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Erika E Atienzo, Susan K Baxter, Eva Kaltenthaler
OBJECTIVES: This review aims to summarise evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent youth violence in Latin America. METHODS: A systematic search on 13 academic databases was conducted to locate studies evaluating a primary or secondary prevention intervention in Latin America. Studies could use any type of quantitative design to assess outcomes related to youth violence. A search of websites, references and citation searching was also carried out...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
C Andrew Basham, Carolyn Snider
OBJECTIVES: To estimate and compare Canadian homicide mortality rates (HMRs) and trends in HMRs across age groups, with a focus on trends for youth. METHODS: Data for the period of 2000 to 2009 were collected from Statistics Canada's CANSIM (Canadian Statistical Information Management) Table 102-0540 with the following ICD-10-CA coded external causes of death: X85 to Y09 (assault) and Y87.1 (sequelae of assault). Annual population counts from 2000 to 2009 were obtained from Statistics Canada's CANSIM Table 051-0001...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Niall McCrae
With a spring in his step, lecturer Jeroen Ensink left his suburban London home to post cards to his many friends around the world, announcing the arrival of his baby daughter. Seconds later his life was over. A young man had pounced, and in a state of frenzy, savagely stabbed his random victim (Daily Mail, 4 January 2016). As psychiatric patient Femi Nandap begins detention in a high-security institution, we should spare some thought for Jeroen's wife, and his only child. This article is protected by copyright...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
James Gilligan, Bandy X Lee, Shikha Garg, Morkeh Blay-Tofey, Audrey Luo
Many national and international institutions advocate approaching violence as a problem in public health and preventive medicine, in a manner similar to the way we address other disabling and life-threatening pathologies such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Prevention by a health model requires an ecological perspective. Previous work has found evidence that economic factors, including unemployment and relative poverty, as well as political culture and values, may affect violent death rates, including homicide and suicide...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Cecilia Varela-Martínez, Zaida E Yadon, Diana Marín, Einar Heldal
Objective To 1) describe and compare the trends of tuberculosis (TB) case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcomes in the two largest cities in Honduras (San Pedro Sula and Tegucigalpa) for the period 2005-2014 and 2) identify possible related socioeconomic and health sector factors. Methods This retrospective ecological operational research study used aggregated data from the National TB Program (socioeconomic and health sector information and individual data from the 2014 TB case notification report)...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Norair Khachatryan, Kathleen M Heide, Jordyn Rad, Erich V Hummel
Killings by juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) who use accomplices have been increasing since the 1980s and currently represent approximately half of juvenile arrests for murder in the United States. Nevertheless, prior research has not compared JHOs who kill alone with JHOs who kill in groups. The present research followed up 30 years later on a sample of 59 male murderers and attempted murderers sentenced to adult prison. This study was designed to analyze whether lone and group JHOs differed on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables...
October 17, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Jennifer L Stanley, Alexandra V Jansson, Adebola A Akinyemi, Clifford S Mitchell
INTRODUCTION: People experiencing homelessness are susceptible to many adverse health events, including violence. The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive analysis of homeless individuals who suffered a violent death in Maryland. Characterizing these deaths will provide a basis for additional analyses that can inform violence prevention activities. METHODS: This study used data from the Maryland Violent Death Reporting System to examine violent deaths of homeless people occurring from 2003 through 2011...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Yongwen Jiang, Megan L Ranney, Beatriz Perez, Samara Viner-Brown
INTRODUCTION: Mortality from injuries, particularly violent injuries, is more common among the young. Although traditional epidemiologic measures describe burden of death using rate-related mortalities, this method may not accurately represent burden of premature death. Years of life lost (YLLs) incorporate time discounting and age weighting to more accurately estimate the burden of death. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no examination of YLLs using the Rhode Island Violent Death Reporting System data...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Antionette Lavender, Viani Ramirez-Irizarry, A Rana Bayakly, Carol Koplan, J Michael Bryan
INTRODUCTION: Workers in certain occupations may be at an increased risk of a violent-related death such as homicide or suicide. The purpose of this study is to describe rates of violent deaths among Georgia workers by occupation, including cases occurring at work and outside of the workplace, and identify leading circumstances surrounding suicides and homicides for the occupations most at risk. METHODS: Data from the 2006-2009 Georgia Violent Death Reporting System were used...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Anna E Austin, Catherine J Vladutiu, Kathleen A Jones-Vessey, Tammy S Norwood, Scott K Proescholdbell, M Kathryn Menard
INTRODUCTION: Injuries, including those resulting from violence, are a leading cause of death during pregnancy and the postpartum period. North Carolina, along with other states, has implemented surveillance systems to improve reporting of maternal deaths, but their ability to capture violent deaths is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify the improvement in ascertainment of pregnancy-associated suicides and homicides by linking data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System (NC-VDRS) to traditional maternal mortality surveillance files...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Janet M Blair, Katherine A Fowler, Carter J Betz, Jason L Baumgardner
INTRODUCTION: Law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the U.S. are at an increased risk for homicide. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of homicides of LEOs in 17 U.S. states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System. This active surveillance system uses data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports. METHODS: This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze National Violent Death Reporting System data for 2003-2013...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Steven A Sumner, Matthew J Maenner, Christina M Socias, James A Mercy, Paul Silverman, Sandra P Medinilla, Steven S Martin, Likang Xu, Susan D Hillis
