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Neuron nano

A D Surowka, M Töpperwien, M Bernhardt, J D Nicolas, M Osterhoff, T Salditt, D Adamek, M Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Human dopaminergic system in general, and substantia nigra (SN) neurons, in particular, are implicated in the pathologies underlying the human brain aging. The interplay between aberrations in the structural organization and elemental composition of SN neuron bodies has recently gained in importance as selected metals: Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca were found to trigger oxidative-stress-mediated aberration in their molecular assembly due to concomitant protein (alpha-synuclein, tau-protein) aggregation, gliosis and finally oxidative stress...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Pierre Wijdenes, Hasan Ali, Ryden Armstrong, Wali Zaidi, Colin Dalton, Naweed I Syed
Our inability to accurately monitor individual neurons and their synaptic activity precludes fundamental understanding of brain function under normal and various pathological conditions. However, recent breakthroughs in micro- and nano-scale fabrication processes have advanced the development of neuro-electronic hybrid technology. Among such devices are three-dimensional and planar electrodes, offering the advantages of either high fidelity or longer-term recordings respectively. Here, we present the next generation of planar microelectrode arrays with "nano-edges" that enable long-term (≥1 month) and high fidelity recordings at a resolution 15 times higher than traditional planar electrodes...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
S A Papadimitriou, M P Robin, D Ceric, R K O'Reilly, S Marino, M Resmini
Nanomaterials are emerging as strong candidates for applications in drug delivery and offer an alternative platform to modulate the differentiation and activity of neural stem cells. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of two different classes of polymeric nanoparticles: N-isopropylacrylamide-based thermoresponsive nanogels RM1 and P(TEGA)-b-P(d,lLA)2 nano-micelles RM2. We covalently linked the nanoparticles with fluorescent tags and demonstrate their ability to be internalized and tracked in neural stem cells from the postnatal subventricular zone, without affecting their proliferation, multipotency and differentiation characteristics up to 150 μg ml(-1)...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Banani Kundu, Mohamed Eltohamy, Vamsi K Yadavalli, Subhas C Kundu, Hae-Won Kim
In nature inorganic-organic building units create multifunctional hierarchical architectures. Organic silk protein is particularly attractive in this respect because of its micro-nanoscale structural blocks that are attributed to sophisticated hierarchical assembly imparting flexibility and compressibility to designed biohybrid materials. In the present study, aqueous silk fibroin is assembled to form nano/microtopography on inorganic silica surface via a facile diffusion-limited aggregation process. This process is driven by electrostatic interaction and only possible at a specified aminated surface chemistry...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chun-Hou Liao, Yi-No Wu, Bin-Huei Chen, Ying-Hung Lin, Hsiu-O Ho, Han-Sun Chiang
There is an unmet need for treatment of erectile dysfunction resulting from radical prostatectomy and cavernous nerve (CN) injury. Given the neuroprotective properties of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), we investigated its effect on penile functional and structural recovery in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve injury. Rats were subject to CN injury and received intraperitoneal administration of either vehicle or a DHA nanoemulsion (nano-DHA) at 10, 50, or 250 μg/kg. Functional testing and histological analyses were performed at 28 days post-injury...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anuradha Kalani, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Pradip K Kamat, Claudio Maldonado, Philip Bauer, Irving G Joshua, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
We tested whether the combined nano-formulation, prepared with curcumin (anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecule) and embryonic stem cell exosomes (MESC-exo(cur)), restored neurovascular loss following an ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. IR-injury was created in 8-10 weeks old mice and divided into two groups. Out of two IR-injured groups, one group received intranasal administration of MESC-exo(cur) for 7days. Similarly, two sham groups were made and one group received MESC-exo(cur) treatment...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Muhymin Islam, Rahul Atmaramani, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Santaneel Ghosh, Samir M Iqbal
Traumatic injury to the central nervous system is a significant health problem. There is no effective treatment available partly because of the complexity of the system. Implementation of multifunctional micro- and nano-device based combinatorial therapeutics can provide biocompatible and tunable approaches to perform on-demand release of specific drugs. This can help the damaged cells to improve neuronal survival, regeneration of axons, and their reconnection to appropriate targets. Nano-topological features induced rapid cell growth is especially important towards the design of effective platforms to facilitate damaged neural circuit reconstruction...
