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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102097/familiar-auditory-sensory-training-in-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-study
#1
Emily Galassi Sullivan, Ann Guernon, Brett Blabas, Amy A Herrold, Theresa L-B Pape
PURPOSE: The evaluation and treatment for patients with prolonged periods of seriously impaired consciousness following traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as a vegetative or minimally conscious state, poses considerable challenges, particularly in the chronic phases of recovery. METHOD: This blinded crossover study explored the effects of familiar auditory sensory training (FAST) compared with a sham stimulation in a patient seven years post severe TBI. Baseline data were collected over 4 weeks to account for variability in status with neurobehavioral measures, including the Disorders of Consciousness scale (DOCS), Coma Near Coma scale (CNC), and Consciousness Screening Algorithm...
January 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099136/alexithymia-and-automatic-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-a-systematic-review
#2
Uta-Susan Donges, Thomas Suslow
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093373/improved-arousal-and-motor-function-using-zolpidem-in-a-patient-with-space-occupying-intracranial-lesions-a-case-report
#3
Martin Nicholas Bomalaski, Sean Robinson Smith
Patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) have profound functional limitations with few treatment options for improving arousal and quality of life. Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic used to treat insomnia that has also been observed to paradoxically improve arousal in those with DOC, such as the vegetative or minimally conscious states (MCS). There is little information on its use in DOC patients with intracranial space occupying lesions. We present a case of a 24year old man in a MCS due to CNS lymphoma who was observed to have increased arousal and improved motor function following administration of zolpidem...
January 13, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093358/mapping-the-functional-connectome-traits-of-levels-of-consciousness
#4
Enrico Amico, Daniele Marinazzo, Carol Di Perri, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Mario Dzemidzic, Murielle Kirsch, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Joaquín Goñi
Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086891/measurement-of-electrocardiograms-in-a-bath-through-tap-water-utilizing-capacitive-coupling-electrodes-placed-outside-the-bathtub-wall
#5
Kosuke Motoi, Yasuhiro Yamakoshi, Takehiro Yamakoshi, Hiroaki Sakai, Naoto Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Yamakoshi
BACKGROUND: Taking a bath sometimes poses a risk for subjects with chronic cardiopulmonary disorders, due to the thermal effect and water pressure on his/her body. The ECG measurement would be helpful for the early recognition of abnormal cardiac beats and respiratory conditions. This paper describes a new attempt to improve on previous bathtub ECG measurement techniques that had electrodes placed inside the bathtub that were intrusive to the subjects' bathing experience. This study is concerned with the initial development of a method to measure an electrocardiogram (ECG) through tap water without conscious awareness of the presence of electrodes that are placed outside the bathtub wall...
January 11, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064283/time-and-events-on-the-phenomenology-of-temporal-experience-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-2
#6
Thomas Fuchs, Zeno Van Duppen
Temporality and its disturbances have been a major topic of phenomenological psychopathology. Particularly Minkowski, Kimura, and Blankenburg described the temporal dimension of schizophrenia. After a brief introduction to their ideas, we describe more recent approaches to temporality in more depth. To this aim, we first distinguish between implicit and explicit time. Implicit time is based on the constitutive synthesis of inner time consciousness on the one hand, and on the conative-affective dynamics of life on the other...
