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Dai Wang, Srihari Gopal, Susan Baker, Vaibhav A Narayan
Effective early detection of impending relapse may offer opportunities for early interventions to prevent full relapse in schizophrenia patients. Previously reported early warning signs were not consistently validated by prospective studies. It remains unclear which symptoms are most predictive of relapse. To prioritize the symptoms to be captured by periodic self-report in technology-enabled remote assessment solutions for monitoring symptoms and detecting relapse early, we analyzed data from three relapse-prevention studies to identify individual items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) that changed the most prior to relapse and to understand exactly when these symptoms manifested...
June 20, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
Donna M Klingspohn
Indigenous women in Canada face a range of health and social issues including domestic violence. Indigenous women (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) are six times more likely to be killed than non-Aboriginal women (Homicide in Canada, 2014; Miladinovic and Mulligan, 2015). Aboriginal women are 2.5 times more likely to be victims of violence than non-Aboriginal women (Robertson, 2010). These and other statistics highlight a significant difference in the level of violence experienced by Indigenous women to that experienced by women in the mainstream population in Canada...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Anilena Mejia, Richard Emsley, Eleonora Fichera, Wadih Maalouf, Jeremy Segrott, Rachel Calam
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal violence can significantly reduce adolescents' opportunities for becoming happy and healthy adults. Central America is the most violent region in the world and it is estimated that adolescents are involved in 82% of all homicides in this region. Family skills training programmes have been designed to prevent interpersonal violence in adolescents. Several studies in high-income countries suggest they are effective. However, there are no published trials assessing effectiveness of these programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)...
June 15, 2018: Trials
Natalia Chmura, Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko, Małgorzata Brzozowska, Sylwia Tarka, Ludomir Niewiadomski
Suicide behind the steering wheel of a car is a relatively rare discovery, particularly if the cause of death is hanging. Therefore, such events give rise to suspicions that third parties were involved. This paper presents a case of hanging on the threshold of a car door, although what was taken into consideration during the investigation was suicide, death as a result of a road accident, accidental hanging on the seat belt, and even homicide. The cause of death was determined thanks to a very thorough autopsy which also involved the dissection of extremities and was complemented by additional examinations including toxicological tests...
2018: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Chelsea M Spencer, Sandra M Stith
Intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a serious problem throughout the world. Research has identified the continued need to examine risk factors for IPH to identify individuals who may be at a greater risk of IPH perpetration or victimization. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis on risk factors for male IPH perpetration and female IPH victimization. This meta-analysis examined results from 17 studies, which included 148 effect sizes used in the analysis. Primary findings from this research suggest the strongest risk factors for IPH were the perpetrator having direct access to a gun, perpetrator's previous nonfatal strangulation, perpetrator's previous rape of the victim, perpetrator's previous threat with a weapon, the perpetrator's demonstration of controlling behaviors, and the perpetrator's previous threats to harm the victim...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Stephen Tomsen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol use and homicide are a wide community concern with particular interest in understanding and preventing attacks (e.g. 'one punch' male on male attacks) in commercial nightlife settings with high levels of collective drinking. There is insufficient knowledge of the long-term patterns in this violence or the relationship between public drinking and flow on violence in other social settings. DESIGN AND METHODS: Alcohol-related homicides were those in which alcohol consumption was a contributing factor...
June 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Sally C Curtin, Melonie Heron, Arialdi M Miniño, Margaret Warner
This report presents numbers of injury deaths and death rates for children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in the United States for 1999-2016. Numbers and rates are presented by sex for 1999-2016, by injury intent (e.g., unintentional, suicide, and homicide) and method (e.g., motor vehicle traffic, firearms, and suffocation). Numbers and rates of death according to leading injury intents and methods are shown by sex for ages 10-14 years and 15-19 years for 2016. Mortality statistics in this report are based on information from death certificates filed in all 50 states and the District of Columbia...
June 2018: National Vital Statistics Reports
Adrien Remund, Carlo G Camarda, Tim Riffe
We propose a method to decompose the young adult mortality hump by cause of death. This method is based on a flexible shape decomposition of mortality rates that separates cause-of-death contributions to the hump from senescent mortality. We apply the method to U.S. males and females from 1959 to 2015. Results show divergence between time trends of hump and observed deaths, both for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The study of the hump shape reveals age, period, and cohort effects, suggesting that it is formed by a complex combination of different forces of biological and socioeconomic nature...
June 4, 2018: Demography
Henry C Dick, Jamie K Pringle
In homicide investigations, it is critically important that post-mortem (PMI) and post-burial interval (PBI) of buried victims are determined accurately. However, clandestine graves can be difficult to locate; and the detection rates for a variety of search methods can be very low. This paper presents elemental analysis results of 18 months of decomposition fluids from an in situ buried animal cadaver used as a human clandestine burial proxy. Study results showed potassium, sulphate and sodium are key detectable elements which mirror observed conductivity temporal changes from this and other studies...
