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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334407/organismal-and-spatial-partitioning-of-energy-and-macronutrient-transformations-within-a-hypersaline-mat
#1
Jennifer M Mobberley, Stephen R Lindemann, Hans C Bernstein, James J Moran, Ryan S Renslow, Jerome Babauta, Dehong Hu, Haluk Beyenal, William C Nelson
Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms, however little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity, and metabolic gradient measurements...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330953/your-mitochondria-are-what-you-eat-a-high-fat-or-a-high-sucrose-diet-eliminates-metabolic-flexibility-in-isolated-mitochondria-from-rat-skeletal-muscle
#2
Wenche Jørgensen, Kasper A Rud, Ole H Mortensen, Lis Frandsen, Niels Grunnet, Bjørn Quistorff
Extreme diets consisting of either high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) may lead to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not known if these diets alter normal interactions of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation at the level of the mitochondria. Here, we report that rat muscle mitochondria does show the normal Randle-type fat-carbohydrate interaction seen in vivo. The mechanism behind this metabolic flexibility at the level of the isolated mitochondria is a regulation of the flux-ratio: pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)/β-oxidation to suit the actual substrate availability, with the PDH flux as the major point of regulation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324055/substrate-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity-during-fasting-in-obese-human-subjects-impact-of-gh-blockade
#3
Morten Høgild Pedersen, Mads Vandsted Svart, Janne Lebeck, Martin Bidlingmaier, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen, Niels Møller, Niels Jessen, Jens O L Jørgensen
Context: Insulin resistance and metabolic inflexibility are features of obesity and are amplified by fasting. GH secretion increases during fasting and GH causes insulin resistance. Objective: To study the metabolic effects of GH blockade during fasting in obese subjects. Subjects and Methods: Nine obese males were studied thrice in a randomized design: 1) After an overnight fast (Control), 2) After 72 h fasting (Fasting) and 3) After 72 h fasting with GH blockade (pegvisomant) (Fasting + GHA)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323066/development-of-an-economical-autonomous-phstat-system-for-culturing-phytoplankton-under-steady-state-or-dynamic-conditions
#4
Rachel L Golda, Mark D Golda, Jacqueline A Hayes, Tawnya D Peterson, Joseph A Needoba
Laboratory investigations of physiological processes in phytoplankton require precise control of experimental conditions. Chemostats customized to control and maintain stable pH levels (pHstats) are ideally suited for investigations of the effects of pH on phytoplankton physiology, for example in context of ocean acidification. Here we designed and constructed a simple, flexible pHstat system and demonstrated its operational capabilities under laboratory culture conditions. In particular, the system is useful for simulating natural cyclic pH variability within aquatic ecosystems, such as diel fluctuations that result from metabolic activity or tidal mixing in estuaries...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321369/developmental-and-loco-like-effects-of-a-swainsonine-induced-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-mannosidase-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#5
Laura Wedd, Regan Ashby, Sylvain Foret, Ryszard Maleszka
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies in lysosomal a-mannosidase (LAM) activity in animals, caused either by mutations or by consuming toxic alkaloids, lead to severe phenotypic and behavioural consequences. Yet, epialleles adversely affecting LAM expression exist in the honey bee population suggesting that they might be beneficial in certain contexts and cannot be eliminated by natural selection. METHODS: We have used a combination of enzymology, molecular biology and metabolomics to characterise the catalytic properties of honey bee LAM (AmLAM) and then used an indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine to inhibit its activity in vitro and in vivo...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319853/caloric-dose-responsive-genes-in-blood-cells-differentiate-the-metabolic-status-of-obese-men
#6
Doreen Gille, Nadine Zangger, Charlotte Soneson, Ueli Bütikofer, Mauro Delorenzi, Flurina Schwander, Katrin A Kopf-Bolanz, Magali Chollet, Barbara Walther, Kurt Laederach, Guy Vergères
We have investigated the postprandial transcriptional response of blood cells to increasing caloric doses of a meal challenge to test whether the dynamic response of the human organism to the ingestion of food is dependent on metabolic health. The randomized crossover study included seven normal weight and seven obese men consuming three doses (500/1000/1500 kcal) of a high-fat meal. The blood cell transcriptome was measured before and 2, 4, and 6 h after meal ingestion (168 samples). We applied univariate and multivariate statistics to investigate differentially expressed genes in both study groups...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299798/sterol-glycosyltransferases-required-for-adaptation-of-withania-somnifera-at-high-temperature
#7
Gaurav Singh, Manish Tiwari, Surendra Pratap Singh, Ruchi Singh, Surendra Singh, Pramod Arvind Shirke, Prabodh K Trivedi, Pratibha Misra
Heat is a major environmental stress factor that confines growth, productivity, and metabolism of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable conditions through changes in their physiological, biochemical and developmental processes. Withania somnifera, an important medicinal plant, grows in hot and dry conditions, however, molecular mechanisms related to such adaptive properties are not known. Here, we elucidated that members of the SGT gene family play important roles in the survival of W. somnifera under adverse conditions through maintaining the integrity of the membrane...
