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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724999/x-ray-phase-contrast-tomography-reveals-early-vascular-alterations-and-neuronal-loss-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-model
#1
A Cedola, A Bravin, I Bukreeva, M Fratini, A Pacureanu, A Mittone, L Massimi, P Cloetens, P Coan, G Campi, R Spanò, F Brun, V Grigoryev, V Petrosino, C Venturi, M Mastrogiacomo, Nicole Kerlero de Rosbo, A Uccelli
The degenerative effects of multiple sclerosis at the level of the vascular and neuronal networks in the central nervous system are currently the object of intensive investigation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis, but the neuropathology of specific lesions in EAE and the effects of MSC treatment are under debate. Because conventional imaging techniques entail protocols that alter the tissues, limiting the reliability of the results, we have used non-invasive X-ray phase-contrast tomography to obtain an unprecedented direct 3D characterization of EAE lesions at micro-to-nano scales, with simultaneous imaging of the vascular and neuronal networks...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714205/photothermal-ring-integrated-intraocular-lens-for-high-efficient-eye-disease-treatment
#2
Yao-Xin Lin, Xue-Feng Hu, Yang Zhao, Yu-Juan Gao, Chao Yang, Sheng-Lin Qiao, Yi Wang, Pei-Pei Yang, Jiao Yan, Xin-Ce Sui, Zeng-Ying Qiao, Li-Li Li, Jiang-Bing Xie, Si-Quan Zhu, Xiao-Chun Wu, Yongsheng Li, Lei Wang, Hao Wang
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication after cataract surgery. So far, the only method for PCO treatment is the precisely focused laser surgery. However, it causes severe complications such as physical damages and neuron impairments. Here, a nanostructured photothermal ring integrated intraocular lens (Nano-IOLs) is reported, in which the rim of commercially available IOLs (C-IOLs) is decorated with silica coated Au nanorods (Au@SiO2 ), for high-efficient prevention of PCO after cataract surgery...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684914/regulation-of-apoptosis-through-bcl-2-bax-proteins-expression-and-dna-damage-by-nano-sized-gadolinium-oxide
#3
Saud Alarifi, Huma Ali, Saad Alkahtani, Mohammed S Alessia
Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles (GNPs) are applied in industrial products, for example, additives, optical glass, and catalysis. There are various suggestions of metal nanoparticles paradigm but the underlying basic mechanism about the toxicity of metal nanoparticles, for example GNPs, remains unclear. This experiment was done to measure the effective toxicity of GNPs (10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) over 24 and 48 h and to evaluate toxicity mechanism in human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. GNPs produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), as evaluated by 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626428/molecular-surgery-concept-from-bench-to-bedside-a-focus-on-trpv1-pain-sensing-neurons
#4
REVIEW
László Pecze, Béla Viskolcz, Zoltán Oláh
"Molecular neurosurgery" is emerging as a new medical concept, and is the combination of two partners: (i) a molecular neurosurgery agent, and (ii) the cognate receptor whose activation results in the selective elimination of a specific subset of neurons in which this receptor is endogenously expressed. In general, a molecular surgery agent is a selective and potent ligand, and the target is a specific cell type whose elimination is desired through the molecular surgery procedure. These target cells have the highest innate sensitivity to the molecular surgery agent usually due to the highest receptor density being in their plasma membrane...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626362/nanoporous-gold-biointerfaces-modifying-nanostructure-to-control-neural-cell-coverage-and-enhance-electrophysiological-recording-performance
#5
Christopher A R Chapman, Ling Wang, Hao Chen, Joshua Garrison, Pamela J Lein, Erkin Seker
Nanostructured neural interface coatings have significantly enhanced recording fidelity in both implantable and in vitro devices. As such, nano-porous gold (np-Au) has shown promise as a multifunctional neural interface coating due, in part, to its ability to promote nanostructure-mediated reduction in astrocytic surface coverage while not affecting neuronal coverage. The goal of this study is to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the np-Au nanostructure drives the differential response of neurons versus astrocytes in an in vitro model...
January 19, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534411/intracellular-and-extracellular-recording-of-spontaneous-action-potentials-in-mammalian-neurons-and-cardiac-cells-with-3d-plasmonic-nanoelectrodes
#6
Michele Dipalo, Hayder Amin, Laura Lovato, Fabio Moia, Valeria Caprettini, Gabriele C Messina, Francesco Tantussi, Luca Berdondini, Francesco De Angelis
Three-dimensional vertical micro- and nanostructures can enhance the signal quality of multielectrode arrays and promise to become the prime methodology for the investigation of large networks of electrogenic cells. So far, access to the intracellular environment has been obtained via spontaneous poration, electroporation, or by surface functionalization of the micro/nanostructures; however, these methods still suffer from some limitations due to their intrinsic characteristics that limit their widespread use...