October 14, 2016: Nanotechnology
Ichio Aoki
The advent of functional contrast agents and nanoparticle drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) is opening new pathways to understanding pathophysiology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nitroxyl radical compounds are promising functional contrast agents for redox evaluation. We have developed a novel nitroxyl radical theranostic compound for noninvasive real-time imaging of blood-brain barrier-permeable antitumor drugs. Divalent manganese ions (Mn(2+)) can also be used as an intracellular functional MRI contrast agent...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Paolo Massobrio, Giuseppe Massobrio, Sergio Martinoia
Microtransducer arrays, both metal microelectrodes and silicon-based devices, are widely used as neural interfaces to measure, extracellularly, the electrophysiological activity of excitable cells. Starting from the pioneering works at the beginning of the 70's, improvements in manufacture methods, materials, and geometrical shape have been made. Nowadays, these devices are routinely used in different experimental conditions (both in vivo and in vitro), and for several applications ranging from basic research in neuroscience to more biomedical oriented applications...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jekaterina Kazantseva, Roman Ivanov, Michael Gasik, Toomas Neuman, Irina Hussainova
Three-dimensional (3D) customized scaffolds capable to mimic a native extracellular matrix open new frontiers in cells manipulation and advanced therapy. The major challenge is in a proper substrate for in vitro models on engineered scaffolds, capable to modulate cells differentiation. Here for the first time we demonstrate novel design and functionality of the 3D porous scaffolds of aligned, self-assembled ceramic nanofibers of ultra-high anisotropy ratio (~10(7)), augmented into graphene shells. This unique hybrid nano-network allows an exceptional combination of selective guidance stimuli of stem cells differentiation, immune reactions variations, and local immobilization of cancer cells, which was not available before...
2016: Scientific Reports
Koushik Debnath, Shashi Shekhar, Vipendra Kumar, Nihar R Jana, Nikhil R Jana
Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is known for its antiamyloidogenic property, and it is observed that molecular EGCG binds with amyloid structure, redirects fibrillation kinetics, remodels mature fibril, and lowers the amyloid-derived toxicity. However, this unique property of EGCG is difficult to utilize because of their poor chemical stability and substandard bioavailability. Here we report a nanoparticle form of EGCG of 25 nm size (nano-EGCG) which is 10-100 times more efficient than molecular EGCG in inhibiting protein aggregation, disintegrating mature protein aggregates, and lowering amyloidogenic cytotoxicity...
August 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bing Wang, Qiang Wang, Hanqing Chen, Xiaoyan Zhou, Hailong Wang, Huiliang Wang, Jing Zhang, Weiyue Feng
The present study investigated the size-dependent translocation pattern and biological fate of intranasally instilled nano- and submicron-sized Fe2O3 particles (40 nm and 280 nm) in the CNS. The particle translocation in different parts of brain at 4 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, and 30 d after intranasal instillation were quantified using ICP-MS method. A biexponential model (correlation coefficient r = 0.98-0.99) was satisfactory to describe the particokinetic translocation behavior of Fe2O3 nanoparticles in brain...
June 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Aleš Benda, Hayden Aitken, Danielle S Davies, Renee Whan, Claire Goldsbury
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the propagation of filaments of tau protein throughout the cerebral cortex. Imaging tau filaments and oligomers in human brain at high resolution would help contribute insight into the mechanism and progression of tauopathic diseases. STED microscopy is a nano-scale imaging technique and we aimed to test the abilities of this method for resolving tau structures within human brain. Using autopsied 50μm AD brain sections, we demonstrate that STED microscopy can resolve immunolabelled tau filaments at 77nm resolution...
September 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Min Soo Kim, Ahmed El-Fiqi, Jong-Wan Kim, Hong-Sun Ahn, Hyukmin Kim, Young-Jin Son, Hae-Won Kim, Jung Keun Hyun
Development of therapeutic strategies such as effective drug delivery is an urgent and yet unmet need for repair of damaged nervous systems. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) regulates axonal regrowth of central and peripheral nervous systems; its inhibition, meanwhile, facilitates axonal outgrowth of injured neurons. Here we show that nanotherapeutics based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles loading PTEN-inhibitor bisperoxovanadium (BpV) are effective for delivery of drug molecules and consequent improvement of axonal outgrowth...
