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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448543/heterologous-expression-of-a-thermophilic-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-triggers-triglyceride-accumulation-in-escherichia-coli
#1
Beatriz Lázaro, Juan A Villa, Omar Santín, Matilde Cabezas, Cintia D F Milagre, Fernando de la Cruz, Gabriel Moncalián
Triglycerides (TAGs), the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and source of fatty acids, are produced as single cell oil by some oleogenic microorganisms. However, these microorganisms require strict culture conditions, show low carbon source flexibilities, lack efficient genetic modification tools and in some cases pose safety concerns. TAGs have essential applications such as behaving as a source for added-value fatty acids or giving rise to the production of biodiesel. Hence, new alternative methods are urgently required for obtaining these oils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444510/starvation-signals-in-yeast-are-integrated-to-coordinate-metabolic-reprogramming-and-stress-response-to-ensure-longevity
#2
REVIEW
Nianshu Zhang, Lu Cao
Studies on replicative and chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly advanced our understanding of how longevity is regulated in all eukaryotes. Chronological lifespan (CLS) of yeast is defined as the age-dependent viability of non-dividing cell populations. A number of nutrient sensing and signal transduction pathways (mainly TOR and PKA) have been shown to regulate CLS, yet it is poorly understood how the starvation signals transduced via these pathways lead to CLS extension. Using reporters whose expressions are induced by glucose starvation, we have screened the majority of the 'signaling' mutants in the yeast genome and identified many genes that are necessary for stress response...
April 25, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#3
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439315/36%C3%A2-h-fasting-of-young-men-influences-adipose-tissue-dna-methylation-of-lep-and-adipoq-in-a-birth-weight-dependent-manner
#4
Line Hjort, Sine W Jørgensen, Linn Gillberg, Elin Hall, Charlotte Brøns, Jan Frystyk, Allan A Vaag, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Subjects born with low birth weight (LBW) display a more energy-conserving response to fasting compared with normal birth weight (NBW) subjects. However, the molecular mechanisms explaining these metabolic differences remain unknown. Environmental influences may dynamically affect epigenetic marks, also in postnatal life. Here, we aimed to study the effects of short-term fasting on leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from subjects with LBW and NBW...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439258/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Paras K Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K Patel, Sushil K Mahata
The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436819/insight-into-the-evolution-of-microbial-metabolism-from-the-deep-branching-bacterium-thermovibrio-ammonificans
#6
Donato Giovannelli, Stefan M Sievert, Michael Hügler, Stephanie Markert, Dörte Becher, Thomas Schweder, Costantino Vetriani
Anaerobic thermophiles inhabit relic environments that resemble the early Earth. However, the lineage of these modern organisms co-evolved with our planet. Hence, these organisms carry both ancestral and acquired genes and serve as models to reconstruct early metabolism. Based on comparative genomic and proteomic analyses, we identified two distinct groups of genes in Thermovibrio ammonificans: the first codes for enzymes that do not require oxygen and use substrates of geothermal origin; the second appears to be a more recent acquisition, and may reflect adaptations to cope with the rise of oxygen on Earth...
April 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433531/discovery-and-optimization-of-selective-fgfr4-inhibitors-via-scaffold-hopping
#7
Yikai Wang, Zhengxia Chen, Meibi Dai, Peipei Sun, Chunqiu Wang, Yang Gao, Haixia Zhao, Wenqin Zeng, Liang Shen, Weifeng Mao, Tian Wang, Guoping Hu, Jian Li, Shuhui Chen, Chaofeng Long, Xiaoxin Chen, Junhua Liu, Yang Zhang
Introduction of a Michael acceptor on a flexible scaffold derived from pan-FGFR inhibitors has successfully yielded a novel series of highly potent FGFR4 inhibitors with selectivity over FGFR1. Due to reduced lipophilicity and aromatic ring count, this series demonstrated improved solubility and permeability. However, plasma instability and fast metabolism limited its potential for in vivo studies. Efforts have been made to address these problems, which led to the discovery of compound (-)-11 with improved stability, CYP inhibition, and good activity/selectivity for further optimization...
