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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315050/forensic-use-of-y-chromosome-dna-a-general-overview
#1
REVIEW
Manfred Kayser
The male-specific part of the human Y chromosome is widely used in forensic DNA analysis, particularly in cases where standard autosomal DNA profiling is not informative. A Y-chromosomal gene fragment is applied for inferring the biological sex of a crime scene trace donor. Haplotypes composed of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs) are used to characterise paternal lineages of unknown male trace donors, especially suitable when males and females have contributed to the same trace, such as in sexual assault cases...
March 17, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270465/rapid-sequence-serial-sexual-homicides
#2
Louis B Schlesinger, Stephanie Ramirez, Brittany Tusa, John P Jarvis, Philip Erdberg
Serial sexual murderers have been described as committing homicides in a methodical manner, taking substantial time between offenses to elude the authorities. The results of our study of the temporal patterns (i.e., the length of time between homicides) of a nonrandom national sample of 44 serial sexual murderers and their 201 victims indicate that this representation may not always be accurate. Although 25 offenders (56.8%) killed with longer than a 14-day period between homicides, a sizeable subgroup was identified: 19 offenders (43...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248122/-double-homicide-with-a%C3%A2-damning-bite-mark-on-the-offender%C3%A2-s%C3%A2-body-case-report
#3
Markéta Kulvajtová, Jiří Hladík, Lucie Zemančíková
The authors deal with a case of a double homicide, the parental murder made by their older son, which was committed by a combination of stabbing and cutting wounds. The perpetra-tor tried to hide the bodies, so he doused them with gasoline and set fire to them on a lonely forest road. Then he ran over the remains by his car. The cause of death was in both cases open wound of the neck - autopsy findings of the woman´s body testified for a blood aspi-ration, on the man´s body it was not clear for a partial charring, so the possibilities were blood aspiration, air embolism or external bleeding with haemorrhagic shock...
2017: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242031/is-the-french-criminal-psychiatric-assessment-in-crisis
#4
J Guivarch, M-D Piercecchi-Marti, D Glezer, V Murdymootoo, J-M Chabannes, F Poinso
The criminal psychiatric assessment in France seems to be facing growing criticism related to disagreements between experts and, on the other hand, a lack of interest of psychiatrists for the assessment. We start by explaining the current framework of the criminal psychiatric assessment in France, which differs from the assessment used in English-speaking countries, where Roman law applies. Then, we will describe the disagreements through a literature review and two clinical vignettes. Finally, we will try to understand the causes of discrepancies between experts and the reasons for a supposed lack of interest of the psychiatrists for the expertise...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240500/sharp-force-fatalities-at-the-pretoria-medico-legal-laboratory-2012-2013
#5
L Mitton, L du Toit-Prinsloo
BACKGROUND: South Africa's crude death rate was recorded as the highest in the world in 2014. In 2013, 47 murders occurred daily nationwide, and it was confirmed that sharp force fatalities were frequent events. The aim of our study was to review the fatalities of persons admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory over a two-year period. Understanding the magnitude of the problem, identifying the most commonly injured area and the mechanism of death in cases where the patient died in hospital could aid in the clinical management of some of these cases in order to reduce mortality...
June 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239012/neighborhood-trauma-due-to-violence-a-multilevel-analysis
#6
Sandra D Lane, Robert A Rubinstein, Dessa Bergen-Cico, Timothy Jennings-Bey, Linda Stone Fish, David A Larsen, Mindy Thompson Fullilove, Tracey Reichert Schimpff, Kishi Animashaun Ducre, Jonnell Allen Robinson
In Syracuse, New York the social determinants of trauma from neighborhood violence are rooted in historical processes, including urban renewal, the Rockefeller drug laws, and de-industrialization. These contributed to destabilizing Syracuse communities of color, resulting in disproportionate incarceration, family disruption, and economic devastation. Community violence, clustering in densely populated neighborhoods, creates unmanageable stress for the families who live in them. A map of gunshots and gun fatalities (2009 to 2014) illustrates the continuing onslaught of bullets being fired, often in close proximity to elementary schools...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222910/agents-of-the-father-s-law-in-a-society-of-brothers-a-philosophic-and-psychoanalytic-perspective-on-legitimate-use-of-violence
#7
Efrat Even-Tzur, Uri Hadar
This paper explores subjective processes of "Agents of Law" - individuals who the state grants the authority to use violence - and the dissonance stemming from the contradictory demands posed on them as legitimate users of violence despite the societal taboo against violence. A conceptual model will be offered based on two theoretical legs, Lacanian psychoanalysis and political theories of legitimacy. Specifically, psychoanalytic ideas would serve to examine unconscious processes, subject position and various identifications related to the question of "self-legitimacy" of Agents of Law...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212340/prospective-prediction-of-juvenile-homicide-attempted-homicide-among-early-onset-juvenile-offenders
#8
Michael T Baglivio, Kevin T Wolff
While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%-8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156629/a-whole-greater-than-the-sum-of-the-parts-close-collaboration-between-palliative-care-and-clinical-ethics
#9
(no author information available yet)
53 Background: The disciplines of palliative care (PC) and clinical ethics (CE) share common content but also important distinctions in method, skill set, and clinical role in a given patient encounter. Particularly in cases of advance care planning, complex decision-making, and clarifying goals oncology teams may be challenged to know which consultation service to involve. METHODS: Case report and commentary. RESULTS: A 60 year-old man with a 3-year history of glioblastoma multiforme presented with sudden onset right-sided weakness and altered mental status...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151515/-they-spoke-truth-to-power-and-were-murdered-in-cold-blood
#10
Michel Forst, Gianni Tognoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca: AIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141729/a-9-year-old-girl-discovers-that-her-mother-was-murdered
#11
David J Schonfeld, Julia Shekunov, Michael Jellinek, Martin T Stein
Susan was a 9-year-old girl living with her mother; she had never met her father. Her mother returned one evening from her job as a cocktail waitress and Susan met her at the apartment door to let her know they had run out of cat food. Her mother said she would go and buy some the next morning because it was late and she was tired, but Susan insisted she go out that evening because the cat had not eaten all day. Her mother was fatally shot in the parking lot of the convenience store shortly thereafter; since there was no robbery involved, the police suspected it was someone that she knew...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137977/firearms-alcohol-and-crime-convictions-for-driving-under-the-influence-dui-and-other-alcohol-related-crimes-and-risk-for-future-criminal-activity-among-authorised-purchasers-of-handguns
#12
Garen J Wintemute, Mona A Wright, Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Aaron Shev, Magdalena Cerdá
Firearm violence frequently involves alcohol, but there are no studies of misuse of alcohol and risk for future violence among firearm owners. We examined the association between prior convictions for alcohol-related crimes, chiefly driving under the influence (DUI), and risk of subsequent arrest among 4066 individuals who purchased handguns in California in 1977. During follow-up through 1991, 32.8% of those with prior alcohol-related convictions and 5.7% of those with no prior criminal history were arrested for a violent or firearm-related crime; 15...