January 7, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059800/twist-and-turn-into-chronic-disorders-of%C3%A2-consciousness-potential-role-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-auditory-stapedial-reflex
#7
Antonino Naro, Rocco Bruno, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Carlo Salviera, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC), including minimally conscious state (MCS) and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), typically show an awareness impairment paralleled by a significant reflex hyper-excitability, which depend on the cortical deafferentation following brain-damage-induced thalamocortical system deterioration. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown a residual preservation of cortico-subcortical pathways that may sustain residual fragments of awareness in some DOC patients...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056870/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-nmdar-antibody-encephalitis-presents-in-atypical-types-and-coexists-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-or-neurosyphilis
#8
Kaiyu Qin, Wenqing Wu, Yuming Huang, Dongmei Xu, Lei Zhang, Bowen Zheng, Meijuan Jiang, Cheng Kou, Junhua Gao, Wurong Li, Jinglin Zhang, Sumei Wang, Yanfei Luan, Chaoling Yan, Dan Xu, Xinmei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by epileptic seizures, psychosis, dyskinesia, consciousness impairments, and autonomic instability. Symptoms are always various. Sometimes it presents in milder or incomplete forms. We report 4 cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with incomplete forms, 3 cases of which were accompanied by neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder or neurosyphilis respectively. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old man presented with dysarthria, movement disorder and occasional seizures...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054130/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Marlene Fischer, Erich Schmutzhard
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological disorder of (sub)acute onset characterized by varied neurological symptoms, which may include headache, impaired visual acuity or visual field deficits, disorders of consciousness, confusion, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. In a majority of patients the clinical presentation includes elevated arterial blood pressure up to hypertensive emergencies. Neuroimaging, in particular magnetic resonance imaging, frequently shows a distinctive parieto-occipital pattern with a symmetric distribution of changes reflecting vasogenic edema...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053539/complex-neurological-symptoms-in-bilateral-thalamic-stroke-due-to-percheron-artery-occlusion
#10
Paola Caruso, Paolo Manganotti, Rita Moretti
The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomical variant where a single thalamic perforating artery arises from the proximal posterior cerebral artery (P1 segment) between the basilar artery and the posterior communicating artery and supplies the rostral mesencephalon and both paramedian territories of the thalami. Almost one-third of human brains present this variant. Occlusion of the artery of Percheron mostly results in a bilateral medial thalamic infarction, which usually manifests with altered consciousness (including coma), vertical gaze paresis, and cognitive disturbance...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041983/basic-discriminative-and-semantic-processing-in-patients-in-the-vegetative-and-minimally-conscious-state
#11
Helena Erlbeck, Ruben G L Real, Boris Kotchoubey, Donatella Mattia, Jakob Bargak, Andrea Kübler
Patients who survive injuries to the brain following accidents or diseases often acquire a disorder of consciousness (DOC). Assessment of the state of consciousness in these patients is difficult since they are usually incapable of reproducible motor movements. The application of event-related potentials (ERP) recorded via EEG constitutes one promising approach to complement the assessment of cognitive functions in DOC patients. For these assessments, a hierarchical approach was suggested which means that paradigms aiming at higher order ERPs are only presented if early responses were found...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032004/orbitofrontal-cortical-thinning-and-aggression-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#12
Daniel J Epstein, Margaret Legarreta, Elliot Bueler, Jace King, Erin McGlade, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
INTRODUCTION: Although mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) comprises 80% of all TBI, the morphological examination of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in relation to clinical symptoms such as aggression, anxiety and depression in a strictly mTBI sample has never before been performed. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the study was to determine if mTBI patients would show morphological differences in the OFC and if the morphology of this region would relate to clinical symptoms...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031585/suicide-prevention-beyond-mental-disorder
#13
Lakshmi Vijayakumar
Suicide is a conscious act of the will with personal and societal ramifications. Its conscious and volitional nature deepens its tragic impact. India has high suicide rates compared to the other countries and also has intriguing distinctiveness due to the reports of higher rates from areas with better health indices and gender opportunities. In this article, I present a broader paradigm, in contrast to the usual 'mental disorder paradigm', which puts forward practical points for a multi-level engagement of healthcare service, community and policy makers...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011390/reversible-mri-findings-in-a-case-of-acute-intermittent-porphyria-with-a-novel-mutation-in-the-porphobilinogen-deaminase-gene
#14
Jing Yang, Hang Yang, Qianlong Chen, Baolai Hua, Tienan Zhu, Yongqiang Zhao, Xuezhong Yu, Huadong Zhu, Zhou Zhou
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), the third enzyme in the of heme biosynthetic pathway. It can affect the autonomic, peripheral, and central nervous system. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinicoradiological entity characterized by headache, seizures, altered consciousness, and visual disorder associated with potentially reversible neuroradiological abnormalities predominantly in the parieto-occipital lobes...