April 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429737/the-glutamate-cystine-xct-antiporter-antagonizes-glutamine-metabolism-and-reduces-nutrient-flexibility
#8
Chun-Shik Shin, Prashant Mishra, Jeramie D Watrous, Valerio Carelli, Marilena D'Aurelio, Mohit Jain, David C Chan
As noted by Warburg, many cancer cells depend on the consumption of glucose. We performed a genetic screen to identify factors responsible for glucose addiction and recovered the two subunits of the xCT antiporter (system xc(-)), which plays an antioxidant role by exporting glutamate for cystine. Disruption of the xCT antiporter greatly improves cell viability after glucose withdrawal, because conservation of glutamate enables cells to maintain mitochondrial respiration. In some breast cancer cells, xCT antiporter expression is upregulated through the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 and contributes to their requirement for glucose as a carbon source...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429489/transcriptional-analysis-of-the-adaptation-of-ustilago-maydis-during-growth-under-nitrogen-fixation-conditions
#9
José Alejandro Sánchez-Arreguin, Miguel Angel Hernandez-Oñate, Claudia Geraldine León-Ramirez, José Ruiz-Herrera
Regulation of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism likely plays a role in the ability of fungi to exploit and survive under different environmental situations. To learn about the mechanism of adaptation of the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis from a medium containing a source of fixed nitrogen, to a medium depending on the ability to fix N2 by its bacterial endosymbiont, we explored gene expression profiles using RNA-Seq analyses under these two conditions. The differentially expressed (DE) fungal genes were analyzed, identifying 90 genes that were regulated 24 h after shifting the fungus to media lacking ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426203/tyrosine-kinase-activation-and-conformational-flexibility-lessons-from-src-family-tyrosine-kinases
#10
Yilin Meng, Matthew P Pond, Benoît Roux
Protein kinases are enzymes that catalyze the covalent transfer of the γ-phosphate of an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecule onto a tyrosine, serine, threonine, or histidine residue in the substrate and thus send a chemical signal to networks of downstream proteins. They are important cellular signaling enzymes that regulate cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and migration. Unregulated protein kinase activity is often associated with a wide range of diseases, therefore making protein kinases major therapeutic targets...
April 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426144/a-multiplex-culture-system-for-the-long-term-growth-of-fission-yeast-cells
#11
Celine Callens, Nelson C Coelho, Aaron W Miller, Maria Rosa Domino Sananes, Maitreya J Dunham, Matthieu Denoual, Damien Coudreuse
Maintenance of long-term cultures of yeast cells is central to a broad range of investigations, from metabolic studies to laboratory evolution assays. However, repeated dilutions of batch cultures lead to variations in medium composition, with implications for cell physiology. In S. cerevisiae, powerful miniaturized chemostat setups, or ministat arrays, have been shown to allow for constant dilution of multiple independent cultures. Here we set out to adapt these arrays for continuous culture of a morphologically and physiologically distinct yeast, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, with the goal of maintaining constant population density over time...
April 20, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423307/aspects-of-phosphorus-physiology-associated-with-phosphate-induced-polar-lipid-remodelling-in-marine-microalgae
#12
José Pedro Cañavate, Isabel Armada, Ismael Hachero-Cruzado
Marine microalgae exhibit a diversified phosphorus physiology and have also been recently found to show high inter-taxa variability in their phosphate induced-polar lipids' remodelling. Identification of phosphorus physiology aspects that are more related to lipid remodelling can contribute to better understanding of such intricate phytoplankton lipid metabolism. Therefore, some aspects of phosphorus physiology related to its uptake, storage and use were evaluated in a taxonomically diversified group of nine marine microalgae that was arranged into three subgroups, each of them including species showing similar polar lipid responses to phosphate...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419197/inhibition-of-sarcolemmal-fat-cd36-by-sulfo-n-succinimidyl-oleate-rapidly-corrects-metabolism-and-restores-function-in-the-diabetic-heart-following-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#13
Latt S Mansor, Maria da Luz Sousa Fialho, Georgina Yea, Will A Coumans, James A West, Matthew Kerr, Carolyn A Carr, Joost J F P Luiken, Jan F C Glatz, Rhys D Evans, Julian L Griffin, Damian J Tyler, Kieran Clarke, Lisa C Heather
Aims: The type 2 diabetic heart oxidizes more fat and less glucose, which can impair metabolic flexibility and function. Increased sarcolemmal fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) imports more fatty acid into the diabetic myocardium, feeding increased fatty acid oxidation and elevated lipid deposition. Unlike other metabolic modulators that target mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we proposed that pharmacologically inhibiting fatty acid uptake, as the primary step in the pathway, would provide an alternative mechanism to rebalance metabolism and prevent lipid accumulation following hypoxic stress...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413148/incorporating-site-less-clinical-trials-into-drug-development-a-framework-for-action
