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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073939/nanoscale-molecular-reorganization-of-the-inhibitory-postsynaptic-density-is-a-determinant-of-gabaergic-synaptic-potentiation
#1
Francesca Pennacchietti, Sebastiano Vascon, Thierry Nieus, Christian Rosillo, Sabyasachi Das, Shiva Tyagarajan, Alberto Diaspro, Alessio Del Bue, Enrica Maria Petrini, Andrea Barberis, Francesca Cella Zanacchi
: Gephyrin is a key scaffold protein mediating the anchoring of GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses. Here we exploited super-resolution techniques combined with proximity-based clustering analysis and model simulations to investigate the single molecule gephyrin reorganization during plasticity of inhibitory synapses in mouse hippocampal cultured neurons. This approach revealed that during the expression of inhibitory long-term potentiation the increase of gephyrin density at postsynaptic sites is associated with the promoted formation of gephyrin nano-domains...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069509/controlling-the-morphology-and-outgrowth-of-nerve-and-neuroglial-cells-the-effect-of-surface-topography
#2
REVIEW
C Simitzi, A Ranella, E Stratakis
: Unlike other tissue types, like epithelial tissue, which consist of cells with a much more homogeneous structure and function, the nervous tissue spans in a complex multilayer environment whose topographical features display a large spectrum of morphologies and size scales. Traditional cell cultures, which are based on two-dimensional cell-adhesive culture dishes or coverslips, are lacking topographical cues and mainly simulate the biochemical microenvironment of the cells. With the emergence of micro- and nano-fabrication techniques new types of cell culture platforms are developed, where the effect of various topographical cues on cellular morphology, proliferation and differentiation, can be studied...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042339/inhibition-by-multifunctional-magnetic-nanoparticles-loaded-with-alpha-synuclein-rnai-plasmid-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-model
#3
Shuiqin Niu, Ling-Kun Zhang, Li Zhang, Siyi Zhuang, Xiuyu Zhan, Wu-Ya Chen, Shiwei Du, Liang Yin, Rong You, Chu-Hua Li, Yan-Qing Guan
Lewy bodies are considered as the main pathological characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD). The major component of Lewy bodies is α-synuclein (α-syn). The use of gene therapy that targeting and effectively interfere with the expression of α-syn in neurons has received tremendous attention. In this study, we used magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with oleic acid molecules as a nano-carrier. N-isopropylacrylamide derivative (NIPAm-AA) was photo-immobilized onto the oleic acid molecules, and shRNA (short hairpin RNA) was absorbed...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036254/targeted-delivery-of-nano-ptx-to-the-brain-tumor-associated-macrophages
#4
Lei Zou, Youhua Tao, Gregory Payne, Linh Do, Tima Thomas, Juan Rodriguez, Huanyu Dou
Nanoparticles containing mixed lipid monolayer shell, biodegradable polymer core and rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) peptide as brain targeting ligand, were developed for brain targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to treat malignant glioma. RVG conjugated PTX loaded NPs (RVG-PTX-NPs) had the desirable size (~140 nm), narrow size distribution and spherical shape. RVG-PTX-NPs showed poor uptake by neurons and selective targeting to the brain tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) with controlled release and tumor specific toxicity...
December 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026782/a-hybrid-cmos-memristor-neuromorphic-synapse
#5
Mostafa Rahimi Azghadi, Bernabe Linares-Barranco, Derek Abbott, Philip H W Leong
Although data processing technology continues to advance at an astonishing rate, computers with brain-like processing capabilities still elude us. It is envisioned that such computers may be achieved by the fusion of neuroscience and nano-electronics to realize a brain-inspired platform. This paper proposes a high-performance nano-scale Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)-memristive circuit, which mimics a number of essential learning properties of biological synapses. The proposed synaptic circuit that is composed of memristors and CMOS transistors, alters its memristance in response to timing differences among its pre- and post-synaptic action potentials, giving rise to a family of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP)...
December 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924726/neurodegenerative-disease-a-perspective-on-cell-based-therapy-in-the-new-era-of-cell-free-nano-therapy
#6
Su M Metcalfe, Sean Bickerton, Tarek Fahmy
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) result in irreversible loss of neurons. Dementia develops when disease-induced neuronal loss becomes sufficient to impair both memory and cognitive functioning and, globally, dementia is increasing to epidemic proportions as populations age. In the current era of regenerative medicine intense activity is asking, can loss of endogenous neurons be compensated by replacement with exogenously derived cells that have either direct, or indirect, neurogenic capacity? But, more recently, excitement is growing around an emerging alternative to the cell-based approach - here nanotechnology for targeted delivery of growth factor aims to support and expand resident central nervous system (CNS) stem cells for endogenous repair...
