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Roel de Bont, Teodora Groshkova, Andrew Cunningham, Marieke Liem
BACKGROUND: Drugs can act as facilitators for all types of violence, including drug-related homicide (DRH). Addressing this phenomenon is not only of importance given the severity of a homicide event and its high costs on society, but also because DRH has the potential to act as a valuable indicator or proxy of wider drug-related violent crime. However, there appears to be an important gap in terms of available European data on DRH. This study aimed to identify relevant European data sources on DRH, to assess the role of drugs in national homicide data, and to assess these sources and data in terms of monitoring potential...
April 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Li-Tan Yang, Yao-Mao Chang, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Wen-Hsuan Hou, Chung-Yi Li
Background: We conducted a time-series analysis of daily ambient temperature and all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory disease mortality in Taiwan, which is generally neither extremely hot nor cold. Methods: Data on all-cause daily mortality rates (excluding accidents, suicide, and homicide), and mortality rates due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases between 2008 and 2010 were obtained from the Taiwan Death Registry. The daily temperature for that period was averaged from 33 monitoring stations nationwide...
March 2018: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
Jagdish Khubchandani, James H Price
African American youths have the highest risk for firearm and other weapon related homicides. This study utilized the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2015 to assess trends in violence related behaviors and weapon carrying of African American adolescents. Our analyses found statistically significant reductions in physical fighting and weapon carrying among African American male adolescents from 2007 to 2015. Planning suicide increased in both male and female African American adolescents since 2007...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Matt Baucum, Richard John
Today's information-rich society demands constant evaluation of cause-effect relationships; behaviors and attitudes ranging from medical choices to voting decisions to policy preferences typically entail some form of causal inference ("Will this policy reduce crime?", "Will this activity improve my health?"). Cause-effect relationships such as these can be thought of as depending on two qualitatively distinct forms of evidence: covariation-based evidence (e.g., "states with this policy have fewer homicides") or mechanism-based (e...
April 4, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Veronica A Pear, Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Rose M C Kagawa, Magdalena Cerdá, Garen J Wintemute
PURPOSE: Firearm mortality is a significant problem in the United States. Previous studies have largely focused on firearm mortality at the national or state level, leaving open the question of within-state variation. This study examined firearm mortality within California. METHODS: We used Multiple Cause of Death data files to identify all firearm fatalities in California from 2000 to 2015. We described firearm mortality rates and counts over time, by age and county, stratifying by intent, gender, and race/ethnicity...
March 12, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Hafsa O Ghanem Salameh, Rakiz J Salameh, Mohannad Shwaiki, Hasan Abder-Rahman
This study aims to highlight three types of femicide in Jordan - so-called 'honour killings', fatal intimate partner violence (IPV), and domestic violence committed by male family members other than the husband (DV) - and to compare them with the killing of women in non-gender related situations such as during a robbery. The autopsy reports of 100 adult female homicide victims dealt with at Jordan University Hospital in Amman during a 10-year period from 2006 to 2015 were reviewed. Based on information contained in the police reports they were assigned to one of four categories...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Yosikazu Nakamura, Yuri Matsubara, Teppei Sasahara, Takao Kojo, Ryusuke Ae, Yasuko Aoyama, Nobuko Makino, Soichi Koike, Shizukiyo Ishikawa
Objectives To reveal the features of death and subsequent funeral services, we analyzed self-reported obituaries in The Shimotsuke, a local daily newspaper in Tochigi, Japan. In addition, the usefulness and disadvantages of such a database of deaths based on the obituaries were discussed.Method For a 5-year period, from January 2011 through December 2015, all the obituary columns in The Shimotsuke were computerized as a database and analyzed. Some results were compared with the vital statistics data in the corresponding period of time...