#14
Irl B Hirsch, Joe Martinez, E Ray Dorsey, Gerald Finken, Alexander Fleming, Chris Gropp, Philip Home, Daniel I Kaufer, Spyros Papapetropoulos
PURPOSE: Options for leveraging available telemedicine technologies, ranging from simple webcams and telephones to smartphone apps and medical-grade wearable sensors, are evolving faster than the culture of clinical research. Until recently, most clinical trials relied on paper-based processes and technology. This cost- and labor-intensive system, while slowly changing, remains an obstacle to new drug development. Alternatives that use existing tools and processes for collecting real-world data in home settings warrant closer examination...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409509/fitness-can-be-a-determinant-of-arterial-stiffness-in-healthy-adult-men-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Jin-Wook Chung, Mi-Lyang Kim, Youngsoo Jin, Yonghwan Kim, Jeeyoung Hong
BACKGROUND: Fitness is known to influence arterial stiffness. This study aimed to assess differences in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility according to arterial stiffness, based on sex and age. METHODS: We enrolled 1,590 healthy adults (men: 1,242, women: 348) who were free of metabolic syndrome. We measured cardiorespiratory endurance in an exercise stress test on a treadmill, muscular strength by a grip test, and flexibility by upper body forward-bends from a standing position...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409503/food-restriction-affects-maternal-investment-but-not-neonate-phenotypes-in-a-viviparous-lizard
#16
Yang Wang, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Liang Ma, Shu-Ran Li, Wei-Guo Du
Food availability significantly affects an animal's energy metabolism, and thus its phenotype, survival, and reproduction. Maternal and offspring responses to food conditions are critical for understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution of a species. In this study, we conducted food manipulation experiments in field enclosures to identify the effect of food restriction on female reproductive traits and postpartum body condition, as well as on hatchling phenotypes, in a lacertid viviparous lizard from the Inner Mongolian desert steppe of China...
March 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407427/microenvironmental-characteristics-and-physiology-of-biofilms-in-chronic-infections-of-cf-patients-are-strongly-affected-by-the-host-immune-response
#17
REVIEW
Peter Ø Jensen, Mette Kolpen, Kasper N Kragh, Michael Kühl
In vitro studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other pathogenic bacteria in biofilm aggregates have yielded detailed insight into their potential growth modes and metabolic flexibility under exposure to gradients of substrate and electron acceptor. However, the growth pattern of P. aeruginosa in chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is very different from what is observed in vitro, for example, in biofilms grown in flow chambers. Dense in vitro biofilms of P. aeruginosa exhibit rapid O2 depletion within <50-100 μm due to their own aerobic metabolism...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405870/the-effect-of-temperature-on-the-resting-and-post-exercise-metabolic-rates-and-aerobic-metabolic-scope-in-shortnose-sturgeon-acipenser-brevirostrum
#18
Yueyang Zhang, James D Kieffer
The effects of acclimation temperature (15, 20, 25 °C) on routine oxygen consumption and post-exercise maximal oxygen consumption rates (MO2) were measured in juvenile shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur, 1818). The routine MO2 of shortnose sturgeon increased significantly from 126.75 mg O2 h(-1) kg(-1) at 15 °C to 253.13 mg O2 h(-1) kg(-1) at 25 °C. The temperature coefficient (Q 10) values of the routine metabolic rates ranged between 1.61 and 2.46, with the largest Q 10 values occurring between 15 and 20 °C...
April 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405578/the-chaperone-trap1-as-a-modulator-of-the-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-cancer-cells
#19
REVIEW
Ionica Masgras, Carlos Sanchez-Martin, Giorgio Colombo, Andrea Rasola
Mitochondria can receive, integrate, and transmit a variety of signals to shape many biochemical activities of the cell. In the process of tumor onset and growth, mitochondria contribute to the capability of cells of escaping death insults, handling changes in ROS levels, rewiring metabolism, and reprograming gene expression. Therefore, mitochondria can tune the bioenergetic and anabolic needs of neoplastic cells in a rapid and flexible way, and these adaptations are required for cell survival and proliferation in the fluctuating environment of a rapidly growing tumor mass...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404660/the-genetic-requirements-for-pentose-fermentation-in-budding-yeast
#20
Karin Mittelman, Naama Barkai
Cells grow on a wide range of carbon sources by regulating substrate flow through the metabolic network. Incoming sugar, for example, can be fermented or respired, depending on the carbon identity, cell type, or growth conditions. Despite this genetically-encoded flexibility of carbon metabolism, attempts to exogenously manipulate central carbon flux by rational design have proven difficult, suggesting a robust network structure. To examine this robustness, we characterized the ethanol yield of 411 regulatory and metabolic mutants in budding yeast...
April 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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