December 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860458/in-vitro-evaluation-of-gelatin-and-chitosan-electrospun-fibers-as-artificial-guide-in-peripheral-nerve-repair-a-comparative-study
#7
S Gnavi, B E Fornasari, C Tonda-Turo, R Laurano, M Zanetti, G Ciardelli, S Geuna
Random and aligned gelatin and chitosan nano-fibers have been prepared by electrospinning tuning the collector rotation speed. The effect of fiber alignment on cell adhesion and proliferation was assessed in vitro by using different Schwann cell and neuronal models. Moreover, actin cytoskeleton organization, lamellipodia and filipodia formation and axon outgrowth were evaluated. Gelatin and chitosan fibers induced similar adhesion and proliferation rate. Gelatin and chitosan random fibers promoted higher adhesion and proliferation rate induction in comparisons to the aligned ones...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771430/neuronal-protection-against-oxidative-insult-by-polyanhydride-nanoparticle-based-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-therapy
#8
Timothy M Brenza, Shivani Ghaisas, Julia E Vela Ramirez, Dilshan Harischandra, Vellareddy Anantharam, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Balaji Narasimhan
A progressive loss of neuronal structure and function is a signature of many neurodegenerative conditions including chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative and nitrative stress have been implicated as key pathological mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative processes. However, current therapeutic approaches targeting oxidative damage are ineffective in preventing the progression of neurodegeneration. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants were recently shown to alleviate oxidative damage...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769419/combined-in-situ-imaging-of-structural-organization-and-elemental-composition-of-substantia-nigra-neurons-in-the-elderly
#9
A D Surowka, M Töpperwien, M Bernhardt, J D Nicolas, M Osterhoff, T Salditt, D Adamek, M Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Human dopaminergic system in general, and substantia nigra (SN) neurons, in particular, are implicated in the pathologies underlying the human brain aging. The interplay between aberrations in the structural organization and elemental composition of SN neuron bodies has recently gained in importance as selected metals: Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca were found to trigger oxidative-stress-mediated aberration in their molecular assembly due to concomitant protein (alpha-synuclein, tau-protein) aggregation, gliosis and finally oxidative stress...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731326/a-novel-bio-mimicking-planar-nano-edge-microelectrode-enables-enhanced-long-term-neural-recording
#10
Pierre Wijdenes, Hasan Ali, Ryden Armstrong, Wali Zaidi, Colin Dalton, Naweed I Syed
Our inability to accurately monitor individual neurons and their synaptic activity precludes fundamental understanding of brain function under normal and various pathological conditions. However, recent breakthroughs in micro- and nano-scale fabrication processes have advanced the development of neuro-electronic hybrid technology. Among such devices are three-dimensional and planar electrodes, offering the advantages of either high fidelity or longer-term recordings respectively. Here, we present the next generation of planar microelectrode arrays with "nano-edges" that enable long-term (≥1 month) and high fidelity recordings at a resolution 15 times higher than traditional planar electrodes...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722391/fluorescent-polymeric-nanovehicles-for-neural-stem-cell-modulation
#11
S A Papadimitriou, M P Robin, D Ceric, R K O'Reilly, S Marino, M Resmini
Nanomaterials are emerging as strong candidates for applications in drug delivery and offer an alternative platform to modulate the differentiation and activity of neural stem cells. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of two different classes of polymeric nanoparticles: N-isopropylacrylamide-based thermoresponsive nanogels RM1 and P(TEGA)-b-P(d,lLA)2 nano-micelles RM2. We covalently linked the nanoparticles with fluorescent tags and demonstrate their ability to be internalized and tracked in neural stem cells from the postnatal subventricular zone, without affecting their proliferation, multipotency and differentiation characteristics up to 150 μg ml(-1)...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686123/biomimetic-designing-of-functional-silk-nanotopography-using-self-assembly
#12
Banani Kundu, Mohamed Eltohamy, Vamsi K Yadavalli, Subhas C Kundu, Hae-Won Kim
In nature inorganic-organic building units create multifunctional hierarchical architectures. Organic silk protein is particularly attractive in this respect because of its micro-nanoscale structural blocks that are attributed to sophisticated hierarchical assembly imparting flexibility and compressibility to designed biohybrid materials. In the present study, aqueous silk fibroin is assembled to form nano/microtopography on inorganic silica surface via a facile diffusion-limited aggregation process. This process is driven by electrostatic interaction and only possible at a specified aminated surface chemistry...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625175/neuroprotective-effect-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-nanoemulsion-on-erectile-function-in-a-rat-model-of-bilateral-cavernous-nerve-injury
#13
Chun-Hou Liao, Yi-No Wu, Bin-Huei Chen, Ying-Hung Lin, Hsiu-O Ho, Han-Sun Chiang
There is an unmet need for treatment of erectile dysfunction resulting from radical prostatectomy and cavernous nerve (CN) injury. Given the neuroprotective properties of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), we investigated its effect on penile functional and structural recovery in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve injury. Rats were subject to CN injury and received intraperitoneal administration of either vehicle or a DHA nanoemulsion (nano-DHA) at 10, 50, or 250 μg/kg. Functional testing and histological analyses were performed at 28 days post-injury...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594413/curcumin-loaded-embryonic-stem-cell-exosomes-restored-neurovascular-unit-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Anuradha Kalani, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Pradip K Kamat, Claudio Maldonado, Philip Bauer, Irving G Joshua, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
We tested whether the combined nano-formulation, prepared with curcumin (anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecule) and embryonic stem cell exosomes (MESC-exo(cur)), restored neurovascular loss following an ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. IR-injury was created in 8-10 weeks old mice and divided into two groups. Out of two IR-injured groups, one group received intranasal administration of MESC-exo(cur) for 7days. Similarly, two sham groups were made and one group received MESC-exo(cur) treatment...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587351/enhanced-proliferation-of-pc12-neural-cells-on-untreated-nanotextured-glass-coverslips
#15
Muhymin Islam, Rahul Atmaramani, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Santaneel Ghosh, Samir M Iqbal
Traumatic injury to the central nervous system is a significant health problem. There is no effective treatment available partly because of the complexity of the system. Implementation of multifunctional micro- and nano-device based combinatorial therapeutics can provide biocompatible and tunable approaches to perform on-demand release of specific drugs. This can help the damaged cells to improve neuronal survival, regeneration of axons, and their reconnection to appropriate targets. Nano-topological features induced rapid cell growth is especially important towards the design of effective platforms to facilitate damaged neural circuit reconstruction...