June 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522250/ppargamma-agonists-rescue-increased-phosphorylation-of-fgf14-at-s226-in-the-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Wei-Chun J Hsu, Norelle C Wildburger, Sigmund J Haidacher, Miroslav N Nenov, Oluwarotimi Folorunso, Aditya K Singh, Brent C Chesson, Whitney F Franklin, Ibdanelo Cortez, Rovshan G Sadygov, Kelly T Dineley, Jay S Rudra, Giulio Taglialatela, Cheryl F Lichti, Larry Denner, Fernanda Laezza
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in humans with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in animal models of Aβ-pathology can be ameliorated by treatments with the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists, such as rosiglitazone (RSG). Previously, we demonstrated that in the Tg2576 animal model of AD, RSG treatment rescued cognitive deficits and reduced aberrant activity of granule neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), an area critical for memory formation...
May 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500326/intranasal-drug-delivery-of-small-interfering-rna-targeting-beclin1-encapsulated-with-polyethylenimine-pei-in-mouse-brain-to-achieve-hiv-attenuation
#8
Myosotys Rodriguez, Jessica Lapierre, Chet Raj Ojha, Ajeet Kaushik, Elena Batrakova, Fatah Kashanchi, Seth M Dever, Madhavan Nair, Nazira El-Hage
We previously reported that activation of the host autophagic protein, Beclin1, by HIV-1 infection represents an essential mechanism in controlling HIV replication and viral-induced inflammatory responses in microglial cells. Existing antiretroviral therapeutic approaches have been limited in their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier effectively and recognize and selectively eliminate persistent HIV-infected brain reservoirs. In the present study and for the first time, the bio-distribution and efficacy of noninvasive intranasal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the Beclin1 gene using the cationic linear polyethylenimines (PEI) as a gene carrier was investigated in adult mouse brain...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469474/in-vitro-neurotoxicity-resulting-from-exposure-of-cultured-neural-cells-to-several-types-of-nanoparticles
#9
REVIEW
Stephen F Larner, Jonathan Wang, Jared Goodman, Megan B O'Donoghue Altman, Meiguo Xin, Kevin K W Wang
Laboratory and industrial production of various nanoparticles, single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), fullerene (C60), cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots, carbon black (CB), and dye-doped silica nanospheres (NSs), has greatly increased in the past 15 years. However, little research has been done to analyze the toxicity of these materials. With recent studies showing that nano-substances can cross the blood-brain barrier, we examined the neurotoxicity of these manufactured nanoparticles. By employing the rat PC-12 neuronal-like cell line as the basis for our studies, we were able to evaluate the toxicity caused by these five nanoparticles...
2017: Journal of Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437614/engineering-highly-interconnected-neuronal-networks-on-nanowire-scaffolds
#10
Vini Gautam, Shagufta Naureen, Naeem Shahid, Qian Gao, Yi Wang, David Nisbet, Chennupati Jagadish, Vincent R Daria
Identifying the specific role of physical guidance cues in the growth of neurons is crucial for understanding the fundamental biology of brain development and for designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. Here, we investigate the structural significance of nanoscale topographies as physical cues for neurite outgrowth and circuit formation by growing neurons on semiconductor nanowires. We monitored neurite growth using optical and scanning electron microscopy and evaluated the spontaneous neuronal network activity using functional calcium imaging...
June 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432032/neuronal-excitation-and-permeabilization-by-200-ns-pulsed-electric-field-an-optical-membrane-potential-study-with-fluovolt-dye
#11
Andrei G Pakhomov, Iurii Semenov, Maura Casciola, Shu Xiao
Electric field pulses of nano- and picosecond duration are a novel modality for neurostimulation, activation of Ca(2+) signaling, and tissue ablation. However it is not known how such brief pulses activate voltage-gated ion channels. We studied excitation and electroporation of hippocampal neurons by 200-ns pulsed electric field (nsPEF), by means of time-lapse imaging of the optical membrane potential (OMP) with FluoVolt dye. Electroporation abruptly shifted OMP to a more depolarized level, which was reached within <1ms...
July 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379687/kinetic-requirements-for-spatiotemporal-chemical-imaging-with-fluorescent-nanosensors
#12
Daniel Meyer, Annika Hagemann, Sebastian Kruss
Fluorescent nanosensors are powerful tools for basic research and bioanalytical applications. Individual nanosensors are able to detect single molecules, while ensembles of nanosensors can be used to measure the bulk concentration of an analyte. Collective imaging of multiple nanosensors could provide both spatial and temporal chemical information from the nano- to the microscale. This type of chemical imaging with nanosensors would be very attractive to study processes such as chemical signaling between cells (e...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356028/the-application-of-nanomaterials-in-stem-cell-therapy-for-some-neurological-diseases
#13
Guilong Zhang, Ahsan Ali Khan, Hao Wu, Lukui Chen, Yuchun Gu, Ning Gu
Stem cell therapy provides great promising therapeutic benefits for various neurological disorders. Cell transplantation has emerged as cell replacement application for nerve damage. Recently, nanomaterials obtain wide development in various industrial and medical fields, and nanoparticles have been applied to neuro-medical field for tracking and treating nervous system diseases. Combining stem cell with nanotechnology has raised more and more attentions; and it has demonstrated that it has huge effects on clinical diagnosis and therapeutics in multiple central nervous system diseases, meanwhile, improving prognosis...
