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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646030/metabolic-remodelling-in-hypertrophied-and-failing-myocardium-a-review
#1
Mark Andrew Peterzan, Craig A Lygate, Stefan Neubauer, Oliver Rider
The energy starvation hypothesis proposes that maladaptive metabolic remodelling antedates, initiates and maintains adverse contractile dysfunction in heart failure (HF). Better understanding of the cardiac metabolic phenotype and metabolic signalling could help identify the role metabolic remodelling plays within HF and conditions known to transition toward HF, including 'pathological' hypertrophy. In this review, we discuss metabolic phenotype and metabolic signalling in the contexts of pathological hypertrophy and HF...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642845/metabolic-adaptations-of-uropathogenic-e-coli-in-the-urinary-tract
#2
REVIEW
Riti Mann, Daniel G Mediati, Iain G Duggin, Elizabeth J Harry, Amy L Bottomley
Escherichia coli ordinarily resides in the lower gastrointestinal tract in humans, but some strains, known as Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), are also adapted to the relatively harsh environment of the urinary tract. Infections of the urine, bladder and kidneys by UPEC may lead to potentially fatal bloodstream infections. To survive this range of conditions, UPEC strains must have broad and flexible metabolic capabilities and efficiently utilize scarce essential nutrients. Whole-organism (or "omics") methods have recently provided significant advances in our understanding of the importance of metabolic adaptation in the success of UPECs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641986/novel-spectrophotometric-technique-for-rapid-determination-of-extractable-pha-using-sudan-black-dye
#3
Mauricio A Porras, Marcelo A Villar, María A Cubitto
Classical techniques employed to determine the amount of extractable poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs) from cells, are laborious and destructive. Sudan black staining is commonly used in the laboratory to investigate the presence of intracellular PHA. The aim of the present study was to develop a low-cost alternative technique to achieve a quick determination of extractable intracellular PHA. This methodology employs a basic laboratory spectroscopy equipment and Sudan black dye for spectra determination. The correlation between the content of PHA in cell samples taken directly from the culture flask and its spectra was determined using partial least square regression analysis and simple linear regression analysis...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636410/targeting-cancer-cell-mitochondria-as-a-therapeutic-approach-recent-updates
#4
Qingbin Cui, Shijun Wen, Peng Huang
Mitochondria play a key role in ATP generation, redox homeostasis and regulation of apoptosis. Due to the essential role of mitochondria in metabolism and cell survival, targeting mitochondria in cancer cells is considered as an attractive therapeutic strategy. However, metabolic flexibility in cancer cells may enable the upregulation of compensatory pathways, such as glycolysis to support cancer cell survival when mitochondrial metabolism is inhibited. Thus, compounds capable of both targeting mitochondria and inhibiting glycolysis may be particularly useful to overcome such drug-resistant mechanism...
June 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631969/cognitive-functions-among-predominantly-minority-urban-adolescents-with-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Alexander Mangone, Kathy F Yates, Victoria Sweat, Adriana Joseph, Antonio Convit
The rise in the rate of adolescent obesity has led to a concurrent rise in the rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among young people. In addition to diabetes and cardiovascular disease, MetS has also been linked to cognitive dysfunction. The goal of this study was to assess whether cognitive differences exist between minority urban adolescents carrying excess weight who meet criteria for MetS as compared to their peers without MetS. Two hundred and ninety-six urban adolescents, predominantly Hispanic and carrying excess weight as defined by a BMI above 25 kg/m(2), were screened for MetS and divided into MetS and no MetS groups...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623667/the-genome-and-phenome-of-the-green-alga-chloroidium-sp-utex-3007-reveal-adaptive-traits-for-desert-acclimatization
#6
David R Nelson, Basel Khraiwesh, Weiqi Fu, Saleh Alseekh, Ashish Kumar Jaiswal, Amphun Chaiboonchoe, Khaled M Hazzouri, Matthew J O'Connor, Glenn L Butterfoss, Nizar Drou, Jillian D Rowe, Jamil Harb, Alisdair R Fernie, Kristin C Gunsalus, Kourosh Salehi-Ashtiani
To investigate the phenomic and genomic traits that allow green algae to survive in deserts, we characterized a ubiquitous species, Chloroidium sp. UTEX 3007, which we isolated from multiple locations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Metabolomic analyses of Chloroidium sp. UTEX 3007 indicated that the alga accumulates a broad range of carbon sources, including several desiccation tolerance-promoting sugars and unusually large stores of palmitate. Growth assays revealed capacities to grow in salinities from zero to 60 g/L and to grow heterotrophically on >40 distinct carbon sources...
June 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623613/assessment-of-metabolic-flexibility-by-means-of-measuring-blood-lactate-fat-and-carbohydrate-oxidation-responses-to-exercise-in-professional-endurance-athletes-and-less-fit-individuals
#7
Iñigo San-Millán, George A Brooks
BACKGROUND: Increased muscle mitochondrial mass is characteristic of elite professional endurance athletes (PAs), whereas increased blood lactate levels (lactatemia) at the same absolute submaximal exercise intensities and decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity are characteristics of individuals with low aerobic power. In contrast to PAs, patients with metabolic syndrome (MtS) are characterized by a decreased capacity to oxidize lipids and by early transition from fat to carbohydrate oxidation (FATox/CHOox), as well as elevated blood lactate concentration [La(-)] as exercise power output (PO) increases, a condition termed 'metabolic inflexibility'...
