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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526638/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-salmonella-and-shigella-spp-among-children-with-gastroenteritis-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital
#1
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mina Moradzadeh, Hamid Eshaghi, Amitis Ramezani, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Setareh Mamishi
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is one of the leading cause of illnesses through the world, especially in developing countries.Salmonella and Shigella infections are considered as the main public health problems in children. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Shigella spp. among children with gastroenteritis in an Iranian referral hospital. METHODS: During April 2013 to April 2014, all medical records of children with gastroenteritis admitted to a pediatric medical center were evaluated...
May 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526210/early-control-treatment-with-montelukast-in-preschool-children-with-asthma-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Mizuho Nagao, Masanori Ikeda, Norimasa Fukuda, Chizu Habukawa, Tetsuro Kitamura, Toshio Katsunuma, Takao Fujisawa
BACKGROUND: While Japanese guideline recommends initial control treatment for preschool children with asthma symptoms more than once a month, Western guidelines do not. To determine whether control treatment with montelukast was more effective than as-needed β2-agonists in this population, we conducted a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Eligible patients were children aged 1-5 years who had asthma symptoms more than once a month but less than once a week. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive montelukast 4 mg daily for 48 weeks or as-needed β2-agonists...
May 16, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526021/current-status-challenges-and-the-way-forward-for-clinical-pharmacy-service-in-ethiopian-public-hospitals
#3
Arebu Issa Bilal, Zelalem Tilahun, Gebremedhin Beedemariam Gebretekle, Belete Ayalneh, Bisrat Hailemeskel, Ephrem Engidawork
BACKGROUND: Clinical pharmacy service has evolved steadily over the past few decades and is now contributing to the 'patient care journey' at all stages. It is improving the safety and effectiveness of medicines and has made a significant contribution to the avoidance of medication errors. In Ethiopia, clinical pharmacy service is in its initial phase, being started in July 2013. This study therefore aimed at assessing the status, challenges and way forward of clinical pharmacy service in the country...
May 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525903/polymorphisms-in-methotrexate-transporters-and-their-relationship-to-plasma-methotrexate-levels-toxicity-of-high-dose-methotrexate-and-outcome-of-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#4
Shu-Guang Liu, Chao Gao, Rui-Dong Zhang, Xiao-Xi Zhao, Lei Cui, Wei-Jing Li, Zhen-Ping Chen, Zhi-Xia Yue, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Min-Yuan Wu, Jian-Xiang Wang, Zhi-Gang Li, Hu-Yong Zheng
High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) plays an important role in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) although there is great inter-patient variability in the efficacy and toxicity of MTX. The relationship between polymorphisms in genes encoding MTX transporters and MTX response is controversial. In the present study, 322 Chinese children with standard- and intermediate-risk ALL were genotyped for 12 polymorphisms. SLCO1B1 rs10841753 showed a significant association with plasma MTX levels at 48 h (P = 0...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525513/an-observational-assessment-of-anesthesia-capacity-in-madagascar-as-a-prerequisite-to-the-development-of-a-national-surgical-plan
#5
Linden S Baxter, Vaonandianina A Ravelojaona, Hasiniaina N Rakotoarison, Alison Herbert, Emily Bruno, Kristin L Close, Vanessa Andean, Hery H Andriamanjato, Mark G Shrime, Michelle C White
BACKGROUND: The global lack of anesthesia capacity is well described, but country-specific data are needed to provide country-specific solutions. We aimed to assess anesthesia capacity in Madagascar as part of the development of a Ministry of Health national surgical plan. METHODS: As part of a nationwide surgical safety quality improvement project, we surveyed 19 of 22 regional hospitals, representing surgical facilities caring for 75% of the total population. The assessment was divided into 3 areas: anesthesia workforce density, infrastructure and equipment, and medications...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525510/zika-virus-obstetric-and-pediatric-anesthesia-considerations
#6
Jacqueline L Tutiven, Benjamin T Pruden, James S Banks, Mario Stevenson, David J Birnbach
As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524832/measles-outbreak-in-pediatric-hematology-and-oncology-patients-in-shanghai-2015
#7
Yan-Ling Ge, Xiao-Wen Zhai, Yan-Feng Zhu, Xiang-Shi Wang, Ai-Mei Xia, Yue-Fang Li, Mei Zeng
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial progress toward measles control are making in China, measles outbreaks in immunocompromised population still pose a challenge to interrupt endemic transmission. This study aimed to investigate the features of measles in pediatric hematology and oncology patients and explore the reasons behind the outbreak. METHODS: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data of immunocompromised measles children. All suspected measles cases were laboratory-confirmed based on the presence of measles IgM and/or identification of measles RNA...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523862/transatlantic-medical-consultation-and-second-opinion-in-pediatric-cardiology-has-benefit-past-patient-care-a-case-study-in-videoconferencing
#8
Lubica Kovacikova, Martin Zahorec, Peter Skrak, Brian D Hanna, R Lee Vogel
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving form of modern information and communication technology used to deliver clinical services and educational activities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to report and analyze our experience with transatlantic consultation via videoconferencing in pediatric cardiology. METHODS: In February, 2013, videoconferencing project was launched between a medium-volume pediatric cardiac center in Bratislava, Slovakia and subspecialty experts from a high-volume pediatric cardiac program at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), USA...
