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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772667/evaluation-of-energy-expenditure-and-oxidation-of-energy-substrates-in-adult-males-after-intake-of-meals-with-varying-fat-and-carbohydrate-content
#1
Edyta Adamska-Patruno, Lucyna Ostrowska, Anna Golonko, Barbara Pietraszewska, Joanna Goscik, Adam Kretowski, Maria Gorska
Obesity is a result of positive energy balance. The aim of this study was to measure (in crossover trials) the energy expenditure and oxidation of glucose and lipids, both at the fasting state and after an intake of meals with a varying macronutrient content, in normal-weight and overweight/obese people. In the study, 46 healthy adult males (23 with normal body weight and 23 overweight/obese), aged 21⁻58, were examined. During two consecutive visits, subjects received isocaloric standardized meals (450 kcal) with different content of basic nutrients...
May 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763323/synthesis-reactivity-functionalization-and-admet-properties-of-silicon-containing-nitrogen-heterocycles
#2
Scott J Barraza, Scott E Denmark
Silicon-containing compounds have been largely ignored in drug design and development, despite their potential to improve not only the potency but also the physicochemical and ADMET ( absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) properties of drug-like candidates because of the unique characteristics of silicon. This deficiency is in large part attributable to a lack of general methods for synthesizing diverse organosilicon structures. Accordingly, a new building block strategy has been developed that diverges from traditional approaches to incorporation of silicon into drug candidates...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762782/metaboanalyst-4-0-towards-more-transparent-and-integrative-metabolomics-analysis
#3
Jasmine Chong, Othman Soufan, Carin Li, Iurie Caraus, Shuzhao Li, Guillaume Bourque, David S Wishart, Jianguo Xia
We present a new update to MetaboAnalyst (version 4.0) for comprehensive metabolomic data analysis, interpretation, and integration with other omics data. Since the last major update in 2015, MetaboAnalyst has continued to evolve based on user feedback and technological advancements in the field. For this year's update, four new key features have been added to MetaboAnalyst 4.0, including: (1) real-time R command tracking and display coupled with the release of a companion MetaboAnalystR package; (2) a MS Peaks to Pathways module for prediction of pathway activity from untargeted mass spectral data using the mummichog algorithm; (3) a Biomarker Meta-analysis module for robust biomarker identification through the combination of multiple metabolomic datasets and (4) a Network Explorer module for integrative analysis of metabolomics, metagenomics, and/or transcriptomics data...
May 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762253/glucose-tolerance-is-linked-to-postprandial-fuel-use-independent-of-exercise-dose
#4
Nicole M Gilbertson, Natalie Z M Eichner, Monique Francois, Julian M Gaitán, Emily M Heiston, Arthur Weltman, Steven K Malin
PURPOSE: The optimal short-term exercise dose to improve glucose tolerance in relation to metabolic flexibility and/or insulin resistance is unknown. Therefore, we tested if short-term, work-matched continuous (CONT) versus interval (INT) exercise training improves glucose tolerance in part by reducing insulin resistance and increasing metabolic flexibility independent of clinically meaningful fat loss in adults with prediabetes. METHODS: Subjects (age 60.9±1.4y; BMI 33...
May 14, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760898/difference-in-plasticity-of-resting-metabolic-rate-the-proximate-explanation-to-different-niche-breadth-in-sympatric-ficedula-flycatchers
#5
S Eryn McFarlane, Murielle Ålund, Päivi M Sirkiä, Anna Qvarnström
Variation in relative fitness of competing recently formed species across heterogeneous environments promotes coexistence. However, the physiological traits mediating such variation in relative fitness have rarely been identified. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is tightly associated with life history strategies, thermoregulation, diet use, and inhabited latitude and could therefore moderate differences in fitness responses to fluctuations in local environments, particularly when species have adapted to different climates in allopatry...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760777/a-pseudomonas-putida-efflux-pump-acts-on-short-chain-alcohols
#6
Georg Basler, Mitchell Thompson, Danielle Tullman-Ercek, Jay Keasling
Background: The microbial production of biofuels is complicated by a tradeoff between yield and toxicity of many fuels. Efflux pumps enable bacteria to tolerate toxic substances by their removal from the cells while bypassing the periplasm. Their use for the microbial production of biofuels can help to improve cell survival, product recovery, and productivity. However, no native efflux pump is known to act on the class of short-chain alcohols, important next-generation biofuels, and it was considered unlikely that such an efflux pump exists...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758287/pseudomonas-putida-as-a-functional-chassis-for-industrial-biocatalysis-from-native-biochemistry-to-trans-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Pablo I Nikel, Víctor de Lorenzo
The itinerary followed by Pseudomonas putida from being a soil-dweller and plant colonizer bacterium to become a flexible and engineer-able platform for metabolic engineering stems from its natural lifestyle, which is adapted to harsh environmental conditions and all sorts of physicochemical stresses. Over the years, these properties have been capitalized biotechnologically owing to the expanding wealth of genetic tools designed for deep-editing the P. putida genome. A suite of dedicated vectors inspired in the core tenets of synthetic biology have enabled to suppress many of the naturally-occurring undesirable traits native to this species while enhancing its many appealing properties, and also to import catalytic activities and attributes from other biological systems...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755539/the-importance-of-%C3%AE-ct-and-salt-bridges-in-the-formation-of-insulin-and-its-receptor-complex-by-computational-simulation
#8
Marzieh Dehghan-Shasaltaneh, Hossein Lanjanian, Gholam Hossein Riazi, Ali Masoudi-Nejad