June 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623092/ctip-ctp1-sae2-molecular-form-fit-for-function
#8
REVIEW
Sara N Andres, R Scott Williams
Vertebrate CtIP, and its fission yeast (Ctp1), budding yeast (Sae2) and plant (Com1) orthologs have emerged as key regulatory molecules in cellular responses to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). By modulating the nucleolytic 5'-3' resection activity of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) DSB repair processing and signaling complex, CtIP/Ctp1/Sae2/Com1 is integral to the channeling of DNA double strand breaks through DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Nearly two decades since its discovery, emerging new data are defining the molecular underpinnings for CtIP DSB repair regulatory activities...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622697/vitamin-c-and-doxycycline-a-synthetic-lethal-combination-therapy-targeting-metabolic-flexibility-in-cancer-stem-cells-cscs
#9
Ernestina Marianna De Francesco, Gloria Bonuccelli, Marcello Maggiolini, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
Here, we developed a new synthetic lethal strategy for further optimizing the eradication of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Briefly, we show that chronic treatment with the FDA-approved antibiotic Doxycycline effectively reduces cellular respiration, by targeting mitochondrial protein translation. The expression of four mitochondrial DNA encoded proteins (MT-ND3, MT-CO2, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8) is suppressed, by up to 35-fold. This high selection pressure metabolically synchronizes the surviving cancer cell sub-population towards a predominantly glycolytic phenotype, resulting in metabolic inflexibility...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622605/flexible-nanofilms-coated-with-aligned-piezoelectric-microfibers-preserve-the-contractility-of-cardiomyocytes
#10
P José Gouveia, S Rosa, L Ricotti, B Abecasis, H V Almeida, L Monteiro, J Nunes, F Sofia Carvalho, M Serra, S Luchkin, A Leonidovitch Kholkin, P Marques Alves, P Jorge Oliveira, R Carvalho, A Menciassi, R Pires das Neves, L Silva Ferreira
The use of engineered cardiac tissue for high-throughput drug screening/toxicology assessment remains largely unexplored. Here we propose a scaffold that mimics aspects of cardiac extracellular matrix while preserving the contractility of cardiomyocytes. The scaffold is based on a poly(caprolactone) (PCL) nanofilm with magnetic properties (MNF, standing for magnetic nanofilm) coated with a layer of piezoelectric (PIEZO) microfibers of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (MNF+PIEZO). The nanofilm creates a flexible support for cell contraction and the aligned PIEZO microfibers deposited on top of the nanofilm creates conditions for cell alignment and electrical stimulation of the seeded cells...
September 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620012/metabolic-disturbances-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-resemble-the-alterations-typical-for-type-2-diabetes
#11
Bram Brouwers, Vera B Schrauwen-Hinderling, Tomas Jelenik, Anne Gemmink, Bas Havekes, Yvonne Bruls, Dennis Dahlmans, Michael Roden, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is an independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We examined metabolic perturbations in people with NAFL, patients with T2DM and people with normal intrahepatic lipid (IHL) (CON). A 2-step (10mU/m(2)/min, 40mU/m(2)/min) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed in 11 NAFL, 13 T2DM and 11 CON, all matched for BMI and aerobic fitness. IHL was measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Because of high IHL variability in T2DM patients, this group was separated into a high IHL (IHL≥5...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619474/high-metabolic-versatility-of-different-toxigenic-and-non-toxigenic-clostridioides-difficile-isolates
#12
Thomas Riedel, Daniela Wetzel, Julia Danielle Hofmann, Simon Paul Erich Otto Plorin, Henning Dannheim, Mareike Berges, Ortrud Zimmermann, Boyke Bunk, Isabel Schober, Cathrin Spröer, Heiko Liesegang, Dieter Jahn, Jörg Overmann, Uwe Groß, Meina Neumann-Schaal
Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a major nosocomial pathogen with an increasing number of community-acquired infections causing symptoms from mild diarrhea to life-threatening colitis. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is considered to be mainly associated with the production of genome-encoded toxins A and B. In addition, some strains also encode and express the binary toxin CDT. However; a large number of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains have been isolated from the human gut and the environment...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616951/direct-characterization-of-the-native-structure-and-mechanics-of-cyanobacterial-carboxysomes
#13
Matthew Faulkner, Jorge Rodriguez-Ramos, Gregory F Dykes, Siân V Owen, Selene Casella, Deborah M Simpson, Robert J Beynon, Lu-Ning Liu
Carboxysomes are proteinaceous organelles that play essential roles in enhancing carbon fixation in cyanobacteria and some proteobacteria. These self-assembling organelles encapsulate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and carbonic anhydrase using a protein shell structurally resembling an icosahedral viral capsid. The protein shell serves as a physical barrier to protect enzymes from the cytosol and a selectively permeable membrane to mediate transport of enzyme substrates and products...
