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Stephanie A Segovia, Mark H Vickers, Claudia J Harrison, Rachna Patel, Clint Gray, Clare M Reynolds
Maternal high-fat or high-salt diets can independently program adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining their effects in combination on metabolic function in adult offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either: control (CD; 10% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl), high-salt (SD; 10% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl), high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl) or high-fat and salt (HFSD; 45% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl) diets 21 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Yue Li, Hao Zhang, Weipeng Su, Zhixiong Ying, Yueping Chen, Lili Zhang, Zhaoxin Lu, Tian Wang
Background: The focus of recent research has been directed toward the probiotic potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) on the gut health of animals. However, little is known about BA's effects on piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of BA supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, inflammatory response, and microbiota of IUGR piglets. Methods: Eighteen litters of newborn piglets were selected at birth, with one normal birth weight (NBW) and two IUGR piglets in each litter (i...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Omolara R Adegbanke, Toluwase A Dada, Stephen A Akinola, Temitope Akintuyi
Weaning food was produced from the blends of sprouted and unsprouted sorghum-Irish potato, and groundnut flour. In the developed weaning foods, moisture content ranged from 8.44% to 12.70%, crude protein (7.40%-14.53%) crude ash (1.53%-1.77%), crude fiber (6.65%-6.88%), crude fat (3.31%-3.73%) and carbohydrate content (65.10%-69.15%). Sprouting and protein supplementation with groundnut improved the protein content of the formulated meals with values comparable to commercial sample (cereals). Mineral content reduced with sprouting, whereas the addition of Irish potato and groundnut increased the mineral content...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Xiyuan Zhang, Guanying Bianca Xu, Dan Zhou, Yuan-Xiang Pan
Background: Liver is the crucial organ as a hub for metabolic reactions. p16(INK4a) is a well-established cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that plays important role in the molecular pathways of senescence, which lead to irreversible cell cycle arrest with secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial dysfunction. This study tested the hypothesis that cellular senescence regulated by p16(INK4a) is associated with high-fat diet in adult male rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (C) diet for 9 weeks after weaning...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Rahul S Nanchal, Jonathon D Truwit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Respiratory Care
Paul McGreevy, Jeannine Berger, Nic de Brauwere, Orla Doherty, Anna Harrison, Julie Fiedler, Claudia Jones, Sue McDonnell, Andrew McLean, Lindsay Nakonechny, Christine Nicol, Liane Preshaw, Peter Thomson, Vicky Tzioumis, John Webster, Sarah Wolfensohn, James Yeates, Bidda Jones
The aim of this study was to conduct a series of paper-based exercises in order to assess the negative (adverse) welfare impacts, if any, of common interventions on domestic horses across a broad range of different contexts of equine care and training. An international panel (with professional expertise in psychology, equitation science, veterinary science, education, welfare, equestrian coaching, advocacy, and community engagement; n = 16) met over a four-day period to define and assess these interventions, using an adaptation of the domain-based assessment model...
March 18, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Hollie Ringrose, Mary Brown, Krystyna Walton, Manoj Sivan
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation following severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) often involves the use of temporary tracheostomies. Tracheostomy weaning is influenced by physiological parameters, which are abnormal in the concomitant complication of Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity (PSH). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between PSH and tracheostomy weaning in severe TBI. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with TBI and tracheostomy admitted to a Hyper-Acute Neurorehabilitation Unit over a 34-month period...
2018: NeuroRehabilitation
Shuting Cao, Huan Wu, ChunChun Wang, Qianhui Zhang, Lefei Jiao, Fanghui Lin, Caihong Hu
In the present study, we investigated the influence of diquat-induced oxidative stress on intestinal barrier, mitochondrial function and the level of mitophagy in piglets. Twelve male Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire 35-d-old pigs (weaned at 21d of age), with an average body of 9.6 kg, were allotted to two treatments of six piglets each including the challenged group and the control group. The challenged pigs were injected with 100 mg/kg bodyweight diquat and control pigs injected with 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution. The results showed that diquat injection decreased average daily feed intake and average daily gain...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jiali Chen, Yan Li, Bing Yu, Daiwen Chen, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Junqiu Luo, Jun He
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural phenolic acid, which is an important component of biologically active dietary phenols isolated from various species. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CGA on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, nutrient digestibility, diarrhea incidence, intestinal digestion and absorption function, and the expression levels of intestinal digestion and absorption-related genes in weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 200 weaned pigs were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg CGA, respectively, in a 14-d trial...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
K M Gourley, J C Woodworth, J M DeRouchey, S S Dritz, M D Tokach, R D Goodband
A total of 288 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 11.1 ± 0.1 kg, and day 40 of age) were used in a 21-d growth trial to determine the available P (aP) release curve for a novel source of 6-phytase (Natuphos E 5,000 G; BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ). Natuphos E is a bacterial derived 6-phytase of which the phytase gene is assembled from a hybrid of phytase-producing bacteria and produced through the fermentation of Aspergillus niger. Pigs were randomly allotted to pens at weaning. From day 15 to 18 postweaning, a common corn-soybean meal diet containing 0...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
M Vázquez-Gómez, C García-Contreras, L Torres-Rovira, S Astiz, C Óvilo, A González-Bulnes, B Isabel
Background: The aim of this study was to determine how maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and offspring birth-weight can affect the postnatal development of offspring under farm conditions, which may lead to consequences in its meat and carcass quality. The current study involved a total of 80 litters from Iberian sows fed a diet fulfilling daily requirements ( n  = 47; control) or providing 70% daily requirements ( n  = 33; underfed) from d 38 to d 90 of gestation when fetal tissue development begins...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Feifei Z Williams, Atul Vats, Thomas Cash, James D Fortenberry
Respiratory failure associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been considered a contraindication for use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at many centers. We describe a child with neuroblastoma and hypoxemic respiratory failure following HSCT who was successfully managed with veno-venous (VV) ECMO. The patient was an 18-month-old female with high-risk neuroblastoma status post tumor resection, chemotherapy, autologous HSCT, and primary site radiation. On day 113 posttransplant while receiving maintenance immunotherapy, she had an acute respiratory decompensation because of rhinovirus, aspiration pneumonia, and capillary leak syndrome...