2018: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Sidney Zisook, M Katherine Shear, Charles F Reynolds, Naomi M Simon, Christine Mauro, Natalia A Skritskaya, Barry Lebowitz, Yuanjia Wang, Ilanit Tal, Danielle Glorioso, Julie Loebach Wetherell, Alana Iglewicz, Donald Robinaugh, Xin Qiu
OBJECTIVE: Suffering associated with complicated grief (CG) is profound. Because suicide loss survivors are susceptible to developing CG, identifying effective treatments for suicide loss survivors with CG is a high priority. This report provides data on the acceptability and effectiveness of antidepressant medication and complicated grief therapy (CGT), a CG-targeted psychotherapy, for suicide loss survivors with CG identified by an Inventory of Complicated Grief score ≥ 30. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data collected from March 2010 to September 2014 for a 4-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of antidepressant medication alone or in combination with CGT for participants with CG (score ≥ 30 on the Inventory of Complicated Grief) who were bereaved by suicide (SB; n = 58), accident/homicide (A/H; n = 74), or natural causes (NC; n = 263)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Mobin Inam Pal, Altaf Pervez Qasim, Mohammad Naeem, Humera Arshad, Ahmad Saeed
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of violent asphyxial deaths in Faisalabad over a span of a decade; and assessing the age and gender vulnerability. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, from January 2007 to December 2016. METHODOLOGY: Cases identified as violent asphyxial deaths according to police inquests and findings of the medico-legal examiners were computed...
April 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Rose M C Kagawa, Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Jon S Vernick, Daniel Webster, Cassandra Crifasi, Kara E Rudolph, Magdalena Cerdá, Aaron Shev, Garen J Wintemute
BACKGROUND: In 2016, firearms killed 38,658 people in the United States. Federal law requires licensed gun dealers, but not private parties, to conduct background checks on prospective firearm purchasers with the goal of preventing prohibited persons from obtaining firearms. Our objective was to estimate the effect of the repeal of comprehensive background check laws - requiring a background check for all handgun sales, not just sales by licensed dealers - on firearm homicide and suicide rates in Indiana and Tennessee...
April 2, 2018: Epidemiology
David H Rehkopf, Sanjay Basu
With the publication of "Repeal of Comprehensive Background Check Policies and Firearm Homicide and Suicide," the synthetic control method joins a group of useful statistical methods for the analysis of observational data imported to the field of epidemiology from economics and political science. These approaches include fixed effects (2), difference in differences (2), regression discontinuity (3) and instrumental variables (4). This expansion of methodological tools has been critical for the development for epidemiology as the discipline has expanded to consider the analysis of exposures that are not easily subjected to true random assignment, and for which unmeasured confounders plausibly exist...
April 2, 2018: Epidemiology
Evgenia Milman, Joah L Williams, Kaitlin Bountress, Alyssa A Rheingold
Homicide survivors are at increased risk for mental health disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complicated grief (CG). Accordingly, this survey study examined how satisfaction with the criminal justice system (CJS) was associated with depression, PTSD, and CG among 47 homicide survivors. It also examined how satisfaction with specific aspects of the CJS related to satisfaction with the overall CJS. Satisfaction with the overall CJS was uniquely associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Patrick Q Brady, Brittany E Hayes
Using data from the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study (N = 464), this study examined the intersection of stalking and the severity of intimate partner abuse while controlling for previously identified risk factors of intimate partner homicide. Findings indicate that (a) victims of life-threatening abuse by an intimate partner were significantly more likely to experience stalking than victims of nonlethal abuse; (b) after controlling for key risk factors, stalking increased the risk of life-threatening abuse; and (c) threats to kill the victim if she left was the only significant stalking-related behavior that increased the risk for life-threatening abuse...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Li Eriksson, Samara McPhedran, Shilan Caman, Paul Mazerolle, Richard Wortley, Holly Johnson
Knowledge of women's pathways to serious offending, including homicide, is limited. This study contributes to a small but growing body of literature examining the criminal careers of serious female offenders by using interview data with females convicted of murder or manslaughter in Australia to examine various dimensions of their criminal careers, specifically, prevalence, frequency, age of onset, duration, and offending variety. In particular, in this study we compared criminal career dimensions across women who had killed a family member (e...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Jill Anne McDonald, Leonard Joseph Paulozzi