Insulin hormone is an important part of the endocrine system. It contains two polypeptide chains and plays a pivotal role in regulating carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin receptors (IR) located on cell surface interacts with insulin to control the intake of glucose. Although several studies have tried to clarify the interaction between insulin and its receptor, the mechanism of this interaction remains elusive because of the receptor's structural complexity and structural changes during the interaction. In this work, we tried to fractionate the interactions...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752939/structural-and-biochemical-characterization-of-the-yeast-hd-domain-containing-protein-ygk1-reveals-a-metal-dependent-nucleoside-5-monophosphatase
#9
Jingsi Yang, Fei Wang, Dan Yang, Ke Zhou, Min Liu, Zengqiang Gao, Peng Liu, Yuhui Dong, Jianjun Zhang, Quansheng Liu
HD-domain is a conserved domain, with the signature of histidine and aspartic (HD) residues doublets. HD-domain proteins may possess nucleotidase and phosphodiesterase activities, and they play important roles in signaling and nucleotide metabolism. In yeast, HD-domain proteins with nucleotidase activity remained unexplored. Here, we biochemically and structurally characterized two HD domain proteins YGK1 (YGL101W) and YB92 (YBR242W) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as nucleoside 5'-monophosphatases, with substrate preference for deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphatase over ribonucleoside 5'-monophosphatase...
May 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746480/properties-of-traditional-bamboo-carrying-poles-have-implications-for-user-interactions
#10
Ryan T Schroeder, James L Croft, Giang D Ngo, John E A Bertram
Compliant bamboo poles have long been used for load carriage in Asian cultures. Although this custom differs from Western conventions of rigid body attachments (e.g. backpack), potential benefits include reduced peak shoulder forces as well as metabolic transport cost savings. Evidence that carrying a flexible pole benefits locomotion remains mixed, perhaps in part because the properties of pole design (e.g. bamboo material, structural geometry, etc.) have largely been neglected. These properties influence vibrational forces and consequently, the energy required by the user to manage the oscillations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742915/redox-regulation-of-hexokinases
#11
Petr Heneberg
Significance Hexokinases are key enzymes that are responsible for the first reaction of glycolysis, but they also moonlight other cellular processes, including mitochondrial redox signaling regulation. Modulation of hexokinase activity and spatiotemporal location by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as other gasotransmitters serves as the basis for a unique, underexplored method of tight and flexible regulation of these fundamental enzymes. Recent advances Redox modifications of thiols serve as a molecular code that enables the precise and complex regulation of hexokinases...
May 10, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740540/signaling-pathways-regulating-redox-balance-in-cancer-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Maria Chiara De Santis, Paolo Ettore Porporato, Miriam Martini, Andrea Morandi
The interplay between rewiring tumor metabolism and oncogenic driver mutations is only beginning to be appreciated. Metabolic deregulation has been described for decades as a bystander effect of genomic aberrations. However, for the biology of malignant cells, metabolic reprogramming is essential to tackle a harsh environment, including nutrient deprivation, reactive oxygen species production, and oxygen withdrawal. Besides the well-investigated glycolytic metabolism, it is emerging that several other metabolic fluxes are relevant for tumorigenesis in supporting redox balance, most notably pentose phosphate pathway, folate, and mitochondrial metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739863/effects-of-high-fat-diet-and-ampk-modulation-on-the-regulation-of-whole-body-lipid-metabolism
#13
Milena Schonke, Julie Massart, Juleen R Zierath
Metabolic flexibility, the capacity to adapt to fuel availability for energy production, is crucial for maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis. An inability to adequately promote fatty acid utilization is associated with lipid accumulation in peripheral tissues and contributes to the development of insulin resistance. In vivo assays to quantify whole-body lipid oxidation in mouse models of insulin resistance are lacking. We describe a method for assessing whole-body fatty acid oxidation in vivo , as well as tissue-specific lipid uptake in conscious mice...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738737/iron-economy-in-naegleria-gruberi-reflects-its-metabolic-flexibility
#14
Jan Mach, Jarmila Bíla, Kateřina Ženíšková, Dominik Arbon, Ronald Malych, Marie Glavanakovová, Eva Nývltová, Robert Sutak
Naegleria gruberi is a free-living amoeba, closely related to the human pathogen Naegleria fowleri, the causative agent of the deadly human disease primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Herein, we investigated the effect of iron limitation on different aspects of N. gruberi metabolism. Iron metabolism is among the most conserved pathways found in all eukaryotes. It includes the delivery, storage and utilization of iron in many cell processes. Nevertheless, most of the iron metabolism pathways of N. gruberi are still not characterized, even though iron balance within the cell is crucial...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733330/benefits-of-caloric-restriction-in-longevity-and-chemical-induced-tumorigenesis-are-transmitted-independent-of-nqo1
#15
Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Andrea Di Francesco, Bethany A Carboneau, Sophia R Levan, Kevin J Pearson, Nathan L Price, Theresa M Ward, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Evi M Mercken
Caloric restriction (CR) is the most potent nonpharmacological intervention known to both protect against carcinogenesis and delay aging in laboratory animals. There is a growing number of anticarcinogens and CR mimetics that activate NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). We have previously shown that NQO1, an antioxidant enzyme that acts as an energy sensor through modulation of intracellular redox and metabolic state, is upregulated by CR. Here, we used NQO1-knockout (KO) mice to investigate the role of NQO1 in both the aging process and tumor susceptibility, specifically in the context of CR...
