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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930148/elongation-of-axon-extension-for-human-ipsc-derived-retinal-ganglion-cells-by-a-nano-imprinted-scaffold
#1
Tien-Chun Yang, Jen-Hua Chuang, Waradee Buddhakosai, Wen-Ju Wu, Chen-Ju Lee, Wun-Syuan Chen, Yi-Ping Yang, Ming-Chia Li, Chi-Hsien Peng, Shih-Jen Chen
Optic neuropathies, such as glaucoma and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) lead to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and therefore motivate the application of transplantation technique into disease therapy. However, it is a challenge to direct the transplanted optic nerve axons to the correct location of the retina. The use of appropriate scaffold can promote the proper axon growth. Recently, biocompatible materials have been integrated into the medical field, such as tissue engineering and reconstruction of damaged tissues or organs...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923702/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-synthesis-antiseptic-activity-and-toxicity-mechanism
#2
REVIEW
A Król, P Pomastowski, K Rafińska, V Railean-Plugaru, B Buszewski
Zinc oxide (ZnO), as a material with attractive properties, has attracted great interest worldwide, particularly owing to the implementation of the synthesis of nano-sized particles. High luminescent efficiency, a wide band gap (3.36eV), and a large exciton binding energy (60meV) has triggered intense research on the production of nanoparticles using different synthesis methods and on their future applications. ZnO nanomaterials can be used in industry as nano-optical and nano-electrical devices, in food packaging and in medicine as antimicrobial and antitumor agents...
August 26, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894412/recording-spikes-activity-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-using-flexible-or-transparent-graphene-transistors
#3
Farida Veliev, Zheng Han, Dipankar Kalita, Anne Briançon-Marjollet, Vincent Bouchiat, Cécile Delacour
The emergence of nanoelectronics applied to neural interfaces has started few decades ago, and aims to provide new tools for replacing or restoring disabled functions of the nervous systems as well as further understanding the evolution of such complex organization. As the same time, graphene and other 2D materials have offered new possibilities for integrating micro and nano-devices on flexible, transparent, and biocompatible substrates, promising for bio and neuro-electronics. In addition to many bio-suitable features of graphene interface, such as, chemical inertness and anti-corrosive properties, its optical transparency enables multimodal approach of neuronal based systems, the electrical layer being compatible with additional microfluidics and optical manipulation ports...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891515/a-computational-approach-towards-the-microscale-mouse-brain-connectome-from-the-mesoscale
#4
Tielin Zhang, Yi Zeng, Bo Xu
The wiring diagram of the mouse brain presents an indispensable foundation for the research on basic and applied neurobiology. It is also essential as a structural foundation for computational simulation of the brain. Different scales of the connectome give us different hints and clues to understand the functions of the nervous system and how they process information. However, compared to the macroscale and most recent mesoscale mouse brain connectome studies, there is no complete whole brain microscale connectome available because of the scalability and accuracy of automatic recognition techniques...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877412/neuronal-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-response-to-the-domain-size-of-graphene-substrates
#5
Yoo-Jung Lee, Tae Hoon Seo, Seul-A Lee, Wonhee Jang, Myung Jong Kim, Jung-Suk Sung
Graphene is a non-cytotoxic monolayer platform with unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. It has been demonstrated that graphene substrate may provide a promising biocompatible scaffold for stem cell therapy. Since chemical vapor deposited graphene has a two dimensional poly-crystalline structure, it is important to control the individual domain size to obtain desirable properties for nano-material. However, the biological effects mediated by differences in domain size of graphene have not yet been reported...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876356/a-versatile-upconversion-surface-evaluation-platform-for-bio-nano-surface-selection-for-the-nervous-system
#6
Libing Fu, Marco Morsch, Bingyang Shi, Guoying Wang, Albert Lee, Rowan Radford, Yiqing Lu, Dayong Jin, Roger Chung
