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disorders of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782953/electrodermal-reactivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#1
Jacques Luauté, Anne Dubois, Lizette Heine, Chloé Guironnet, Ariane Juliat, Valérie Gaveau, Barbara Tillmann, Fabien Perrin
OBJECTIVES: After a coma, one major challenge is the detection of awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness. In some patients, the only manifestation indicative of awareness is an appropriate emotional response. Preferred music is a powerful medium to elicit emotions and auto-biographical memory. Furthermore, music has been shown to improve cognitive functions both in healthy subjects and patients with neurological impairment. We hypothesized that signs of awareness could be enhanced in some patients with disorders of consciousness under appropriate emotional stimulation such as preferred music and also probably preferred odors...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779405/how-many-patients-in-a-prolonged-disorder-of-consciousness-might-need-a-best-interests-meeting-about-starting-or-continuing-gastrostomy-feeding
#2
Derick T Wade
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of people in a prolonged disorder of consciousness (PDOC) who may need a formal best interests decision-making process to consider starting and/or continuing life-sustaining treatment each year in the population of a developed country. METHOD: Identification of studies on people with a PDOC giving information about incidence, and/or prevalence, and/or cause, and/or location of long-term care. Sources included systematic reviews, a new search of MEDLINE (April 2018), and a personal collection of papers...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779187/dualism-and-its-place-in-a-philosophical-structure-for-psychiatry
#3
Hane Htut Maung
It is often claimed in parts of the psychiatric literature that neuroscientific research into the biological basis of mental disorder undermines dualism in the philosophy of mind. This paper shows that such a claim does not apply to all forms of dualism. Focusing on Kenneth Kendler's discussion of the mind-body problem in biological psychiatry, I argue that such criticism of dualism often conflates the psychological and phenomenal concepts of the mental. Moreover, it fails to acknowledge that there are different varieties of dualism, and so overlooks the important metaphysical insights of contemporary dualist philosophers...
May 19, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772308/prostheses-as-extensions-of-the-body-progress-and-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Maria Niedernhuber, Damiano G Barone, Bigna Lenggenhager
Recent years have seen a surge of interest in the incorporation of artificial limbs. This research promises to provide individuals with sensorimotor disorders such as amputations with prostheses which feel like their own body part. While neuroscience made a leap towards uncovering the basic neurocognitive mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness, the development of incorporated prosthetic limbs still faces substantial challenges in basic neuroscience and in clinical reality. Here we critically examine recent findings on prosthesis incorporation to aid patient rehabilitation in the context of advances in cognitive and applied neuroscience as well as technology...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772217/altered-activity-and-information-flow-in-the-default-mode-network-of-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy-rats
#5
Yan Cui, Shuang Yu, Tianjiao Zhang, Yangsong Zhang, Yang Xia, Dezhong Yao, Daqing Guo
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is considered a brain activity disorder that is likely related to allomnesia and conscious disturbance. In rodents, TLE epileptiform discharges can be triggered by systemic administration of a dose of pilocarpine. However, how these pilocarpine-induced epileptiform discharges generate and propagate through the whole brain has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to assess alterations of activity and information flow in the default mode network (DMN) during TLE epileptiform discharges in pilocarpine-induced TLE rats...
