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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427181/toxic-alcohol-diagnosis-and-management-an-emergency-medicine-review
#1
REVIEW
Patrick Chow Yuen Ng, Brit J Long, William Tyler Davis, Daniel J Sessions, Alex Koyfman
Toxic alcohols are a group of substances containing a hydroxyl group not meant to be ingested. They are the cause of a significant number of accidental and non-accidental exposures. Toxic alcohol poisoning can be associated with a significant degree of morbidity and mortality if not promptly recognized and treated. This review describes the clinical presentation and an approach to the recognition and management for toxic alcohol poisoning. Toxic alcohols classically refer to a group of alcohols not meant for ingestion...
February 9, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420922/mortality-and-cause-of-death-in-younger-homeless-veterans
#2
John A Schinka, Katherine C Leventhal, William A Lapcevic, Roger Casey
OBJECTIVES: Increased mortality has been documented in older homeless veterans. This retrospective study examined mortality and cause of death in a cohort of young and middle-aged homeless veterans. METHODS: We examined US Department of Veterans Affairs records on homelessness and health care for 2000-2003 and identified 23 898 homeless living veterans and 65 198 non-homeless living veterans aged 30-54. We used National Death Index records to determine survival status...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415211/unnatural-death-a-major-but-largely-preventable-cause-of-death-among-homeless-people
#3
Marcel T Slockers, Wilma J Nusselder, Judith Rietjens, Ed F van Beeck
Background: We aimed to assess the contribution of specific causes-of-death to excess mortality of homeless persons and to identify differences in cause-specific mortality rates after vs. before implementing social policy measures. Methods: We conducted a register based 10-year follow-up study of homeless adults in Rotterdam and calculated the proportion of deaths by cause-of-death in this cohort in the period 2001-2010. We estimated cause-specific mortality among the homeless compared to the general population with Standardized Mortality Ratios...
February 4, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412404/murder-and-actual-bodily-harm-in-itaborai-brazil-analysis-at-different-scales
#4
Edinilsa Ramos de Souza, Heitor Levy Ferreira Praça, Eliane Santos da Luz, Paulo Chagastelles Sabroza, Liana Wernersbach Pinto
An ecological study aimed at analyzing homicide rates and actual bodily harm was conducted in Itaboraí, in the years 2010 to 2011. The entire municipality was used in the study covering critical and non-critical areas. The data came from the Information System for the Public Security Institute in Rio de Janeiro state. The territories were identified and defined by referring to studies on illegal occupations of areas. The snowballing method was used for the social recognition of poor conditions. The morphological differentiation of urban and housing standards marked the locations...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411382/differences-in-neuropsychological-functioning-between-homicidal-and-nonviolent-schizophrenia-samples
#5
John Stratton, Derin J Cobia, James Reilly, Michael Brook, Robert E Hanlon
Few studies have compared performance on neurocognitive measures between violent and nonviolent schizophrenia samples. A better understanding of neurocognitive dysfunction in violent individuals with schizophrenia could increase the efficacy of violence reduction strategies and aid in risk assessment and adjudication processes. This study aimed to compare neuropsychological performance between 25 homicide offenders with schizophrenia and 25 nonviolent schizophrenia controls. The groups were matched for age, race, sex, and handedness...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392520/pre-participation-screening-of-asymptomatic-athletes-don-t-do-stupid-stuff
#6
REVIEW
A Mosterd
Catastrophic events, be it traffic accidents, natural disasters or homicides, always lead to scrutiny. Could we have seen the event coming and could it have been prevented? In the case of a sudden cardiac arrest of a seemingly healthy athlete the public outcry is not any different. Despite an intrinsic appeal for screening to prevent similar events, there is no evidence that justifies routine cardiovascular pre-participation screening of athletes. On balance, cardiovascular screening in athletes will most likely do more harm than good...
February 1, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389917/surveillance-for-violent-deaths-national-violent-death-reporting-system-18-states-2014
#7
Katherine A Fowler, Shane P D Jack, Bridget H Lyons, Carter J Betz, Emiko Petrosky
PROBLEM/CONDITION: In 2014, approximately 59,000 persons died in the United States as a result of violence-related injuries. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 18 U.S. states for 2014. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2014...