March 28, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335495/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-loaded-ps80-pbca-nanocarrier-for-in-vitro-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Chiu-Yen Chung, Martin Hsiu-Chu Lin, I-Neng Lee, Tsong-Hai Lee, Ming-Hsueh Lee, Jen-Tsung Yang
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can induce neural differentiation in stem cells and has the potential for repair of the nervous system. In this study, a polysorbate 80-coated polybutylcyanoacrylate nanocarrier (PS80 PBCA NC) was constructed to deliver plasmid DNAs (pDNAs) containing BDNF gene attached to a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE-cmvBDNF). The hypoxia-sensing mechanism of BDNF expression and inductiveness of the nano-formulation on mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to differentiate into neurons following hypoxia was tested in vitro with immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300204/non-invasive-aerosol-delivery-and-transport-of-gold-nanoparticles-to-the-brain
#15
Ramesh Raliya, Debajit Saha, Tandeep S Chadha, Baranidharan Raman, Pratim Biswas
Targeted delivery of nanoscale carriers containing packaged payloads to the central nervous system has potential use in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Moreover, understanding of the bio-interactions of the engineered nanoparticles used for tissue-specific delivery by non-invasive delivery approaches are also of paramount interest. Here, we have examined this issue systematically in a relatively simple invertebrate model using insects. We synthesized 5 nm, positively charged gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and targeted their delivery using the electrospray aerosol generator...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299803/toxicity-of-inhaled-particulate-matter-on-the-central-nervous-system-neuroinflammation-neuropsychological-effects-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#16
REVIEW
Yan Wang, Lilin Xiong, Meng Tang
Particulate matter (PM) combined with meteorological factors cause the haze, which brings inconvenience to people's daily life and deeply endanger people's health. Accumulating literature, to date, reported that PM are closely related to cardiopulmonary disease. Outpatient visits and admissions as a result of asthma and heart attacks gradually increase with an elevated concentration of PM. Owing to its special physicochemical property, the brain could be a potential target beyond the cardiopulmonary system...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269205/gelatin-methacrylamide-hydrogel-with-graphene-nanoplatelets-for-neural-cell-laden-3d-bioprinting
#17
Wei Zhu, Brent T Harris, Lijie Grace Zhang
Nervous system is extremely complex which leads to rare regrowth of nerves once injury or disease occurs. Advanced 3D bioprinting strategy, which could simultaneously deposit biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components in a layer-by-layer manner, may be a promising solution to address neural damages. Here we presented a printable nano-bioink composed of gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA), neural stem cells, and bioactive graphene nanoplatelets to target nerve tissue regeneration in the assist of stereolithography based 3D bioprinting technique...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227435/gelatin-methacrylamide-hydrogel-with-graphene-nanoplatelets-for-neural-cell-laden-3d-bioprinting
#18
Wei Zhu, Brent T Harris, Lijie Grace Zhang, Wei Zhu, Brent T Harris, Lijie Grace Zhang, Wei Zhu, Brent T Harris, Lijie Grace Zhang
Nervous system is extremely complex which leads to rare regrowth of nerves once injury or disease occurs. Advanced 3D bioprinting strategy, which could simultaneously deposit biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components in a layer-by-layer manner, may be a promising solution to address neural damages. Here we presented a printable nano-bioink composed of gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA), neural stem cells, and bioactive graphene nanoplatelets to target nerve tissue regeneration in the assist of stereolithography based 3D bioprinting technique...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195313/neuronal-sodium-channels-emerging-components-of-the-nano-machinery-of-cardiac-calcium-cycling
#19
Rengasayee Veeraraghavan, Sándor Györke, Przemysław B Radwański
Excitation-contraction coupling is the bridge between cardiac electrical activation and mechanical contraction. It is driven by the influx of Ca(2+) across the sarcolemma triggering Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) - a process termed Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) - followed by re-sequestration of Ca(2+) into the SR. The Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger inextricably couples the cycling of Ca(2+) and Na(+) in cardiac myocytes. Thus, influx of Na(+) via voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV ) has emerged as an important regulator of CICR both in health and in disease...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183673/attenuation-of-the-in-vitro-neurotoxicity-of-316l-ss-by-graphene-oxide-surface-coating
#20
Nishat Tasnim, Alok Kumar, Binata Joddar
A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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