May 19, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523341/cost-of-unnecessary-testing-in-the-evaluation-of-pediatric-syncope
#9
Connor Redd, Cameron Thomas, Martha Willis, Michelle Amos, Jeffrey Anderson
Syncope is a common and a typically benign clinical problem in children and adolescents. The majority of tests ordered in otherwise healthy pediatric patients presenting with syncope have low diagnostic yield. This study quantifies testing and corresponding patient charges in a group of pediatric patients presenting for outpatient evaluation for syncope. Patients seen between 3/2011 and 4/2013 in the multi-disciplinary Syncope Clinic at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center were enrolled in a registry which was reviewed for patient information...
May 18, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523117/evaluation-of-pediatric-residents-attitudes-toward-ethical-conflict-a-cross-sectional-study-in-tehran-iran
#10
Maliheh Kadivar, Marjan Mardani-Hamooleh, Shiva Shayestefar
Ethical conflicts are recognized as critical aspects in assessing competence in clinical communication. Moreover, pediatrics residents may face more problems, compared to other disciplines; due to the specific characteristics of the age group receiving services as well as the presence of their families. This study has been conducted with the aim of determining the attitude and perspective of pediatric residents toward ethical conflicts in the field of pediatrics. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on all residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (90 residents), selected through census method, in 2014...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522604/hospital-level-variation-in-practice-patterns-and-patient-outcomes-for-pediatric-patients-hospitalized-with-functional-constipation
#11
Jamie Librizzi, Samuel Flores, Keith Morse, Kelly Kelleher, Jodi Carter, Ryan Bode
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Constipation is a common pediatric condition with a prevalence of 3% to 5% in children aged 4 to 17 years. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the management of pediatric patients hospitalized with constipation. The primary objective was to evaluate practice patterns and patient outcomes for the hospital management of functional constipation in US children's hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years hospitalized for functional constipation from 2012 to 2014 by using the Pediatric Health Information System...
May 18, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522280/primary-spinal-glioma-in-children-results-from-a-referral-pediatric-institution-in-shanghai
#12
J Khalil, Z Chuanying, Z Qing, Y Belkacémi, J Mawei
PURPOSE: Primary spinal cord glioma is a rare entity especially in children; accounting for less than 10% of all central nervous system tumors. Low grade is the most reported subtype. Treatment modalities have largely evolved; large improvements have been made in the surgical field but also in both of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the optimal treatment is yet to be defined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A chart review of 11 pediatric patients with a diagnosis of low grade spinal cord glioma at Xhinhua hospital in Shanghai was conducted...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521558/rising-utilization-of-inpatient-pediatric-asthma-pathways
#13
Sunitha V Kaiser, Jonathan Rodean, Arpi Bekmezian, Matt Hall, Samir S Shah, Sanjay Mahant, Kavita Parikh, Rustin Morse, Henry Puls, Michael D Cabana
INTRODUCTION: Clinical pathways are detailed care plans that operationalize evidence-based guidelines into an accessible format for health providers. Their goal is to link evidence to practice to optimize patient outcomes and delivery efficiency. It is unknown to what extent inpatient pediatric asthma pathways are being utilized nationally. OBJECTIVES: (1) Describe inpatient pediatric asthma pathway design and implementation across a large hospital network. (2) Compare characteristics of hospitals with and without pathways...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521330/pediatric-penetrating-neck-trauma-hard-signs-of-injury-and-selective-neck-exploration
#14
Rober A Tessler, Huong Nguyen, Christoper Newton, James Betts
BACKGROUND: Selective neck exploration and computed tomography angiography (CTA) in penetrating neck trauma have been well described in adults. However, data in the pediatric population are sparse. The extent to which these practices have been adopted in pediatric patients is unknown. METHODS: Retrospective, single-center cohort study of pediatric penetrating neck trauma for the years 2001 to 2014 in a dedicated children's hospital/Level 1 pediatric trauma center...