There is considerable interest in developing diagnostic nanotools for early detection and delivery of various therapeutic agents for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, a key challenge remains in the selection of suitable surfaces to overcome the nano-bio interface issue, namely that many nanoparticle surfaces demonstrate instability when administered into biological environments and show substantial cytotoxicity to the central nervous system. In this study, we fabricated an evaluation platform for bio-nano surface selection based on the combination of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), cultured neural cells and zebra fish, and systemically demonstrated how it can evaluate the suitability of nanoparticle surfaces for applications in the central nervous system...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830725/a-high-sensitive-nano-modified-biosensor-for-dynamic-monitoring-of-glutamate-and-neural-spike-covariation-from-rat-cortex-to-hippocampal-sub-regions
#7
Guihua Xiao, Yilin Song, Song Zhang, Lili Yang, Shengwei Xu, Yu Zhang, Huiren Xu, Fei Gao, Ziyue Li, Xinxia Cai
BACKGROUND: Hippocampus is a critical part of brain tissue involved in many cognitive neural activities. They are controlled by various neurotransmitters such as glutamate (Glu), and affected by electrophysiology. NEW METHOD: Herein, we fabricated a 16-site (25μm in diameter) microelectrode array (MEA) biosensor applied in dual-mode tests including Glu and neural spike measurements. METHODS: All the 16 recording sites were electrodeposited with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) and 8 sites were used for electrical recording...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805664/correlation-and-comparison-of-cortical-and-hippocampal-neural-progenitor-morphology-and-differentiation-through-the-use-of-micro-and-nano-topographies
#8
Sharvari Sathe, Xiang Quan Chan, Jing Jin, Erik Bernitt, Hans-Günther Döbereiner, Evelyn K F Yim
Neuronal morphology and differentiation have been extensively studied on topography. The differentiation potential of neural progenitors has been shown to be influenced by brain region, developmental stage, and time in culture. However, the neurogenecity and morphology of different neural progenitors in response to topography have not been quantitatively compared. In this study, the correlation between the morphology and differentiation of hippocampal and cortical neural progenitor cells was explored. The morphology of differentiated neural progenitors was quantified on an array of topographies...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803044/new-racemic-annulated-pyrazolo-1-2-b-phthalazines-as-tacrine-like-ache-inhibitors-with-potential-use-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Leili Jalili-Baleh, Hamid Nadri, Alireza Moradi, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Mojtaba Shakibaie, Mandana Jafari, Mostafa Golshani, Farshad Homayouni Moghadam, Loghman Firoozpour, Ali Asadipour, Saeed Emami, Mehdi Khoobi, Alireza Foroumadi
A novel series of tacrine-like compounds 7a-u possessing a fused pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine structure were designed and synthesized as potent and selective inhibitors of AChE. The in-vitro biological assessments demonstrated that several compounds had high anti-AChE activity at nano-molar level. The more promising compound 7l with IC50 of 49 nM was 7-fold more potent than tacrine and unlike tacrine, it was highly selective against AChE over BuChE. The cell-based assays against hepatocytes (HepG2) and neuronal cell line (PC12) revealed that 7l had significantly lower hepatotoxicity compared to tacrine, with additional neuroprotective activity against H2O2-induced damage in PC12 cells...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791515/a-multiscale-fluidic-device-for-the-study-of-dendrite-mediated-cell-to-cell-communication
#10
Sean McCutcheon, Robert Majeska, Mitchell Schaffler, Maribel Vazquez
Many cell types communicate by means of dendritic extensions via a multi-tiered set of geometric and chemical cues. Until recently, mimicking the compartmentalized in vivo cellular environment of dendrite-expressing cells such as osteocytes and motor neurons in a spatially and temporally controllable manner was limited by the challenges of in vitro device fabrication at submicron scales. Utilizing the improved resolution of current fabrication technology, we have designed a multiscale device, the Macro-micro-nano system, or Mμn, composed of two distinct cell-seeding and interrogation compartments separated by a nanochannel array...