December 18, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009244/neuroethics-and-disorders-of-consciousness-discerning-brain-states-in-clinical-practice-and-research
#15
Joseph J Fins
Decisions about end-of-life care and participation in clinical research for patients with disorders of consciousness begin with diagnostic discernment. Accurately distinguishing between brain states clarifies clinicians' ethical obligations and responsibilities. Central to this effort is the obligation to provide neuropalliative care for patients in the minimally conscious state who can perceive pain and to restore functional communication through neuroprosthetics, drugs, and rehabilitation to patients with intact but underactivated neural networks...
December 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008350/safety-profile-of-lamotrigine-in-overdose
#16
REVIEW
Akintunde Alabi, Adam Todd, Andrew Husband, Joe Reilly
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant as well as a mood stabilizer. Apart from its established use in the treatment of epilepsy, there has been an expansion of its use in the treatment of mental disorders. Patients with epilepsy as well as those with mental disorders are at increased risk of deliberate drug overdoses. An evidence base for the safety profile of lamotrigine in overdose is an essential tool for prescribers. The objective of this study was to carry out a narrative synthesis of the existing evidence for the safety profile of lamotrigine in overdose...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007989/cad-mutations-and-uridine-responsive-epileptic-encephalopathy
#17
Johannes Koch, Johannes A Mayr, Bader Alhaddad, Christian Rauscher, Jörgen Bierau, Reka Kovacs-Nagy, Karlien L M Coene, Ingrid Bader, Monika Holzhacker, Holger Prokisch, Hanka Venselaar, Ron A Wevers, Felix Distelmaier, Tilman Polster, Steffen Leiz, Cornelia Betzler, Tim M Strom, Wolfgang Sperl, Thomas Meitinger, Saskia B Wortmann, Tobias B Haack
Unexplained global developmental delay and epilepsy in childhood pose a major socioeconomic burden. Progress in defining the molecular bases does not often translate into effective treatment. Notable exceptions include certain inborn errors of metabolism amenable to dietary intervention. CAD encodes a multifunctional enzyme involved in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Alternatively, pyrimidines can be recycled from uridine. Exome sequencing in three families identified biallelic CAD mutations in four children with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and anaemia with anisopoikilocytosis...
December 21, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006664/the-high-burden-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-comorbidities-amongst-homeless-adults-with-mental-illness
#18
Jane Topolovec-Vranic, Andree Schuler, Agnes Gozdzik, Julian Somers, Paul-Émile Bourque, C James Frankish, Jalila Jbilou, Sarah Pakzad, Luis Ivan Palma Lazgare, Stephen W Hwang
OBJECTIVE: characterize the prevalence of self-reported head injury with loss of consciousness (LOC) and associated demographic, clinical and service use factors in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. METHOD: Participants in the At Home/Chez Soi study were interviewed at the time of study enrollment regarding their history of head injuries, mental and physical health diagnoses and justice system and healthcare interactions. Sociodemographic and clinical data were also collected...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004435/biopsy-proven-case-of-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-associated-vasculitis-of-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Kohei Kano 鹿野耕平, Takayuki Katayama, Shiori Takeguchi, Asuka Asanome, Kae Takahashi, Tsukasa Saito, Jun Sawada, Masato Saito, Ryogo Anei, Kyousuke Kamada, Naoyuki Miyokawa, Hiroshi Nishihara, Naoyuki Hasebe
A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with rapidly deteriorating consciousness disturbance. She had a 7-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which had been treated with methotrexate (MTX) and prednisolone. Brain T2-weighted MRI showed diffuse high-intensity lesions in the cerebral subcortical and deep white matter, bilateral basal ganglia and thalamus. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed elevated protein levels and positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. Human immunodeficiency virus was negative...
December 22, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990636/factitious-disorder-in-a-patient-claiming-to-be-a-sexually-sadistic-serial-killer
#20
Christopher A Fischer, Mace Beckson, Park Dietz
Factitious disorder involves the conscious simulation of psychological or physiological symptoms of illness, for the purpose of fulfilling the unconscious desire to be taken care of or to assume the "sick role." Typically patients with factitious disorder simulate conditions that are designed to arouse feelings of empathy in care providers with the intention to engage them in caretaking. However, patients might also simulate conditions that arouse revulsion or rejection and still meet full diagnostic criteria for factitious disorder...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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