May 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770146/effects-of-20-hz-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-disorders-of-consciousness-a-resting-state-electroencephalography-study
#6
Fangping He, Min Wu, Fanxia Meng, Yangfan Hu, Jian Gao, Zhongqin Chen, Wangxiao Bao, Kehong Liu, Benyan Luo, Gang Pan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as an experimental approach for the treatment of disorders of consciousness (DOC). To date, there has been little research into the use of rTMS in DOC and the therapeutic effects have been variously documented. This study aimed to examine the effects of 20 Hz rTMS on the electroencephalography (EEG) reactivity and clinical response in patients with DOC and to explore the neuromodulatory effects of high-frequency rTMS. In this randomized, sham-controlled, crossover study, real or sham 20 Hz rTMS was applied to the left primary motor cortex (M1) of patients with DOC for 5 consecutive days...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765311/altered-sense-of-body-ownership-and-agency-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype-a-rubber-hand-illusion-study
#7
Daniela Rabellino, Dalila Burin, Sherain Harricharan, Chantelle Lloyd, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
Traumatic experiences have been linked to the development of altered states of consciousness affecting bodily perception, including alterations in body ownership and in sense of agency, the conscious experience of the body as one's own and under voluntary control. Severe psychological trauma and prolonged distress may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Together, symptoms of derealization and, related specifically to the sense of body ownership and agency, of depersonalization (where parts of the body or the entire body itself is perceived as detached and out of control), constitute the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762103/differentiation-analysis-of-continuous-electroencephalographic-activity-triggered-by-video-clip-contents
#8
Armand Mensen, William Marshall, Shuntaro Sasai, Giulio Tononi
While viewing a video clip, we experience a wide variety of contents, from low-level features of the images to high-level ideas such as the storyline. Each change in our experience must be supported by some corresponding change in neurophysiological activity. Differentiation analysis, which quantifies the differences in brain activity by measuring the distances between observed brain states, was applied here to continuous high-density electroencephalographic data recorded while participants watched short video clips...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759943/randomized-controlled-trial-of-home-based-4-week-tdcs-in-chronic-minimally-conscious-state
#9
Géraldine Martens, Nicolas Lejeune, Anthony Terrence O'Brien, Felipe Fregni, Charlotte Martial, Sarah Wannez, Steven Laureys, Aurore Thibaut
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic disorders of consciousness face a significant lack of treatment options. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating the feasibility and the behavioral effects of home-based transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied by relatives or caregivers, in chronic patients in minimally conscious state (MCS). METHODS: Each participant received, in a randomized order, 20 sessions of active and 20 sessions of sham tDCS applied over the prefrontal cortex for 4 weeks; separated by 8 weeks of washout...
May 2, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758557/a-phenomenological-approach-to-psychopathology-of-imagination-development-of-a-descriptive-instrument-examination-of-anomalous-fantasy-and-imagination
#10
Andreas Rosén Rasmussen, Helene Stephensen, Julie Nordgaard, Josef Parnas
This paper serves as an introduction to the Examination of Anomalous Fantasy and Imagination (EAFI) - a novel instrument for a semistructured, phenomenological exploration of psychopathology of imagination. We present an account of the phenomenology of imagination and proceed to a presentation of the disorders of imagination that are addressed in the EAFI. Furthermore, the interrater reliability of the EAFI was examined in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample of 20 in-patients. The interrater agreement ranged from 0...
May 14, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755090/-successful-surgical-repair-of-the-aortic-annular-infective-endocarditis-with-subvalvular-abscess-report-of-a-case
#11
Manabu Shiraishi, Daigo Shinoda, Nobu Yokoyama, Satoshi Itoh
A 49-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with a history of fever for 2 weeks and consciousness disorder.Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated aortic regurgitation with a mobile fibrous band adhering to the right cusp. Infective endocarditis was diagnosed by positive blood culture and echocardiographic findings. Emergent aortic valve surgery was performed because of uncontrollable infection. A destroyed aortic annulus and subvalvular abscess was found during the operation. Removal of abscess tissue and annuloplasty with self-pericardium were successfully performed...
May 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753606/immunizations-under-sedation-at-a-paediatric-hospital-in-melbourne-australia-from-2012-2016
#12
Daryl R Cheng, Sonja Elia, Kirsten P Perrett
BACKGROUND: Sedation for immunizations is of particular importance in a subset of paediatric patients with anxiety disorders, needle phobia, developmental or behavioural disorders. The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) Melbourne offers a unique immunization under sedation service for these patients. We aimed to evaluate the number and types of patients using inpatient sedation for immunizations, distraction and sedation techniques used, and outcomes of these procedures. METHODS: A medical record review was conducted on all patients who had immunization under sedation between January 2012 to December 2016 in the RCH Day Medical Unit (DMU)...
May 9, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740909/the-role-of-post-traumatic-stress-and-post-traumatic-growth-on-online-information-use-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#13
A Casellas-Grau, E C Sumalla, M Lleras, J Vives, A Sirgo, C León, A Rodríguez, G Campos, Y Valverde, J M Borràs, C Ochoa
OBJECTIVE: Changes perceived as both positive (e.g., post-traumatic growth [PTG]) and negative (e.g. post-traumatic stress symptoms [PTSS]) have been associated with intensive internet use among breast cancer survivors. In this multi-center study, we analyzed the role of PTG and PTSS on the amount of time spent looking for online cancer information, its content, and its psychological impact. METHODS: PTSS and PTG were assessed in 182 breast cancer survivors using the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory questionnaires...