May 4, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729419/potential-role-for-microrna-in-regulating-hypoxia-induced-metabolic-suppression-in-the-jumbo-squid
#16
Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Samantha M Logan, Brad A Seibel, Kenneth B Storey
At night, Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) rise to the ocean's surface to feed, but come morning, they descend into the ocean's oxygen minimum zone where they can avoid predators but must deal with severe hypoxia, high pressure, and very cold water. To survive this extreme environment, squid use various adaptations to enter a hypometabolic state characterized by metabolic rate suppression by 35-52%, relative to normoxic conditions. The molecular mechanisms facilitating this metabolic flexibility have yet to be elucidated in hypometabolic squid...
May 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728457/structural-and-functional-determination-of-homologs-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-n-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate-deacetylase-naga
#17
Mohd Syed Ahangar, Christopher M Furze, Collette S Guy, Charlotte Cooper, Kathryn S Maskew, Ben Graham, Alexander D Cameron, Elizabeth Fullam
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogen encodes an N -acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase enzyme, NagA (Rv3332), that belongs to the amidohydrolase superfamily. NagA enzymes catalyze the deacetylation of N -acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc6P) to glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P). NagA is a potential anti-tubercular drug target because it represents the key enzymatic step in the generation of essential amino-sugar precursors required for Mtb cell wall biosynthesis and also influences recycling of cell wall peptidoglycan fragments...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725585/influence-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-on-cancer-cells-metabolic-reprogramming
#18
REVIEW
Victoire Gouirand, Fabienne Guillaumond, Sophie Vasseur
As with castles, tumor cells are fortified by surrounding non-malignant cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts, immune cells, but also nerve fibers and extracellular matrix. In most cancers, this fortification creates a considerable solid pressure which limits oxygen and nutrient delivery to the tumor cells and causes a hypoxic and nutritional stress. Consequently, tumor cells have to adapt their metabolism to survive and proliferate in this harsh microenvironment. To satisfy their need in energy and biomass, tumor cells develop new capacities to benefit from metabolites of the microenvironment, either by their uptake through the macropinocytosis process or through metabolite transporters, or by a cross-talk with stromal cells and capture of extracellular vesicles that are released by the neighboring cells...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725011/gut-microbiomes-of-wild-great-apes-fluctuate-seasonally-in-response-to-diet
#19
Allison L Hicks, Kerry Jo Lee, Mara Couto-Rodriguez, Juber Patel, Rohini Sinha, Cheng Guo, Sarah H Olson, Anton Seimon, Tracie A Seimon, Alain U Ondzie, William B Karesh, Patricia Reed, Kenneth N Cameron, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
The microbiome is essential for extraction of energy and nutrition from plant-based diets and may have facilitated primate adaptation to new dietary niches in response to rapid environmental shifts. Here we use 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of wild western lowland gorillas and sympatric central chimpanzees and demonstrate compositional divergence between the microbiotas of gorillas, chimpanzees, Old World monkeys, and modern humans. We show that gorilla and chimpanzee microbiomes fluctuate with seasonal rainfall patterns and frugivory...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720196/the-relationship-between-quality-of-life-and-physical-fitness-in-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#20
D Perez-Cruzado, A I Cuesta-Vargas, E Vera-Garcia, F Mayoral-Cleries
BACKGROUND: Quality of life of people with severe mental illness may be decrease by the high occurrence of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Physical fitness emerges as a modifying factor in this population through physical activity and this modification could influence in the quality of life of this population. The aim of the present study is to determine the contribution of physical fitness to the quality of life of people with severe mental illness. METHODS: In the current study, a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist assessed 62 people with severe mental illness...
May 2, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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