February 2, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388482/a-grounded-theory-of-the-process-of-spiritual-change-among-homicide-survivors
#8
Shannon K Johnson, Brooks Zitzmann
Grounded theory was used to generate a mid-range theory of the process of spiritual change in the lives of survivors of homicide victims. Theoretical sampling guided the selection of 30 participants from a larger study of spiritual change after homicide ( N = 112). Individual interviews were analyzed using a four-step sequence of line-by-line, focused, axial, and selective coding. Analysis generated a closed theory consisting of three fluids, consecutive but nonlinear stages. Each stage consisted of an overarching process and a state of being in the world: (a) Disintegrating: living in a state of shock; (b) Reckoning: living in a state of stagnation; (c) Recreating and reintegrating the self: living in a state of renewal...
January 1, 2018: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366531/-transmission-of-death-certificates-to-cepidc-inserm-related-to-suspicious-deaths-in-france-since-2000
#9
E Richaud-Eyraud, C Rondet, G Rey
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess variability in death certificates' transmission related to suspicious deaths. METHODS: The medical part of death certificates of suspicious deaths (violent or sudden deaths, unknown or ill-defined causes of death) were examined. We studied the frequency of suspicious deaths, in France, for deaths aged under 65, from 2000 to 2013, searching for temporal (2000-2013) and spatial correlations between unknown causes of death and other suspicious causes, and report of an autopsy...
January 20, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363383/a-forensic-evaluation-of-impalement-injuries
#10
Roger W Byard
Impalement injuries transfix a victim in an inescapable or helpless position. A study was undertaken at Forensic Science SA from 2002 to 2016 of all impalement deaths. There were six vehicle accidents (M:F=5:1; age 14-67 years, average age 38.5 years) involving impalements with a tree branch ( n=2; groin and chest), a metal pipe ( n=2; leg and head), a metal bridge railing (groin) and a metal fence post (chest). Two cases (both males, aged 47 and 18 years) had slipped on fences/gates, with impalements of the ankle and groin...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360765/economic-conditions-may-contribute-to-increased-violence-toward-children-a-nationwide-population-based-analysis-of-pediatric-injuries-in-taiwanese-emergency-departments
#11
Yueh-Ping Liu, Ren-Jun Hsu, Mei-Hwan Wu, Chun-Chih Peng, Shu-Ting Chang, Wei-Te Lei, Tzu-Lin Yeh, Jui-Ming Liu, Chien-Yu Lin
Childhood injuries are unfortunately common. Analysis procedures may assist professionals who work with children with developing preventive measures for protecting children's wellness. This study explores the causes of pediatric injuries presenting to an emergency department in Taiwan. This nationwide, population-based study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan (NHIRD). Patients aged <18 years were identified from approximately one million individuals listed in the NHIRD...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360029/law-ethics-and-conversations-between-physicians-and-patients-about-firearms-in-the-home
#12
Alexander D McCourt, Jon S Vernick
Firearms in the home pose a risk to household members, including homicide, suicide, and unintentional deaths. Medical societies urge clinicians to counsel patients about those risks as part of sound medical practice. Depending on the circumstances, clinicians might recommend safe firearm storage, temporary removal of the firearm from the home, or other measures. Certain state firearm laws, however, might present legal and ethical challenges for physicians who counsel patients about guns in the home. Specifically, we discuss state background check laws for gun transfers, safe gun storage laws, and laws forbidding physicians from engaging in certain firearm-related conversations with their patients...
January 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353245/new-who-violence-prevention-information-system-an-interactive-knowledge-platform-of-scientific-findings-on-violence
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie Burrows, Alexander Butchart, Nadia Butler, Zara Quigg, Mark A Bellis, Christopher Mikton
Scientific information on violence can be difficult to compile and understand. It is scattered across websites, databases, technical reports and academic journals, and rarely addresses all types of violence. In response, in October 2017 WHO released the Violence Prevention Information System or Violence Info, an online interactive collection of scientific information about the prevalence, consequences, risk factors and preventability of all forms of interpersonal violence. It covers homicide, child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner violence, elder abuse and sexual violence...