October 14, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477722/nano-theranostics-and-nitroxyl-radical-labeled-antitumor-agents-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Ichio Aoki
The advent of functional contrast agents and nanoparticle drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) is opening new pathways to understanding pathophysiology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nitroxyl radical compounds are promising functional contrast agents for redox evaluation. We have developed a novel nitroxyl radical theranostic compound for noninvasive real-time imaging of blood-brain barrier-permeable antitumor drugs. Divalent manganese ions (Mn(2+)) can also be used as an intracellular functional MRI contrast agent...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445657/interfacing-cultured-neurons-to-microtransducers-arrays-a-review-of-the-neuro-electronic-junction-models
#17
REVIEW
Paolo Massobrio, Giuseppe Massobrio, Sergio Martinoia
Microtransducer arrays, both metal microelectrodes and silicon-based devices, are widely used as neural interfaces to measure, extracellularly, the electrophysiological activity of excitable cells. Starting from the pioneering works at the beginning of the 70's, improvements in manufacture methods, materials, and geometrical shape have been made. Nowadays, these devices are routinely used in different experimental conditions (both in vivo and in vitro), and for several applications ranging from basic research in neuroscience to more biomedical oriented applications...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443974/graphene-augmented-nanofiber-scaffolds-demonstrate-new-features-in-cells-behaviour
#18
Jekaterina Kazantseva, Roman Ivanov, Michael Gasik, Toomas Neuman, Irina Hussainova
Three-dimensional (3D) customized scaffolds capable to mimic a native extracellular matrix open new frontiers in cells manipulation and advanced therapy. The major challenge is in a proper substrate for in vitro models on engineered scaffolds, capable to modulate cells differentiation. Here for the first time we demonstrate novel design and functionality of the 3D porous scaffolds of aligned, self-assembled ceramic nanofibers of ultra-high anisotropy ratio (~10(7)), augmented into graphene shells. This unique hybrid nano-network allows an exceptional combination of selective guidance stimuli of stem cells differentiation, immune reactions variations, and local immobilization of cancer cells, which was not available before...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427935/efficient-inhibition-of-protein-aggregation-disintegration-of-aggregates-and-lowering-of-cytotoxicity-by-green-tea-polyphenol-based-self-assembled-polymer-nanoparticles
#19
Koushik Debnath, Shashi Shekhar, Vipendra Kumar, Nihar R Jana, Nikhil R Jana
Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is known for its antiamyloidogenic property, and it is observed that molecular EGCG binds with amyloid structure, redirects fibrillation kinetics, remodels mature fibril, and lowers the amyloid-derived toxicity. However, this unique property of EGCG is difficult to utilize because of their poor chemical stability and substandard bioavailability. Here we report a nanoparticle form of EGCG of 25 nm size (nano-EGCG) which is 10-100 times more efficient than molecular EGCG in inhibiting protein aggregation, disintegrating mature protein aggregates, and lowering amyloidogenic cytotoxicity...
August 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427596/size-dependent-translocation-pattern-chemical-and-biological-transformation-of-nano-and-submicron-sized-ferric-oxide-particles-in-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Bing Wang, Qiang Wang, Hanqing Chen, Xiaoyan Zhou, Hailong Wang, Huiliang Wang, Jing Zhang, Weiyue Feng
The present study investigated the size-dependent translocation pattern and biological fate of intranasally instilled nano- and submicron-sized Fe2O3 particles (40 nm and 280 nm) in the CNS. The particle translocation in different parts of brain at 4 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, and 30 d after intranasal instillation were quantified using ICP-MS method. A biexponential model (correlation coefficient r = 0.98-0.99) was satisfactory to describe the particokinetic translocation behavior of Fe2O3 nanoparticles in brain...
June 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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