August 8, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779980/secretion-induces-cell-ph-dynamics-impacting-assembly-disassembly-of-the-fusion-protein-complex-a-combined-fluorescence-and-atomic-force-microscopy-study
#11
REVIEW
Kenneth T Lewis, Akshata R Naik, Suvra S Laha, Sunxi Wang, Guangzhao Mao, Eric Kuhn, Bhanu P Jena
A wide range of cellular activities including protein folding and cell secretion, such as neurotransmission or insulin release, are all governed by intracellular pH homeostasis, underscoring the importance of pH on critical life processes. Nano- scale pH measurements of cells and biomolecules therefore hold great promise in understanding a plethora of cellular functions, in addition to disease detection and therapy. In the current study, a novel approach using cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTeQDs) as pH sensors, combined with fluorescent imaging, spectrofluorimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Western blot analysis, enabled the study of intracellular pH dynamics at 1 milli-pH sensitivity and 80nm pixel resolution, during insulin secretion...
August 2, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724999/x-ray-phase-contrast-tomography-reveals-early-vascular-alterations-and-neuronal-loss-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-model
#12
A Cedola, A Bravin, I Bukreeva, M Fratini, A Pacureanu, A Mittone, L Massimi, P Cloetens, P Coan, G Campi, R Spanò, F Brun, V Grigoryev, V Petrosino, C Venturi, M Mastrogiacomo, Nicole Kerlero de Rosbo, A Uccelli
The degenerative effects of multiple sclerosis at the level of the vascular and neuronal networks in the central nervous system are currently the object of intensive investigation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis, but the neuropathology of specific lesions in EAE and the effects of MSC treatment are under debate. Because conventional imaging techniques entail protocols that alter the tissues, limiting the reliability of the results, we have used non-invasive X-ray phase-contrast tomography to obtain an unprecedented direct 3D characterization of EAE lesions at micro-to-nano scales, with simultaneous imaging of the vascular and neuronal networks...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714205/photothermal-ring-integrated-intraocular-lens-for-high-efficient-eye-disease-treatment
#13
Yao-Xin Lin, Xue-Feng Hu, Yang Zhao, Yu-Juan Gao, Chao Yang, Sheng-Lin Qiao, Yi Wang, Pei-Pei Yang, Jiao Yan, Xin-Ce Sui, Zeng-Ying Qiao, Li-Li Li, Jiang-Bing Xie, Si-Quan Zhu, Xiao-Chun Wu, Yongsheng Li, Lei Wang, Hao Wang
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication after cataract surgery. So far, the only method for PCO treatment is the precisely focused laser surgery. However, it causes severe complications such as physical damages and neuron impairments. Here, a nanostructured photothermal ring integrated intraocular lens (Nano-IOLs) is reported, in which the rim of commercially available IOLs (C-IOLs) is decorated with silica coated Au nanorods (Au@SiO2 ), for high-efficient prevention of PCO after cataract surgery...
September 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684914/regulation-of-apoptosis-through-bcl-2-bax-proteins-expression-and-dna-damage-by-nano-sized-gadolinium-oxide
#14
Saud Alarifi, Huma Ali, Saad Alkahtani, Mohammed S Alessia
Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles (GNPs) are applied in industrial products, for example, additives, optical glass, and catalysis. There are various suggestions of metal nanoparticles paradigm but the underlying basic mechanism about the toxicity of metal nanoparticles, for example GNPs, remains unclear. This experiment was done to measure the effective toxicity of GNPs (10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) over 24 and 48 h and to evaluate toxicity mechanism in human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. GNPs produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), as evaluated by 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626428/molecular-surgery-concept-from-bench-to-bedside-a-focus-on-trpv1-pain-sensing-neurons
#15
REVIEW
László Pecze, Béla Viskolcz, Zoltán Oláh
"Molecular neurosurgery" is emerging as a new medical concept, and is the combination of two partners: (i) a molecular neurosurgery agent, and (ii) the cognate receptor whose activation results in the selective elimination of a specific subset of neurons in which this receptor is endogenously expressed. In general, a molecular surgery agent is a selective and potent ligand, and the target is a specific cell type whose elimination is desired through the molecular surgery procedure. These target cells have the highest innate sensitivity to the molecular surgery agent usually due to the highest receptor density being in their plasma membrane...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626362/nanoporous-gold-biointerfaces-modifying-nanostructure-to-control-neural-cell-coverage-and-enhance-electrophysiological-recording-performance
#16
Christopher A R Chapman, Ling Wang, Hao Chen, Joshua Garrison, Pamela J Lein, Erkin Seker
Nanostructured neural interface coatings have significantly enhanced recording fidelity in both implantable and in vitro devices. As such, nano-porous gold (np-Au) has shown promise as a multifunctional neural interface coating due, in part, to its ability to promote nanostructure-mediated reduction in astrocytic surface coverage while not affecting neuronal coverage. The goal of this study is to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the np-Au nanostructure drives the differential response of neurons versus astrocytes in an in vitro model...