January 20, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341121/violence-guns-and-suicide-in-new-orleans-results-from-a-qualitative-study-of-recent-suicide-decedents
#14
Rajeev Ramchand, Enchanté Franklin, Elizabeth Thornton, Sarah M Deland, Jeffrey C Rouse
Many Americans own guns to protect themselves against other people, but there is evidence that both victimization and gun access increase suicide risk. We conducted qualitative interviews with informants of 17 suicide cases in New Orleans of the 60 who died between January 2015 and April 2016 to understand the relationship between past trauma, gun access and storage, and suicide. Nine cases had experienced a past trauma, including three who had recently had a family member killed by homicide. Eight died via firearm; of those, seven owned the guns they used to take their lives and stored them locked (but loaded) at home or in their cars...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339839/trends-in-trauma-related-mortality-among-adolescents-a-6-year-snapshot-from-a-teaching-hospital-s-post-mortem-data
#15
Sachil Kumar, Anoop K Verma
Introduction: The aim is to explore the trends in trauma mortality in children aged 0-18 years can help to co-ordinate resources toward research and programs to reduce the burden. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out on adolescents ≤18 years of age autopsied according to the attorney request at Forensic Medicine & Toxicology department of King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India in the period from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2014...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339007/suicides-homicides-accidents-and-undetermined-deaths-in-the-u-s-military-comparisons-to-the-u-s-population-and-by-military-separation-status
#16
Mark A Reger, Derek J Smolenski, Nancy A Skopp, Melinda J Metzger-Abamukang, Han K Kang, Tim A Bullman, Gregory A Gahm
PURPOSE: To compare rates of external causes of mortality among individuals who served in the military (before and after separation from the military) to the U.S. POPULATION: HASH(0x33b0a70) METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined all 3.9 million service members who served from 2002 to 2007. External cause mortality data from 2002 to 2009 were used to calculate standardized mortality ratios. Negative binomial regression compared differences in the mortality rates for pre- and post-separation...
December 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338953/violent-crime-and-park-use-in-low-income-urban-neighborhoods
#17
Bing Han, Deborah A Cohen, Kathryn P Derose, Jiang Li, Stephanie Williamson
INTRODUCTION: Crime and safety are often cited as potential hurdles to park use and park-based physical activity. Using comprehensive data sources including both objective and subjective measurements at the park level and the individual level, this study aimed to assess the association between crime rates and use of local parks in low-income urban neighborhoods. METHODS: The authors observed 48 parks and conducted local resident surveys in low-income neighborhoods in Los Angeles during a 2-year study period (2013-2015)...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335777/fully-automatic-ct-histogram-based-fat-estimation-in-dead-bodies
#18
Michael Hubig, Sebastian Schenkl, Holger Muggenthaler, Felix Güttler, Andreas Heinrich, Ulf Teichgräber, Gita Mall
Post-mortem body cooling is the foundation of temperature-based death time estimations (TDE) in homicide cases. Forensic science generally provides two types of p.m. body cooling models, the phenomenological and the physical models. Since both of them have to implement important individual parameters like the quantity of abdominal fat explicitly or implicitly, a more exact quantification and localization of abdominal fat is a desideratum in TDE. Particularly for the physical models, a better knowledge of the abdominal fat distribution could lead to relevant improvements in TDEs...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332507/an-evaluation-of-the-impacts-of-changing-firearms-legislation-on-australian-female-firearm-homicide-victimization-rates
#19
Samara McPhedran
Reducing lethal violence against women requires comprehensive measures addressing individual, social, economic, cultural, and situational factors. Regarding situational factors, access to weapons-and firearm access in particular-has received notable research attention. However, most study comes from the United States of America, and findings may not apply elsewhere. The current study examines whether changing gun laws in Australia affected female firearm homicide victimization. Female firearm homicide victimization may have been affected; however, no significant impacts were found for male firearm homicide victimization...
September 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331713/repeated-attempted-homicide-by-administration-of-drugs-documented-by-hair-analysis
#20
Valérie Baillif-Couniou, Christophe Bartoli, Caroline Sastre, Marjorie Chèze, Marc Deveaux, Georges Léonetti, Anne-Laure Pélissier-Alicot
Attempted murder by repeated poisoning is quite rare. The authors describe the case of a 62-year-old man who was admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for neurological disturbances complicated by inhalation pneumopathy. He presented a loss of consciousness while his wife was visiting him at the ICU (H0). Forty-eight hours later (H48), police officers apprehended the patient's wife pouring a liquid into his fruit salad at the hospital. Toxicological analyses of a blood sample and the infusion equipment (H0), as well as the fruit salad and its container (H48), confirmed the attempted poisoning with cyamemazine (H0) and hydrochloric acid (H48)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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