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Neuron nano

Zeng-Pan-Pan Ye, Xiao-Lin Ai, Andrew M Faramand, Fang Fang
Many central nervous system (CNS) diseases were thought to be untreatable due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The chemokine gradients secreted from CNS parenchyma can induce macrophage migration to the brain, induce firm adherence to the endothelium of BBB, and eventually to enter the brain parenchyma. Macrophages migrating into CNS can promote neuron regeneration, induce inflammation and angiogenesis. These properties can potentially allow macrophages to act as carriers for drug/nano formulations across the BBB, and reach the potential target sites...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Buket Ucar, Christian Humpel
Biomaterials have increasingly become a focus of research on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Collagen, in terms of brain repair, presents many advantages such as being remarkably biocompatible, biodegradable, versatile and non-toxic. Collagen can be used to form injectable scaffolds and micro/nano spheres in order to: (i) locally release therapeutic factors with the aim of protecting degenerating neurons in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases, (ii) encapsulate stem cells for safe delivery, (iii) encapsulate genetically modified cells to provide a long term source of trophic factors, (iv) fill in the voids from injury to serve as a structural support and provide a permissive microenvironment to promote axonal growth...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Sara Gnavi, Michela Morano, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Claudio Riccobono, Chiara Tonda-Turo, Marco Zanetti, Gianluca Ciardelli, Giovanna Gambarotta, Isabelle Perroteau, Stefano Geuna, Stefania Raimondo
Nerve guidance channels facilitate nerve regeneration and represent an attractive alternative to nerve graft. Actually, nano- and micro-structured biomaterials for nerve reconstruction have gained much attention, thanks to recent discoveries about topography effects on cell behaviour and morphology. Electrospun fibres have been proposed as filler or structural component for nerve guidance channels, principally due to their similarity with extracellular matrices which facilitate nerve regeneration. Among several tested biomaterials, gelatin has been used to prepare fibres able to support Schwann cell migration and neurite outgrowth...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Annabelle Biscans, Reka A Haraszti, Dimas Echeverria, Rachael Miller, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Mehran Nikan, Loic Roux, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova
Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) show promise as natural nano-devices for delivery of therapeutic RNA, but efficient loading of therapeutic RNA remains a challenge. We have recently shown that the attachment of cholesterol to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) enables efficient and productive loading into sEVs. Here, we systematically explore the ability of lipid conjugates-fatty acids, sterols, and vitamins-to load siRNAs into sEVs and support gene silencing in primary neurons. Hydrophobicity of the conjugated siRNAs defined loading efficiency and the silencing activity of siRNA-sEVs complexes...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Sonja Johannsmeier, Patrick Heeger, Mitsuhiro Terakawa, Stefan Kalies, Alexander Heisterkamp, Tammo Ripken, Dag Heinemann
Stimulation of neuronal cells generally resorts to electric signals. Recent advances in laser-based stimulation methods could present an alternative with superior spatiotemporal resolution. The avoidance of electronic crosstalk makes these methods attractive for in vivo therapeutic application. In particular, nano-mediators, such as gold nanoparticles, can be used to transfer the energy from a laser pulse to the cell membrane and subsequently activate excitable cells. Although the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activation have been widely unraveled, the overall effect on the targeted cell is not understood...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Micha E Spira, Nava Shmoel, Shun-Ho M Huang, Hadas Erez
Multielectrode arrays (MEA) are used extensively for basic and applied electrophysiological research of neuronal- and cardiomyocyte-networks. Whereas immense progress has been made in realizing sophisticated MEA platforms of thousands of addressable, high-density, small diameter, low impedance sensors, the quality of the interfaces formed between excitable cells and classical planar sensor has not improved. As a consequence in vitro and in vivo MEA are "blind" to the rich and important "landscape" of sub-threshold synaptic potentials generated by individual neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Roderic H Fabian, Paul J Derry, Harriett Charmaine Rea, William V Dalmeida, Lizanne G Nilewski, William K A Sikkema, Pitchaiah Mandava, Ah-Lim Tsai, Kimberly Mendoza, Vladimir Berka, James M Tour, Thomas A Kent
Introduction: While oxidative stress can be measured during transient cerebral ischemia, antioxidant therapies for ischemic stroke have been clinically unsuccessful. Many antioxidants are limited in their range and/or capacity for quenching radicals and can generate toxic intermediates overwhelming depleted endogenous protection. We developed a new antioxidant class, 40 nm × 2 nm carbon nanoparticles, hydrophilic carbon clusters, conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) termed PEG-HCCs...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
N C Mitchell, T L Gilman, L C Daws, G M Toney
PURPOSE: Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic (differing in type) stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress (SS)...