May 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
Travis W Heggie
Background: This study investigates tourist mortality at Lake Powell over a 46-year period. To date no comprehensive long-term investigation examining the relationship between the lake environment and tourist mortality exists. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of all tourist fatalities between 1959 and 2005. Results: There were 351 fatal incidents resulting in 386 deaths between 1959 and 2005. Over the 46-year period, the average number of fatalities was 8...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Lumamba Mubbunu, Kasonde Bowa, Volodymyer Petrenko, Moono Silitongo
The objective of the research was to study the correlation of internal organ weights with body weight and length in normal adult Zambians. The study involved 114 (83 males and 31 females) forensic autopsies from Ndola Teaching Hospital done over a period of 12 months. The cases included autopsies of unnatural deaths including road traffic accidents and homicide. Cases where information about age and origin of the person was not available were left out of the study. The age of the decedents ranged from 16 to 85 years...
2018: Anatomy Research International
Joah L Williams, Jasmine R Eddinger, Edward K Rynearson, Alyssa A Rheingold
BACKGROUND: Family members grieving the traumatic death of a loved one, as in cases of homicide, suicide, and fatal accidents, are at risk for a number of trauma and bereavement-related mental health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, prolonged grief disorder, and suicidal ideation (SI). AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of SI among a sample of 130 treatment-seeking traumatically bereaved family members...
May 31, 2018: Crisis
Rosalie Greenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
S Zerbo, A Lanzarone, P Procaccianti, E Ventura Spagnolo, A Argo
The dismemberment of a corpse is comparatively rare in forensic medicine and usually performed with different types of sharp tools. The victim is always the victim of a homicide. Dismemberment usually occurs where the killing took place without prior planning by the perpetrator. We report a case of homicide with post mortem mutilation of the victim's body with previous amputation of right lower limb in which the perpetrator was not identified. At autopsy, several fractures were detected on the cranial vault, and the cause of death was due to skull and brain injuries from multiple blunt force traumas...
January 1, 2018: Medico-legal Journal
Susan Hatters Friedman, Ryan C W Hall, Jacob M Appel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Daniel A Bowen, Laura M Mercer Kollar, Daniel T Wu, David A Fraser, Charles E Flood, Jasmine C Moore, Elizabeth W Mays, Steven A Sumner
Identifying geographic areas and time periods of increased violence is of considerable importance in prevention planning. This study compared the performance of multiple data sources to prospectively forecast areas of increased interpersonal violence. We used 2011-2014 data from a large metropolitan county on interpersonal violence (homicide, assault, rape and robbery) and forecasted violence at the level of census block-groups and over a one-month moving time window. Inputs to a Random Forest model included historical crime records from the police department, demographic data from the US Census Bureau, and administrative data on licensed businesses...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Bianca Dekel, Naeemah Abrahams, Michelle Andipatin
Child homicide is the most extreme form of violence against children. Within South Africa, children face the highest risk of homicide by parents/caregivers. It is suggested that prolonged exposure to adverse relationships with one's own parents may be linked to committing child homicide as it may lead to psychological damage and disturb neurological functioning. This paper explores the adverse parent-child relationships of 22 men and women incarcerated for the murder of either a biological child, a stepchild or a child in their care and draws on 49 in-depth interviews with these participants...
2018: PloS One
Loc-Uyen T Vo, Clark Anderson, Samantha Thomas, Hannah Vernia, Jarett K Howe, Alan H Tyroch, Tamara N Fitzgerald
INTRODUCTION: The United States-Mexico border is perceived as dangerous by the media and current political leaders. Hispanic ethnicity, low socioeconomic status, male gender and adolescent age have previously been identified as risk factors for penetrating trauma (PT). METHODS: A retrospective review of PT was performed in a border region. Children 0-17 years old, admitted to the region's only level I trauma center between 2001 and 2016 were included. Standardized morbidity ratio was used to compare observed to expected morbidity...
May 17, 2018: Injury
Cassandra K Crifasi, Molly Merrill-Francis, Alex McCourt, Jon S Vernick, Garen J Wintemute, Daniel W Webster
Laws related to the sale, use, and carrying of firearms have been associated with differences in firearm homicide rates at the state level. Right-to-carry (RTC) and stand your ground (SYG) laws are associated with increases in firearm homicide; permit-to-purchase (PTP) laws and those prohibiting individuals convicted of violent misdemeanors (VM) have been associated with decreases in firearm homicide. Evidence for the effect of comprehensive background checks (CBC) not tied to PTP is inconclusive. Because firearm homicide tends to concentrate in urban areas, this study was designed to test the effects of firearm laws on homicide in large, urban U...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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