INTRODUCTION: Accurately identifying youth at highest risk of firearm violence involvement could permit delivery of focused, comprehensive prevention services. This study explored whether readily available city and state administrative data covering life events before youth firearm violence could elucidate patterns preceding such violence. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-one individuals arrested for homicide, attempted homicide, aggravated assault, or robbery with a firearm committed in Wilmington, Delaware, from January 1, 2009 to May 21, 2014, were matched 1:3 to 1,259 Wilmington resident controls on birth year and sex...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Rongshuai Wang, Luo Zhuo, Yunyun Wang, Liang Ren, Qian Liu, Liang Liu
BACKGROUND: Tetramine (tetramethylene disulphotetramine, TETS) and fluoroacetamide (FAA) are known as illegal rodenticides with high toxicity to animal species and human beings, which could lead to severe clinical features, including reduction of consciousness, convulsions, coma, and even death. METHODS AND RESULTS: We presented 2 cases that involved rodenticides poisoning. Even though the patients showed severe manifestations, they were initially misdiagnosed, resulting in 2 persons finally died from TETS and FAA poisoning in homicide cases...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Pooja K Mehta, Marcus A Bachhuber, Roy Hoffman, Sindhu K Srinivas
OBJECTIVES: To understand the effect of unintentional injuries (e.g., drug overdose), suicide, and homicide on pregnancy-associated death (death during or within 1 year of pregnancy). METHODS: We analyzed all cases of pregnancy-associated death among Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, residents from 2010 to 2014, examining cause of death, contributing factors, and history of health care use. RESULTS: Approximately half (49%; 42 of 85) of pregnancy-associated deaths were from unintentional injuries (n = 31), homicide (n = 8), or suicide (n = 3); drug overdose was the leading cause (n = 18)...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Sonia Salari, Christopher Maxwell
The aim is to conduct a critical analysis of existing family violence literature related to elder abuse homicide, also known as "eldercide." The focus relates to fatal violence perpetrated by current or former intimates. Men are the most likely victims of homicide, but rarely murdered by partners. Older women are most often killed in the home by a spouse or other family, consistent with the notion of "femicide." The FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) and the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) are utilized to illustrate trends by sex over time...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
Charles M Katz, E C Hedberg, Luis Enrique Amaya
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects on homicide rates of the gang truce that was brokered in El Salvador in 2012. METHODS: Mathematical models based on municipal-level census, crime and gang-intelligence data were used to estimate the effect of the truce on homicide rates. One model estimated the overall effect after accounting for the linear trend and seasonality in the homicide rate. In a moderated-effect model, we investigated the relationship between the truce effect and the numbers of MS13 (Mara Salvatrucha 13) and Eighteenth-Street gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population...
September 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
F J Erbguth, L Erbguth
End-of-life decisions in neurology have repeatedly given occasion for controversies. Often these are based on lack of knowledge of the juridical and ethical framework conditions. This review describes the juridical-ethical basis for the implementation and continuation, and for withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining measures, in particular, the significance of medical indication and patient's will. The different forms of assisted dying ("Sterbehilfe"), namely homicide by request, assisted suicide, palliative symptom relief and treatment withdrawal are characterized...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Fumiko Satoh, Motoki Osawa
We examined 169 deceased persons and 76 homicide-suicide cases reported in Japan's Kanagawa Prefecture from 1999 to 2011. The relationships between homicide-suicide perpetrators and homicide victims; the numbers of victims; their age, sex, causes and places of death; motivation; and the presence or absence of a suicide note were extracted and examined. The relationship between homicide-suicide perpetrators and homicide victims was examined based on findings from the following: 24 married couples (31%), 22 parents and children aged ≥18 years (29%), 19 parents and children aged ≤17 years (25%), seven families (9%), two couples (3%) and two miscellaneous relationships (3%)...
October 3, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Cynthia G Colen, David M Ramey, Christopher R Browning
OBJECTIVES: The previous 25 years have witnessed remarkable upheavals in the social landscape of the United States. Two of the most notable trends have been dramatic declines in levels of crime as well as teen childbearing. Much remains unknown about the underlying conditions that might be driving these changes. More importantly, we do not know if the same distal factors that are responsible for the drop in the crime rate are similarly implicated in falling rates of teen births. We examine four overarching potential explanations: fluctuations in economic opportunity, shifting population demographics, differences in state-level policies, and changes in expectations regarding health and mortality...
September 2016: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
Hiroshi Kuroda, Yoshiyuki Mukai, Shuhei Nishiyama, Takayuki Takeshita, Maki Tateyama, Atsushi Takeda, Masashi Aoki
Thallium intoxication was reported in cases with accidental ingestion, suicide attempt, and criminal adulteration. Reported cases were mostly one-time ingestion, therefore, the clinical course of divisional ingestion has not been fully known. Here, we report a case with two-step thallium intoxication manifesting as tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration. A 16-year-old adolescent was cryptically poisoned with thallium sulfate twice at an interval of 52days. After the first ingestion, neurologic symptoms including visual loss, myalgia, and weakness in legs developed about 40days after the development of acute gastrointestinal symptoms and alopecia...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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