April 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Pengzhen Wang, Xiaoyao Zheng, Qian Guo, Peng Yang, Xiaoying Pang, Kang Qian, Wei Lu, Qizhi Zhang, Xinguo Jiang
β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a key enzyme to cleave the amyloid precursor protein to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reducing BACE1 expression in central neuron through RNA interference technology shows great promise to overcome AD. However, to obtain an efficient and neurons-specific delivery of siRNA against BACE1 through systemic administration remains challenging. Here, we design and prepare siRNA nano-carriers based on PEGylated poly(2-(N,N-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PEG-PDMAEMA) modified with both the CGN peptide for blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration and the Tet1 peptide for neuron-specific binding...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Saami Ahmed, Mahima Kaushik, Swati Chaudhary, Shrikant Kukreti
An exceptional property of auto-folding into a range of intra- as well as intermolecular quadruplexes by guanine-rich oligomers (GROs) of promoters, telomeres and various other genomic locations is still one of the most attractive areas of research at present times. The main reason for this attention is due to their established in vivo existence and biological relevance. Herein, the structural status of a 20-nt long G-rich sequence with two G5 stretches (SG20) is investigated using various biophysical and biochemical techniques...
April 19, 2018: Biopolymers
Massimo Trusel, Michele Baldrighi, Roberto Marotta, Francesca Gatto, Mattia Pesce, Marco Frasconi, Tiziano Catelani, Francesco Papaleo, Pier Paolo Pompa, Raffaella Tonini, Silvia Giordani
One area where nanomedicine may offer superior performances and efficacy compared to current strategies is in the diagnosis and treatment of Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. However, the application of nanomaterials in such complex arenas is still in its infancy and an optimal vector for the therapy of CNS diseases has not been identified. Graphitic Carbon Nano Onions (CNOs) represent a class of carbon nanomaterials that shows promising potential for biomedical purposes. To probe the possible applications of graphitic CNOs as a platform for therapeutic and diagnostic interventions on CNS diseases, fluorescently labeled CNOs were stereotaxically injected in vivo in mice hippocampus...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaoliang Li, Wei Sun, Lei An
Manufactured metal nanoparticles and their applications are continuously expanding because of their unique characteristics while their increasing use may predispose to potential health problems. Several studies have reported the adverse effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) relative to ecotoxicity and cell toxicity, whereas little is known about the neurotoxicity of nano-CuO. The present study aimed to examine its effects on spatial cognition, hippocampal function, and the possible mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were used to establish an animal model, and nano-CuO was administered at a dose of 0...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Rosa C Paolicelli, Giorgio Bergamini, Lawrence Rajendran
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are small, nano-to-micrometer vesicles that are released from cells. While initially observed in immune cells and reticulocytes as vesicles meant to remove archaic proteins, now they have been observed in almost all cell types of multicellular organisms. Growing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles, containing lipids, proteins and RNAs, represent an efficient way to transfer functional cargoes from one cell to another. In the central nervous system, the extensive cross-talk ongoing between neurons and glia, including microglia, the immune cells of the brain, takes advantage of secreted vesicles, which mediate intercellular communication over long range distance...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience
Keyvan Aghababaiyan, Vahid Shah-Mansouri, Behrouz Maham
Novel nano-scale communication techniques are inspired by biological systems. Neuro-spike communication is an example of this communication paradigm which transfers vital information about external and internal conditions of the body through the nervous system. The analysis of this communication paradigm is beneficial to exploit in the artificial neural systems where nano-machines are linked to neurons to treat the neurodegenerative diseases. In these networks, nano-machines are used to replace the damaged segments of the nervous system and they exactly behave like biological entities...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Isha Gupta, Alexantrou Serb, Ali Khiat, Ralf Zeitler, Stefano Vassanelli, Themistoklis Prodromakis
