, Z Q Huang, B Yu
Weaning is characterized by intestinal inflammation, which is a big challenge in pig industry. Control of intestinal inflammation is important for improvement of growth performance and health. Therefore, the study was focused on the anti-inflammatory activity of low-molecular-weight chitosan oligosaccharide (LCOS) in a porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). The results showed that TNF-α, as inflammation inducer, significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of IL-8 and MCP-1. Afterwards, LCOS significantly attenuated mRNA expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 induced by TNF-α in the cells...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298634/weaning-age-influences-the-severity-of-gastrointestinal-microbiome-shifts-in-dairy-calves
#17
S J Meale, S C Li, P Azevedo, H Derakhshani, T J DeVries, J C Plaizier, M A Steele, E Khafipour
Ruminants microbial consortium is responsible for ruminal fermentation, a process which converts fibrous feeds unsuitable for human consumption into desirable dairy and meat products, begins to establish soon after birth. However, it undergoes a significant transition when digestion shifts from the lower intestine to ruminal fermentation. We hypothesised that delaying the transition from a high milk diet to an exclusively solid food diet (weaning) would lessen the severity of changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome during this transition...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297802/-influence-of-high-fat-diet-in-paternal-c57bl-6-mice-on-liver-fat-deposition-in-offspring
#18
J Zhang, H G Li, L Fu, F S Di
Objective: To investigate the influence of high-fat diet (HFD) in paternal C57BL/6 mice on HFD-induced liver fat deposition in male offspring, as well as transgenerational inheritance caused by paternal HFD and related mechanisms. Methods: A total of 20 male C57BL/6 mice aged 3 weeks (F0) were randomly divided into normal control group (C, 10 mice) and HFD group (HF, 10 mice). After 12 weeks of HFD intervention, the male mice in the HFD group mated with female ones treated with normal diet and pups were obtained...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296236/development-of-the-endocrine-pancreas-in-the-beagle-dog-from-fetal-to-adult-life
#19
Emilie Bricout-Neveu, Severine Pechberty, Karine Reynaud, Cindy Maenhoudt, Marie José Lecomte, Philippe Ravassard, Paul Czernichow
Our objectives were to describe, in Beagle dogs, the ontogenesis of beta (insulin-producing) and alpha (glucagon-producing) cells from fetal to early postnatal life and adulthood. In addition, to have some insight into interspecies comparison, Beagle dog pancreases were compared to pancreases from a Labrador and Chow Chow. At midgestation, the epithelium was dense, beta cells scarce, and alpha cells numerous and concentrated in the center of the pancreatic bud. From 36 to 45 days post conception (pc), beta cell numbers increased and the epithelium expanded and branched out...
March 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296079/magel2-knockout-mice-manifest-altered-social-phenotypes-and-a-deficit-in-preference-for-social-novelty
#20
Michael D Fountain, Huifang Tao, Chun-An Chen, Jiani Yin, Christian P Schaaf
MAGEL2 is one of five protein-coding, maternally imprinted, paternally expressed genes in the Prader-Willi syndrome-critical domain on chromosome 15q11-q13. Truncating pathogenic variants of MAGEL2 cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome (OMIM #615547), a neurodevelopmental disorder related to Prader-Willi syndrome. Affected individuals manifest a spectrum of neurocognitive and behavioral phenotypes, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Magel2 knockout mice carrying a maternally inherited, imprinted wildtype allele and a paternally inherited Magel2-lacZ knock-in allele, which abolishes endogenous Magel2 gene function, exhibit several features reminiscent of the human Prader-Willi phenotypes, including neonatal growth retardation, excessive weight gain after weaning, and increased adiposity in adulthood...
March 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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