May 8, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740372/large-scale-brain-simulation-and-disorders-of-consciousness-mapping-technical-and-conceptual-issues
#14
Michele Farisco, Jeanette H Kotaleski, Kathinka Evers
Modeling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate the plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740029/random-feedback-makes-listeners-tone-deaf
#15
Dominique T Vuvan, Benjamin Rich Zendel, Isabelle Peretz
The mental representation of pitch structure (tonal knowledge) is a core component of musical experience and is learned implicitly through exposure to music. One theory of congenital amusia (tone deafness) posits that conscious access to tonal knowledge is disrupted, leading to a severe deficit of music cognition. We tested this idea by providing random performance feedback to neurotypical listeners while they listened to melodies for tonal incongruities and had their electrical brain activity monitored. The introduction of random feedback was associated with a reduction of accuracy and confidence, and a suppression of the late positive brain response usually elicited by conscious detection of a tonal violation...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738102/validation-of-the-brief-confusion-assessment-method-for-screening-delirium-in-elderly-medical-patients-in-a-german-emergency-department
#16
Verena Baten, Hans-Jörg Busch, Caroline Busche, Bonaventura Schmid, Miriam Heupel-Reuter, Evgeniy Perlov, Jochen Brich, Stefan Klöppel
BACKGROUND: Delirium is frequent in elderly patients presenting in the emergency department (ED). Despite the severe prognosis, the majority of delirium cases remain undetected by emergency physicians (EPs). At the time of our study there was no valid delirium screening tool available for EDs in German-speaking regions. We aimed to evaluate the brief Confusion Assessment Method (bCAM) for a German ED during the daily work routine. METHODS: We implemented the bCAM into practice in a German interdisciplinary high volume ED, and evaluated the bCAM's validity in a convenience sample of medical patients aged ≥70 years...
May 8, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736551/personally-relevant-stimuli-during-assessment-of-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#17
Lizette Heine, Fabien Perrin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735119/paroxysmal-dyskinesias
#18
Sara McGuire, Swati Chanchani, Divya S Khurana
Paroxysmal dyskinesias (PD) are hyperkinetic movement disorders where patients usually retain consciousness. Paroxysmal dyskinesias can be kinesigenic (PKD), nonkinesigenic (PNKD), and exercise induced (PED). These are usually differentiated from each other based on their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Genetic causes of PD are continuing to be discovered. Genes found to be involved in the pathogenesis of PD include MR-1, PRRT2, SLC2A1, and KCNMA1. The differential diagnosis is broad as PDs can mimic psychogenic events, seizure, or other movement disorders...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734188/the-self-in-the-spectrum-a-closer-look-at-the-temporal-stability-of-self-disorders-in-schizophrenia
#19
Andrea Raballo, Antonio Preti
Self-disorders are temporally persisting, experiential anomalies of subjective experiences that index liability to schizophrenia. They impact on the temporal unfolding of concomitant, diagnostic symptoms and can be suitably characterized through the Examination of Anomalous Self Ex periences (EASE). Capitalizing on the results of a recent longitudinal study, we explored the relevant patterns of interaction within self-disorders' descriptive dimensions (i.e., stream of consciousness, presence, corporeality, demarcation, and solipsism)...
May 7, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728939/coping-strategies-in-caregivers-of-disorders-of-consciousness-patients
#20
Francesco Corallo, Lilla Bonanno, Viviana Lo Buono, Simona De Salvo, Carmela Rifici, Alessia Bramanti, Silvia Marino
OBJECTIVE: The management of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) has raised several important ethical, social, and medical issues. It is also known that families and caregivers are subjected to physical and emotional load due to their assistance activity. The aim of this observational study was to compare distress and coping strategies used among caregivers of two kinds of DOC: vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS). METHODS: We have enrolled 80 caregivers (mean age 47...
May 4, 2018: Neurological Sciences
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