March 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290506/high-binding-affinity-of-repressor-iolr-avoids-costs-of-untimely-induction-of-myo-inositol-utilization-by-salmonella-typhimurium
#8
Jessica Hellinckx, Ralf Heermann, Angela Felsl, Thilo M Fuchs
Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 with myo-inositol (MI) is characterized by a bistable phenotype that manifests with an extraordinarily long (34 h) and variable lag phase. When cells were pre-grown in minimal medium with MI, however, the lag phase shortened drastically to eight hours, and to six hours in the absence of the regulator IolR. To unravel the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon, we investigated this repressor in more detail. Flow cytometry analysis of the iolR promoter at a single cell level demonstrated bistability of its transcriptional activation...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287907/relationship-between-types-of-exercise-and-quality-of-life-in-a-korean-metabolic-syndrome-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Sang Ho Oh, Sun Han Son, Si Hyun Kang, Don-Kyu Kim, Kyung Mook Seo, Sang Yoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) significantly correlates with exercise. MetS also has an independent and inverse correlation to quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have examined the association between exercise and QoL in people with MetS. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationship between exercise and QoL in a MetS population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using public data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2014 (n = 7550)...
March 13, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287527/examination-of-host-phenotypes-in-gambusia-affinis-following-antibiotic-treatment
#10
Jeanette M Carlson, Oscar Chavez, Sonali Aggarwal, Todd P Primm
The commonality of antibiotic usage in medicine means that understanding the resulting consequences to the host is vital. Antibiotics often decrease host microbiome community diversity and alter the microbial community composition. Many diseases such as antibiotic-associated enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic disorders have been linked to a disrupted microbiota. The complex interplay between host, microbiome, and antibiotics needs a tractable model for studying host-microbiome interactions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286167/fermentative-production-of-butanol-perspectives-on-synthetic-biology
#11
REVIEW
Sonil Nanda, Dasantila Golemi-Kotra, John C McDermott, Ajay K Dalai, Iskender Gökalp, Janusz A Kozinski
Apprehensions relating to global warming, climate change, pollution, rising energy demands as well as fluctuating crude oil prices and supply are leading to a shift in global interest to find suitable alternatives to fossil fuels. This review aims to highlight the many different facets of biobutanol as an advanced next-generation transportation biofuel. Butanol has fuel properties almost on a par with gasoline, such as high energy content, low vapour pressure, non-hygroscopic nature, less volatility, flexible fuel blends and high octane number...
March 9, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285649/pioglitazone-induced-improvements-in-insulin-sensitivity-occur-without-concomitant-changes-in-muscle-mitochondrial-function
#12
Sudip Bajpeyi, Magdalena Pasarica, Kevin E Conley, Bradley R Newcomer, Sharon A Jubrias, Cecilia Gamboa, Kori Murray, Olga Sereda, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith
AIMS: Pioglitazone (Pio) is known to improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Pio in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic Pio treatment on skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four participants with T2D (13M/11F 53.38±2.1years; BMI 36.47±1.1kg/m(2)) were randomized to either a placebo (CON, n=8) or a pioglitazone (PIO, n=16) group...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278105/natural-light-micro-aerobic-condition-for-psb-wastewater-treatment-a-flexible-simple-and-effective-resource-recovery-wastewater-treatment-process
#13
Haifeng Lu, Ting Han, Guangming Zhang, Shanshan Ma, Yuanhui Zhang, Baoming Li, Wei Cao
Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277958/individual-differences-in-the-phenotypic-flexibility-of-basal-metabolic-rate-in-siberian-hamsters-are-consistent-on-short-and-long-term-timescales
#14
Jan S Boratyński, Małgorzata Jefimow, Michał S Wojciechowski
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlates with the cost of life in endothermic animals. It usually differs consistently among individuals in a population, but it may be adjusted in response to predictable or unpredictable changes in the environment. The phenotypic flexibility of BMR is considered an adaptation to living in a stochastic environment; however, whether it is also repeatable it is still unexplored. Assuming that variations in phenotypic flexibility are evolutionarily important, we hypothesized that they are consistently different among individuals...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277951/within-winter-flexibility-in-muscle-masses-myostatin-and-cellular-aerobic-metabolic-intensity-in-passerine-birds
#15
David L Swanson, Marisa O King, William Culver, Yufeng Zhang