July 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kisuk Yang, Jaehong Lee, Jong Seung Lee, Dayeong Kim, Gyeong-Eon Chang, Jungmok Seo, Eunji Cheong, Taeyoon Lee, Seung-Woo Cho
Graphene has shown great potential for biomedical engineering applications due to its electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, flexibility, and biocompatibility. Topographical cues of culture substrates or tissue-engineering scaffolds regulate the behaviors and fate of stem cells. In this study, we developed a graphene oxide (GO)-based patterned substrate (GPS) with hierarchical structures capable of generating synergistic topographical stimulation to enhance integrin clustering, focal adhesion, and neuronal differentiation in human neural stem cells (hNSCs)...
July 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dingfeng Xu, Lin Fan, Lingfeng Gao, Yan Xiong, Yanfeng Wang, Qifa Ye, Aixi Yu, Honglian Dai, Yixia Yin, Jie Cai, Lina Zhang
Conducting polymers have emerged as frontrunners to be alternatives for nerve regeneration, showing a possibility of the application of polyaniline (PANI) as the nerve guidance conduit. In the present work, the cellulose hydrogel was used as template to in situ synthesize PANI via the limited interfacial polymerization method, leading to one conductive side in the polymer. PANI sub-micrometer dendritic particles with mean diameter of ∼300 nm consisting of the PANI nanofibers and nanoparticles were uniformly assembled into the cellulose matrix...
July 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
E Halevas, C M Nday, A Salifoglou
Morphological alterations compromising inter-neuronal connectivity may be directly linked to learning-memory deficits in Central Nervous System neurodegenerative processes. Cu(II)-mediated oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in regulating redox reactions generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), known contributors to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. The antioxidant properties of flavonoid catechin have been well-documented in neurodegenerative processes. However, the impact that catechin encapsulation in nanoparticles may have on neuronal survival and morphological lesions has been poorly demonstrated...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Jeroen Kuipers, Ruby D Kalicharan, Anouk H G Wolters, Tjakko J van Ham, Ben N G Giepmans
Large-scale 2D electron microscopy (EM), or nanotomy, is the tissue-wide application of nanoscale resolution electron microscopy. Others and we previously applied large scale EM to human skin pancreatic islets, tissue culture and whole zebrafish larvae(1-7). Here we describe a universally applicable method for tissue-scale scanning EM for unbiased detection of sub-cellular and molecular features. Nanotomy was applied to investigate the healthy and a neurodegenerative zebrafish brain. Our method is based on standardized EM sample preparation protocols: Fixation with glutaraldehyde and osmium, followed by epoxy-resin embedding, ultrathin sectioning and mounting of ultrathin-sections on one-hole grids, followed by post staining with uranyl and lead...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kamla Pathak, Nida Akhtar
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is depicted as the most prevailed neurodegenerative disease being secondary to the alzheimer's disease. PD is featured by severe dropping of dopamine related neurons present in substantia nigra as well as cytoplasmic inclusions. A number of therapeutic agents are available to treat initial as well as later complications of PD. However, transport of neurotherapeutics into the brain has been a consistent challenge for researchers, because of the existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
June 7, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Balpreet Bhogal, Amara Plaza-Jennings, Elizabeth R Gavis
Dendritic arbor morphology is a key determinant of neuronal function. Once established, dendrite branching patterns must be maintained as the animal develops to ensure receptive field coverage. The translational repressors Nanos (Nos) and Pumilio (Pum) are required to maintain dendrite growth and branching of Drosophila larval class IV dendritic arborization (da) neurons, but their specific regulatory role remains unknown. We show that Nos-Pum-mediated repression of the pro-apoptotic gene head involution defective (hid) is required to maintain a balance of dendritic growth and retraction in class IV da neurons and that upregulation of hid results in decreased branching because of an increase in caspase activity...
June 15, 2016: Development
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