January 30, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130901/trauma-center-youth-violence-screening-and-brief-interventions-a-multisite-pilot-feasibility-study
#13
Donna M Kazemi, David G Jacobs, Sharon G Portwood, Laura Veach, Weihua Zhou, Melissa Johnson Hurley
Every day, 16 American youths between the ages of 10 and 24 years are murdered; 84% of these fatalities involve a firearm. Nearly half of traumatic youth deaths result from violence-related injuries. In 2013, 580,250 youth suffered nonfatal, assault-related injuries, necessitating emergency department treatment. The aim of this multisite pilot study was to examine the process, feasibility, and challenges of violence brief interventions (VBIs). The participants were youth between 15 and 25 years of age, at 2 major Level 1 trauma centers (TCs; TC1, TC2) in the Southeastern United States...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123272/identifying-murder-victims-with-endodontic-radiographs
#14
Rhonan Ferreira Silva, Ademir Franco, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho Mendes, Fernando Fortes Picoli, Fernando Gomes Nunes, Carlos Estrela
Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120457/sexual-homicide-by-older-male-offenders
#15
Wade C Myers, Heng Choon Oliver Chan, Timothy Y Mariano, Mark E Safarik, Vernon J Geberth
Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104563/differential-correlation-of-suicide-and-homicide-rates-according-to-geographical-areas-a-study-with-population-level-data
#16
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Xenia Gonda
The current study investigated the relationship of suicide and homicide rates internationally. WHO database mortality data for 82 countries concerning suicide, homicides, and cancer and traffic accidents as controls were used. The analysis included Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. Worldwide homicidal rates explained 55.42%, 43.86% and 41.7% of male and 22.0%, 22.14% and 13.25% of female suicides for 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively. In Europe there was a positive correlation between male suicide rates and all homicide rates including homicide rates in both genders, in male victims, and in female victims...
March 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100149/the-meaning-of-ending-life-in-prison
#17
Alison Liebling
There are many ways that life can end in prison. This article takes suicides, murder, and the whole life sentence as three forms of unnatural death that illustrate important features of the prison experience and that take on a special meaning in this environment. These forms of death in custody challenge the "legitimate penological purposes of imprisonment." Reflections on the importance of hope and dignity in prison are informed by this account.
January 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097857/-massive-poisoning-with-carbon-monoxide-an-update-from-a-case
#18
Mariano Díaz, Gabriel Crapanzano, Silvia Cabrerizo, Cristina Aichele, Alejandra Deurtiaga, Yamila Vallejos
Carbon monoxide is known as the "silent murderer" because it is a colorless and odorless gas. According to these characteristics, toxicity goes unnoticed which makes the diagnosis difficult. In most cases, the cold periods and group poisoning make suspect its presence because inappropriate heat both in home or public environments. Our goal is to inform about a mass carbon monoxide poisoning in a children's parties room using a combustion source installed, not for the purpose of heating, but as a supply of light (generator), emphasizing that it can occur in any time of the year...
February 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092254/-what-do-adults-die-in-mexico-impact-on-the-economic-and-social-development-of-the-nation-the-global-burden-of-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Martín Rosas-Peralta, Efraín Arizmendi-Uribe, Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez
Noncommunicable diseases have been established as a clear threat, not only to human health but also to the development and economic growth. Claiming 63% of all deaths, these diseases are currently the main murderer worldwide. The increase in the prevalence and importance of noncommunicable diseases specifically of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity is the result of a complex interplay between health, economic growth and development, which is strongly associated with universal trends such as the aging of the world population, rapid unplanned urbanization, and the globalization of unhealthy lifestyles...
January 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055070/modeling-contagion-through-social-networks-to-explain-and-predict-gunshot-violence-in-chicago-2006-to-2014
#20
Ben Green, Thibaut Horel, Andrew V Papachristos
Importance: Every day in the United States, more than 200 people are murdered or assaulted with a firearm. Little research has considered the role of interpersonal ties in the pathways through which gun violence spreads. Objective: To evaluate the extent to which the people who will become subjects of gun violence can be predicted by modeling gun violence as an epidemic that is transmitted between individuals through social interactions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was an epidemiological analysis of a social network of individuals who were arrested during an 8-year period in Chicago, Illinois, with connections between people who were arrested together for the same offense...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
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