January 19, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534411/intracellular-and-extracellular-recording-of-spontaneous-action-potentials-in-mammalian-neurons-and-cardiac-cells-with-3d-plasmonic-nanoelectrodes
#17
Michele Dipalo, Hayder Amin, Laura Lovato, Fabio Moia, Valeria Caprettini, Gabriele C Messina, Francesco Tantussi, Luca Berdondini, Francesco De Angelis
Three-dimensional vertical micro- and nanostructures can enhance the signal quality of multielectrode arrays and promise to become the prime methodology for the investigation of large networks of electrogenic cells. So far, access to the intracellular environment has been obtained via spontaneous poration, electroporation, or by surface functionalization of the micro/nanostructures; however, these methods still suffer from some limitations due to their intrinsic characteristics that limit their widespread use...
June 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522250/ppargamma-agonists-rescue-increased-phosphorylation-of-fgf14-at-s226-in-the-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Wei-Chun J Hsu, Norelle C Wildburger, Sigmund J Haidacher, Miroslav N Nenov, Oluwarotimi Folorunso, Aditya K Singh, Brent C Chesson, Whitney F Franklin, Ibdanelo Cortez, Rovshan G Sadygov, Kelly T Dineley, Jay S Rudra, Giulio Taglialatela, Cheryl F Lichti, Larry Denner, Fernanda Laezza
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in humans with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in animal models of Aβ-pathology can be ameliorated by treatments with the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists, such as rosiglitazone (RSG). Previously, we demonstrated that in the Tg2576 animal model of AD, RSG treatment rescued cognitive deficits and reduced aberrant activity of granule neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), an area critical for memory formation...
September 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500326/intranasal-drug-delivery-of-small-interfering-rna-targeting-beclin1-encapsulated-with-polyethylenimine-pei-in-mouse-brain-to-achieve-hiv-attenuation
#19
Myosotys Rodriguez, Jessica Lapierre, Chet Raj Ojha, Ajeet Kaushik, Elena Batrakova, Fatah Kashanchi, Seth M Dever, Madhavan Nair, Nazira El-Hage
We previously reported that activation of the host autophagic protein, Beclin1, by HIV-1 infection represents an essential mechanism in controlling HIV replication and viral-induced inflammatory responses in microglial cells. Existing antiretroviral therapeutic approaches have been limited in their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier effectively and recognize and selectively eliminate persistent HIV-infected brain reservoirs. In the present study and for the first time, the bio-distribution and efficacy of noninvasive intranasal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the Beclin1 gene using the cationic linear polyethylenimines (PEI) as a gene carrier was investigated in adult mouse brain...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469474/in-vitro-neurotoxicity-resulting-from-exposure-of-cultured-neural-cells-to-several-types-of-nanoparticles
#20
REVIEW
Stephen F Larner, Jonathan Wang, Jared Goodman, Megan B O'Donoghue Altman, Meiguo Xin, Kevin K W Wang
Laboratory and industrial production of various nanoparticles, single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), fullerene (C60), cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots, carbon black (CB), and dye-doped silica nanospheres (NSs), has greatly increased in the past 15 years. However, little research has been done to analyze the toxicity of these materials. With recent studies showing that nano-substances can cross the blood-brain barrier, we examined the neurotoxicity of these manufactured nanoparticles. By employing the rat PC-12 neuronal-like cell line as the basis for our studies, we were able to evaluate the toxicity caused by these five nanoparticles...
2017: Journal of Cell Death
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