Metabolic rates of passerine birds are flexible traits that vary both seasonally and among and within winters. Seasonal variation in summit metabolic rates (Msum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolism) in birds is consistently correlated with changes in pectoralis muscle and heart masses and sometimes with variation in cellular aerobic metabolic intensity, so these traits might also be associated with shorter-term, within-winter variation in metabolic rates. To determine whether these mechanisms are associated with within-winter variation in Msum, we examined the effects of short-term (ST; 0-7 d), medium-term (MT; 14-30 d), and long-term (LT; 30-yr means) temperature variables on pectoralis muscle and heart masses, pectoralis expression of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2, and pectoralis and heart citrate synthase (CS; an indicator of cellular aerobic metabolic intensity) activities for two temperate-zone resident passerines, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277443/sugarcoated-perineuronal-nets-regulate-gabaergic-transmission-bittersweet-hypothesis-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Jessica A Burket, Maria R Urbano, Stephen I Deutsch
Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing "GABAergic" interneurons regulate synchronous oscillatory output of pyramidal neurons. Metabolic demands of these GABAergic projections are great because local ion concentrations must be optimally maintained; in addition, high rates of mitochondrial respiration necessitate exquisite redox regulation. Interestingly, only fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing basket cells coexpressing 3 metalloproteinases seem to be preferentially enwrapped in perineuronal nets (PNNs), a specialized lattice-like structure of the extracellular matrix...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271032/bezafibrate-ameliorates-diabetes-via-reduced-steatosis-and-improved-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-diabetic-tallyho-mice
#17
Andras Franko, Susanne Neschen, Jan Rozman, Birgit Rathkolb, Michaela Aichler, Annette Feuchtinger, Laura Brachthäuser, Frauke Neff, Marketa Kovarova, Eckhard Wolf, Helmut Fuchs, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Peter, Martin Hrabě de Angelis
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we have shown that Bezafibrate (BEZ), the pan-PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) activator, ameliorated diabetes in insulin deficient streptozotocin treated diabetic mice. In order to study whether BEZ can also improve glucose metabolism in a mouse model for fatty liver and type 2 diabetes, the drug was applied to TallyHo mice. METHODS: TallyHo mice were divided into an early (ED) and late (LD) diabetes progression group and both groups were treated with 0...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270195/lapachol-a-compound-targeting-pyrimidine-metabolism-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-arthritis
#18
Raphael S Peres, Gabriela B Santos, Nerry T Cecilio, Valquíria A P Jabor, Michael Niehues, Bruna G S Torres, Gabriela Buqui, Carlos H T P Silva, Teresa Dalla Costa, Norberto P Lopes, Maria C Nonato, Fernando S Ramalho, Paulo Louzada-Júnior, Thiago M Cunha, Fernando Q Cunha, Flavio S Emery, Jose C Alves-Filho
BACKGROUND: The inhibition of pyrimidine biosynthesis by blocking the dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) activity, the prime target of leflunomide (LEF), has been proven to be an effective strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. However, a considerable proportion of RA patients are refractory to LEF. Here, we investigated lapachol (LAP), a natural naphthoquinone, as a potential DHODH inhibitor and addressed its immunosuppressive properties. METHODS: Molecular flexible docking studies and bioactivity assays were performed to determine the ability of LAP to interact and inhibit DHODH...
March 7, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264001/a-camera-phone-based-study-reveals-erratic-eating-pattern-and-disrupted-daily-eating-fasting-cycle-among-adults-in-india
#19
Neelu Jain Gupta, Vinod Kumar, Satchidananda Panda
The daily rhythm of feeding-fasting and meal-timing are emerging as important determinants of health. Circadian rhythm research in animal models and retrospective analyses of human nutrition data have shown that reduced length of overnight fasting or increased late night eating increases risk for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. However, the daily rhythm in eating pattern in humans is rarely measured. Traditional methods to collect nutrition information through food diary and food log pay little attention to the timing of eating which may also change from day to day...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262678/eight-weeks-of-overfeeding-alters-substrate-partitioning-without-affecting-metabolic-flexibility-in-men
#20
C M Peterson, B Zhang, D L Johannsen, E Ravussin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Impairments in metabolic flexibility and substrate handling are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, it is unknown whether metabolic inflexibility causes insulin resistance. We therefore measured metabolic flexibility and substrate handling before and after 8 weeks of overfeeding in initially healthy adults, as a model of the early stages of insulin resistance. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy men (27±5 years old; BMI 25.5±2...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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