Advanced neural interfaces mediate a bioelectronic link between the nervous system and microelectronic devices, bearing great potential as innovative therapy for various diseases. Spikes from a large number of neurons are recorded leading to creation of big data that require online processing under most stringent conditions, such as minimal power dissipation and on-chip space occupancy. Here, we present a new concept where the inherent volatile properties of a nano-scale memristive device are used to detect and compress information on neural spikes as recorded by a multielectrode array...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Rinat O Esenaliev, Irene Y Petrov, Yuriy Petrov, Jutatip Guptarak, Deborah R Boone, Emanuele Mocciaro, Harris Weisz, Margaret O Parsley, Stacy L Sell, Helen L Hellmich, Jonathan M Ford, Connor Pogue, Douglas DeWitt, Donald S Prough, Maria Adelaide Micci
We have developed a novel, non-invasive Nano-Pulsed Laser Therapy (NPLT) system that combines the benefits of near-infrared laser light (808 nm) and ultrasound (optoacoustic) waves, which are generated with each short laser pulse within the tissue. We tested NPLT in a rat model of blast-induced neurotrauma to determine whether transcranial application of NPLT provides neuroprotective effects. The laser pulses were applied on the intact rat head one hour after injury using a specially developed fiber-optic system...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Rémi-Xavier Coux, Felipe Karam Teixeira, Ruth Lehmann
Maintenance of cellular identity is essential for tissue development and homeostasis. At the molecular level, cell identity is determined by the coordinated activation and repression of defined sets of genes. The tumor suppressor L(3)mbt has been shown to secure cellular identity in Drosophila larval brains by repressing germline-specific genes. Here, we interrogate the temporal and spatial requirements for L(3)mbt in the Drosophila ovary, and show that it safeguards the integrity of both somatic and germline tissues...
April 4, 2018: Development
Ranjita Ghosh Moulick, Gregor Panaitov, Liping Du, Dirk Mayer, Andreas Offenhäusser
Biomimetic membranes create opportunities for various applications, including the possibility of replacing interacting cells in a cell-cell contact. Here we have fractionated synthetic membranes using metal nano-grid structures where EphrinA5 (EA5), a neuronal adhesion promoter, was anchored via its Fc domain (immunoglobulin G (IgG)-domain). FRAP experiments were performed to check the confinement of the synthetic membrane within these nano-structures. Rat cortical primary neurons were cultured and live cell imaging techniques were used to monitor the neuronal interaction with these fractionated synthetic membranes...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Marjan Tanzifi, Mohammad Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mojtaba Karami, Samira Karimi, Asieh Dehghani Kiadehi, Kianoush Karimipour, Shaobin Wang
In the present study, a polyaniline/carboxymethyl cellulose/TiO2 nanocomposite (PAn/CMC/TiO2 ) was synthesized by a polymerization method, and was used for adsorption of Congo Red from aqueous solution. The effects of operational parameters of the adsorption process including pH, initial dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dosage, and adsorption time on adsorption efficiency were investigated, and response surface methodology was used for their optimization. Optimal adsorption conditions were determined at pH of 2...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Xiao Guo, Huifen Guo, Lei Zhao, Yao-Hua Zhang, Jian-Xu Zhang
Background: In rats, urine-borne male pheromones comprise organic volatile compounds and major urinary proteins (MUPs). A number of volatile pheromones have been reported, but no MUP pheromones have been identified in rat urine. Results: We used sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) after in gel digestion of the proteins and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT - PCR) and showed that the levels of two MUPs, odorant - binding protein 3 (OBP3) (i...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
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