June 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520981/clinical-presentation-and-outcomes-of-children-with-human-granulocytic-anaplasmosis
#15
Anna M Schotthoefer, Matthew C Hall, Satya Vittala, Raza Bajwa, Holly M Frost
Background.: Adults with the tick-borne disease human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) have a spectrum of acute febrile illnesses that, if untreated, might be severe. Clinical presentation and outcomes of children with HGA have been poorly described. Methods.: A retrospective analysis was conducted to determine the frequency, presentation, and outcomes of pediatric patients with HGA between 1994 and 2015 in a region of Wisconsin in which HGA is highly endemic. Patients with related International Classification of Diseases Ninth and Tenth Revision (ICD-9 and ICD-10, respectively) codes or positive HGA laboratory test results were evaluated and classified as having had confirmed, probable, or suspected HGA on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520684/pediatric-trauma-undertriage-in-ohio
#16
Juan P Gurria, Lynn Haas, Misty Troutt, Suzanne Moody, Md Monir Hossain, Mohammad Alfrad Nobel Bhuiyan, Richard A Falcone
BACKGROUND: Appropriate and timely triage is an essential component of a trauma system. In the state of Ohio, there are 6 verified pediatric trauma centers (PTCs) across 8 state regions. The purpose of this study was to better understand the pediatric undertriage rates in the state. METHODS: We used the Ohio Trauma Registry from 2007 to 2012, consisting of 14,045 records of children younger than 16 years admitted to a hospital for more than 48 hours or who sustained a traumatic death...
June 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520669/investigating-the-connection-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-adolescents
#17
Tara Rhine, Amy Cassedy, Keith Owen Yeates, Hudson Gerry Taylor, Michael W Kirkwood, Shari L Wade
OBJECTIVE: To identify potentially modifiable individual and social-environmental correlates of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among adolescents hospitalized for traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: Four pediatric hospitals and 1 general hospital in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Children ages 11 to 18 years, hospitalized for moderate-severe TBI within the past 18 months. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516823/predictors-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-children-with-chronic-heart-disease
#18
Mandy Niemitz, Diana C M Gunst, Hedwig H Hövels-Gürich, Michael Hofbeck, Renate Kaulitz, Christoph Galm, Felix Berger, Nicole Nagdyman, Brigitte Stiller, Thomas Borth-Bruhns, Ines Konzag, Christian Balmer, Lutz Goldbeck
OBJECTIVE: Chronic paediatric heart disease is often associated with residual symptoms, persisting functional restrictions, and late sequelae for psychosocial development. It is, therefore, increasingly important to evaluate the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with chronic heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine medical and socio-demographic variables affecting health-related quality of life in school-aged children and adolescents with chronic heart disease...
May 18, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516426/characterization-of-medication-use-in-a-multicenter-sample-of-pediatric-inpatients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Logan K Wink, Ernest V Pedapati, Ryan Adams, Craig A Erickson, Kahsi A Pedersen, Eric M Morrow, Desmond Kaplan, Matthew Siegel
Nearly 11% of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) undergo psychiatric hospitalization, and 65% are treated with psychotropic medication. Here we characterize psychotropic medication usage in subjects enrolled in the Autism Inpatient Collection. Participant psychotropic medication usage rates topped 90% at admission and discharge, though there was a decline at 2-month follow-up. Antipsychotics, ADHD medications, and sleep aids were the most commonly reported classes of medications. The impact of age, gender, and non-verbal IQ on medication usage rates was minimal, though age and IQ may play a role in prescribing practices...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515550/communication-impairments-in-children-with-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-a-preliminary-study
#20
Shivani Tiwari, Divya Kallianpur, Kelly Ann DeSilva
PURPOSE: Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEMs) are a group of complex genetic conditions, predominantly affecting the pediatric population. While the understanding and identification of various IEMs has significantly improved over recent times, not much is known about the communication disorders in this population. The present study focused on identification and profiling of communication impairments in children diagnosed with IEMs. METHODS: Data was obtained retrospectively from medical records of children visiting a tertiary care hospital over a period of ten years (2005 - 2014)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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