US Hispanics are a disadvantaged population that paradoxically has lower mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites. We conducted a descriptive analysis of age-adjusted mortality rates for 113 causes of death for US Hispanics (USH) and US non-Hispanic whites (USNHW) during 1999-2015. All-cause, age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 were: 581.1 USH and 788.8 USNHW. Lower Hispanic mortality from cancer, heart disease, and respiratory disease accounted for almost all the all-cause mortality gap. USH rates were higher than USNHW rates for cancers of the stomach, liver, and cervix; diabetes mellitus; liver disease; and homicide...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Rie Sano, Yoichiro Takahashi, Akira Hayakawa, Masayuki Murayama, Rieko Kubo, Satoshi Hirasawa, Hiroyuki Tokue, Takehiro Shimada, Sachiko Awata, Hiroyuki Takei, Masahiro Yuasa, Shinji Uetake, Hisashi Akuzawa, Yoshihiko Kominato
Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is becoming a commonly used modality in routine forensic investigation. Mechanical injuries including lacerations, incisions, stab wounds and gunshot wounds frequently contain foreign bodies that may have significant value as clues in criminal investigations. CT is a sensitive modality for detection of metal foreign bodies that may be associated with injuries to the victim in cases of homicide or traffic accidents. Here we report two cases in which PMCT was able to act as a guide to forensic pathologists for retrieval of metal fragments in the corpses of the victims, the retrieved fragments then being used to validate the confessions of the assailants through comparison with the knife and the crowbar, respectively, that had been used in the crimes...
March 23, 2018: Legal Medicine
Joanne Klevens, Katie A Ports
Gender inequity is proposed as a societal-level risk factor for child maltreatment. However, most cross-national research examining this association is limited to developing countries and has used limited measures of gender inequity and child homicides as a proxy for child maltreatment. To examine the relationship between gender inequity and child maltreatment, we used caregivers' reported use of severe physical punishment (proxy for physical abuse) and children under 5 left alone or under the care of another child younger than 10 years of age (supervisory neglect) and three indices of gender inequity (the Social and Institutional Gender Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Gender Gap Index) from 57 countries, over half of which were developing countries...
November 2017: Journal of Family Violence
Michael F Ballesteros, Dionne D Williams, Karin A Mack, Thomas R Simon, David A Sleet
Injuries and violence among young people have a substantial emotional, physical, and economic toll on society. Understanding the epidemiology of this public health problem can guide prevention efforts, help identify and reduce risk factors, and promote protective factors. We examined fatal and nonfatal unintentional injuries, injuries intentionally inflicted by other (i.e., assaults and homicides) among children ages 0-19, and intentionally self-inflicted injuries (i.e., self-harm and suicides) among children ages 10-19...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Evangelia Liakoni, Fabienne Gartwyl, Meret Ricklin, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos, Stephan Krähenbühl
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substances are often regarded as causal factors contributing to violent injuries, sexual abuse and homicides. While these effects have been demonstrated for some substances (e.g. cocaine), current available data for others are more controversial (e.g. cannabis) or very limited (e.g. ecstasy). AIMS OF THE STUDY: To collect data on the type and frequency of psychoactive substance use in cases of emergency department (ED) presentations related to interpersonal violence...
2018: PloS One
Paulo Ricardo Saquete Martins-Filho, Mário Luis Tavares Mendes, Daniele Machado Reinheimer, Edmundo Marques do Nascimento-Júnior, Andréia Centenaro Vaez, Victor Santana Santos, Hudson P Santos
In this information epidemiology (infodemiology) study, we describe the online public interest about the issue of femicide in Brazil and analyze the relationship between search queries and femicide trends from 2004 to 2015. We showed that information-seeking behavior for femicide in the Brazilian states has been strongly influenced by female homicide rates. Educational and policy-related interventions are needed to improve the population's knowledge and attitude toward femicide.
March 29, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
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