March 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Iosif Gulkarov, James Schiffenhaus, Ivan Wong, Ashwad Afzal, Felix Khusid, Berhane Worku
Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is an invaluable rescue therapy for patients suffering from cardiopulmonary arrest, but it is not without its drawbacks. There are cases where patients recover their cardiac function, yet they fail to wean to mechanical conventional ventilation (MCV). The use of high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) has been described in patients with acute respiratory failure (RF) who fail MCV. We describe our experience with five patients who underwent VA-ECMO for cardiopulmonary arrest who were successfully weaned from VA-ECMO with HFPV after failure to wean with MCV...
March 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Nathanael J Yates, Dijana Tesic, Kirk W Feindel, Jeremy T Smith, Michael W Clarke, Celeste Wale, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Caitlin S Wyrwoll
Early life vitamin D plays a prominent role in neurodevelopment and subsequent brain function, including schizophrenic-like outcomes and increasing evidence for an association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigate how early life vitamin D deficiency during rat pregnancy and lactation alters maternal care and influences neurodevelopment and affective, cognitive and social behaviours in male adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on either a vitamin D control (2195 IU/kg) or deficient diet (0 IU/kg) for five weeks before timed mating, and diet exposure was maintained until weaning of offspring on postnatal day (PND) 23...
May 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Caroline Jacobson, Rongchang Yang, Andrew Williams, Graham E Gardner, Ian Carmichael, Angus J D Campbell, Una Ryan
Associations between faecal shedding of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (based on the yst virulence gene) with growth, carcass weight and diarrhoea were investigated using an observational longitudinal study of 1200 crossbred prime (meat) lambs on eight Australian farms. Live weight, breech faecal soiling score (scale 1-5) and faecal consistency score (FCS; scale 1-5) were recorded, and faecal samples collected from each lamb on three sampling occasions; weaning (≈12 weeks of age), post-weaning (≈19 weeks) and pre-slaughter (≈29 weeks)...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
G G Ribeiro, L R Pessôa, M D C de Abreu, L B N S Corrêa, A D'Avila Pereira, M A Chagas, F Z Brandão, C A S da Costa, G T Boaventura
This study evaluated the effects of diet containing taro flour on hormone levels and the seminiferous tubules morphology of rats. After weaning, the male rats were divided into two groups (n=12 each): control group (CG) treated with control diet and taro group (TG), fed with 25% taro flour for 90 days. Food, caloric intake, mass and body length were evaluated at experiment end. Testis followed the standard histological processing. Immunostaining was performed using an anti-vimentin antibody to identify Sertoli cells...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Martin Dres, Alexandre Demoule
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2018. Other selected articles can be found online at . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from .
March 20, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Pedro Taffarel, German Bonetto, Facundo Jorro Barón, Claudia Meregalli
INTRODUCTION: Children in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) are exposed to experiencing pain, stress and anxiety due to their disease, treatment or care setting. Adequate sedation and analgesia are key to their care, particularly in patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). OBJECTIVE: To determine the usual practice in sedation and analgesia management in patients requiring MV in PICUs in Argentina. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive, crosssectional, multi-center study conducted by means of e-mailed surveys...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Atul Palkar, Paul Mayo, Karan Singh, Seth Koenig, Mangala Narasimhan, Anup Singh, Rivkah Darabaner, Harly Greenberg, Eric Gottesman
INTRODUCTION: Diaphragm excursion and contraction velocity measured using ultrasonography have been used to assess diaphragm function. We aimed to evaluate the performance of diaphragm ultrasonography during weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: Diaphragm ultrasonography was performed on 73 mechanically ventilated patients who were being considered for extubation on three separate occasions: (1) on assist control mode (A/C) during consistent patient triggered ventilation, (2) following 30 min during a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), (3) 4-24 h following extubation...
March 19, 2018: Lung
Patricia Cristine Borck, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Renato Chaves Souto Branco, Thiago Martins Batista, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Vanessa Yumi Nakanishi, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
The sulfur-containing amino acid, taurine (Tau), regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis under normal, pre- and diabetic conditions. Here, we aimed to verify whether Tau supplementation exerts its beneficial effects against obesity, hyperglycemia and alterations in islet functions, in leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob), over a long period of treatment. From weaning until 12 months of age, female ob/ob mice received, or not, 5% Tau in drinking water (obTau group). After this period, a reduction in hypertriglyceridemia and an improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were observed in obTau mice...
March 19, 2018: Amino Acids
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