June 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611773/fatty-acid-oxidation-compensates-for-lipopolysaccharide-induced-warburg-effect-in-glucose-deprived-monocytes
#14
Nora Raulien, Kathleen Friedrich, Sarah Strobel, Stefan Rubner, Sven Baumann, Martin von Bergen, Antje Körner, Martin Krueger, Manuela Rossol, Ulf Wagner
Monocytes enter sites of microbial or sterile inflammation as the first line of defense of the immune system and initiate pro-inflammatory effector mechanisms. We show that activation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces them to undergo a metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis, similar to the Warburg effect observed in cancer cells. At sites of inflammation, however, glucose concentrations are often drastically decreased, which prompted us to study monocyte function under conditions of glucose deprivation and abrogated Warburg effect...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606897/melatonin-attenuates-phenotypic-flexibility-of-energy-metabolism-in-a-photoresponsive-mammal-the-siberian-hamster
#15
Jan S Boratyński, Małgorzata Jefimow, Michał S Wojciechowski
The duration of melatonin (MEL) secretion conveys information about day length and initiates a cascade of seasonal phenotypic adjustments in photoresponsive mammals. With shortening days they cease reproduction, minimize energy expenditure, enhance thermoregulatory capacity and adjust functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to match the winter increase in energy demands. Within each season stress plays an important role in the flexible adjustments of a phenotype to environmental perturbations...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600876/rerouting-of-carbon-flux-in-a-glycogen-mutant-of-cyanobacteria-assessed-via-isotopically-non-stationary-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis
#16
John I Hendry, Charulata Prasannan, Fangfang Ma, K Benedikt Möllers, Damini Jaiswal, Madhuri Digmurti, Doug K Allen, Niels-Ulrik Frigaard, Santanu Dasgupta, Pramod P Wangikar
Cyanobacteria, which constitute a quantitatively dominant phylum, have attracted attention in biofuel applications due to favorable physiological characteristics, high photosynthetic efficiency and amenability to genetic manipulations. However, quantitative aspects of cyanobacterial metabolism have received limited attention. In the present study, we have performed isotopically non-stationary (13) C metabolic flux analysis (INST-(13) C-MFA) to analyze rerouting of carbon in a glycogen synthase deficient mutant strain (glgA-I glgA-II) of the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp...
June 10, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598965/metabolic-network-segmentation-a-probabilistic-graphical-modeling-approach-to-identify-the-sites-and-sequential-order-of-metabolic-regulation-from-non-targeted-metabolomics-data
#17
Andreas Kuehne, Urs Mayr, Daniel C Sévin, Manfred Claassen, Nicola Zamboni
In recent years, the number of large-scale metabolomics studies on various cellular processes in different organisms has increased drastically. However, it remains a major challenge to perform a systematic identification of mechanistic regulatory events that mediate the observed changes in metabolite levels, due to complex interdependencies within metabolic networks. We present the metabolic network segmentation (MNS) algorithm, a probabilistic graphical modeling approach that enables genome-scale, automated prediction of regulated metabolic reactions from differential or serial metabolomics data...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597820/oxidative-phosphorylation-as-a-target-space-for-tuberculosis-success-caution-and-future-directions
#18
Gregory M Cook, Kiel Hards, Elyse Dunn, Adam Heikal, Yoshio Nakatani, Chris Greening, Dean C Crick, Fabio L Fontes, Kevin Pethe, Erik Hasenoehrl, Michael Berney
The emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens, and our inability to develop new antimicrobials to combat resistance, have inspired scientists to seek out new targets for drug development. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is a group of obligately aerobic bacteria that have specialized for inhabiting a wide range of intracellular and extracellular environments. Two fundamental features in this adaptation are the flexible utilization of energy sources and continued metabolism in the absence of growth...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597618/effects-of-resistance-training-overtraining-and-early-specialization-on-youth-athletes
#19
Benjamin K Walters, Connor R Read, A Reed Estes
INTRODUCTION: In 2014, 60 million youth ages 6-18 participated in some form of generalized athletics. 3.5 million children are injured annually participating in organized sport or recreational activities. While sound physical education can decrease the burden of youth sports injuries, the median annual physical education budget of $764 for United States elementary, middle and high schools may not allow enough flexibility to apply evidenced-based guidelines. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The topics were selected after a careful review of the 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595236/comparison-of-serum-cytokine-levels-in-obese-and-lean-men-effects-of-nonlinear-periodized-resistance-training-and-obesity
#20
Mahmoud Nikseresht
This study examined the capacity of nonlinear resistance training (NRT) to alter some cytokines and markers of insulin resistance in men who are obese. An additional aim was to compare these variables between obese and lean men. Age- and fitness-matched obese men were randomly allocated to NRT (n=12) and control (CON, n=10) groups. An age- and fitness-matched control group of lean men (n=11) were also recruited for baseline comparison. The NRT (12 weeks, 3 d/wk, 5-11 exercises) performed at different intensities (40-95% of IRM) with flexible periodization...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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