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Placental nutrient transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208246/history-of-reptile-placentology-part-iii-giacomini-s-1891-histological-monograph-on-lizard-placentation
#1
REVIEW
D G Blackburn, L Paulesu, A M Avanzati, M Roth
By the 1890s, placental arrangements had been documented macroscopically in lizards and fishes, but placental studies on such species lagged far behind research on mammals. In 1891, the biologist Ercole Giacomini (at the University of Siena, Italy) published the first histological analysis of a reptile placenta. Focusing on a placentotrophic lizard (Chalcides chalcides) with a morphologically complex placenta, Giacomini documented the histological and cellular bases for placental nutrient transfer and gas exchange...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207294/placental-structure-and-function-in-different-breeds-in-horses
#2
M Robles, P M Peugnet, S A Valentino, C Dubois, M Dahirel, M-C Aubrière, F Reigner, D Serteyn, L Wimel, A Tarrade, P Chavatte-Palmer
Ponies and sometimes draft horses are often used as experimental models for horses although size and metabolic parameters are known to vary between horse breeds. So far, there is little information about differences of placental structure and no information about differences of placental function between breeds. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in placental size, structure and function at birth in relation to foal size and weight in ponies, Saddlebred and draft horses. Pony, Saddlebred and draft horse pregnancies were obtained by artificial insemination over 2 successive breeding seasons...
November 20, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197013/placental-lipid-transport
#3
Evemie Dubé, Guillaume Desparois, Julie Lafond
The human placenta is responsible for the adequate supply of nutrients essential for proper embryonic and fetal development such as glucose, amino acids, and lipids. Processes involved in the placental transport of these nutrients are complex and tightly regulated and involve many transporters, receptors, and regulators. In this chapter, we describe the current methods to study the impact of maternal metabolic disorders on key players of human placental transfer of nutrients.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163373/placental-nutrient-transport-in-gestational-diabetic-pregnancies
#4
REVIEW
Marisol Castillo-Castrejon, Theresa L Powell
Maternal obesity during pregnancy is rising and is associated with increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy (1). Fetal growth is determined by the maternal nutrient supply and placental nutrient transfer capacity. GDM-complicated pregnancies are more likely to be complicated by fetal overgrowth or excess adipose deposition in utero. Infants born from GDM mothers have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150340/placental-transfer-and-levels-of-mercury-selenium-vitamin-e-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-maternal-and-umbilical-cord-blood
#5
Mineshi Sakamoto, Hing Man Chan, José L Domingo, Chihaya Koriyama, Katsuyuki Murata
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxicant known to affect the developing fetal brain as a sensitive target organ. As most mercury (Hg) in blood is MeHg, total mercury (THg) levels in blood are used to estimate the body burden of MeHg. The nutrients selenium (Se), vitamin E, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are protective against MeHg toxicity. We compared maternal and cord blood concentrations of biochemical substances, THg and Se, vitamin E, DHA, and other elements, fatty acids, and amino acids in 54 Japanese mother-newborn pairs to elucidate the fetal risk of MeHg toxicity...
November 14, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963763/placental-alterations-in-structure-and-function-in-intra-uterine-growth-retarded-horses
#6
M Robles, P M Peugnet, S A Valentino, C Dubois, M Dahirel, M-C Aubrière, F Reigner, D Serteyn, L Wimel, A Tarrade, P Chavatte-Palmer
BACKGROUND: Following embryo transfer (ET), the size and breed of the recipient mare can affect fetal development and subsequent postnatal growth rate and insulin sensitivity in foals. OBJECTIVES: To investigate placental adaptation in pregnancies where increased or restricted fetal growth was induced through ET between Pony, Saddlebred and Draught horses. STUDY DESIGN: In vivo experiment. METHODS: Control Pony (P, n = 21) and Saddlebred (S, n = 28) pregnancies were obtained by artificial insemination...
September 30, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864025/birth-weight-umbilical-and-placental-traits-in-relation-to-neonatal-loss-in-cloned-pigs
#7
Zheng Ao, Dewu Liu, Chengfa Zhao, Zhimin Yue, Junsong Shi, Rong Zhou, Gengyuan Cai, Enqin Zheng, Zicong Li, Zhenfang Wu
Cloned piglets generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have a high rate of neonatal death. Postnatal loss is associated with low birth weight, umbilical status and placental parameters in fertilisation-derived piglets. To investigate whether or not this relationship also exists in cloned piglets, birth weight, umbilical status, placental parameters, placental morphology and gene expression pattern were compared among four piglet groups, namely, SCNT-derived male piglets that died within 4 days (SCNT-DW4), SCNT-derived male piglets that survived over 4 days (SCNT-SO4), artificial insemination (AI)-generated male piglets that died within 4 days (AI-DW4) and AI-generated male piglets that survived over 4 days (AI-SO4)...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846140/an-examination-of-surface-epithelium-structures-of-the-embryo-across-the-genus-poeciliopsis-poeciliidae
#8
Tami M Panhuis, Megan Fris, Laura Tuhela, Lucia Kwan
In viviparous, teleost fish, with postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning, embryonic structures that facilitate maternal-fetal nutrient transfer are predicted to be present. For the family Poeciliidae, only a handful of morphological studies have explored these embryonic specializations. Here, we present a comparative morphological study in the viviparous poeciliid genus, Poeciliopsis. Using microscopy techniques, we examine the embryonic surface epidermis of Poeciliopsis species that vary in their level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning and placentation across two phylogenetic clades and three independent evolutionary origins of placentation...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809844/the-4-vessel-sampling-approach-to-integrative-studies-of-human-placental-physiology-in-vivo
#9
Ane M Holme, Maia B Holm, Marie C P Roland, Hildegunn Horne, Trond M Michelsen, Guttorm Haugen, Tore Henriksen
The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798074/the-influence-of-prenatal-exercise-and-pre-eclampsia-on-maternal-vascular-function
#10
REVIEW
Rachel J Skow, Emily C King, Craig D Steinback, Margie H Davenport
During healthy pregnancy, the cardiovascular system undergoes diverse adaptations to support adequate transfer of oxygen and nutrients from mother to fetus. In order to accommodate the large expansion of blood volume and associated cardiac output, the structure, mechanics, and function of the arteries are altered. Specifically, in healthy pregnancy there is a remodeling of arteries (increased angiogenesis and vasodilation), a generalized reduction in arterial stiffness (increased compliance), and an enhanced endothelial function...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789824/apoptosis-and-cell-proliferation-in-porcine-placental-vascularization
#11
Eva G Sanchis, Andrea L Cristofolini, Mariana R Fiorimanti, Claudio G Barbeito, Cecilia I Merkis
The placenta is a highly vascularized organ, indispensable tothe transfer of nutrients to the growing fetuses. During gestation, there exists an expansion of the placental vascular network through active angiogenesis. The aim of this research was to study cell proliferation and apoptosis through high resolution light microscopy (HRLM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ultrastructure, immunohistochemistry for Ki67and caspase-3, determination of placental vascular area,and TUNEL assay. Crossbred sows placental tissues from approximately 30±2(n=5), 40±2(n=5), 60±2 (n=5), 80±2(n=5), 90±2(n=5) and 114±2(n=5) days of gestation were used...
July 23, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661560/pregnancy-and-spontaneous-fetal-loss-a-pig-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Mallikarjun Bidarimath, Chandrakant Tayade
Pigs have a unique, non-invasive epitheliochorial placenta where maternal and fetal layers lay in apposition. Indentation of fetal capillaries into the trophoblasts and maternal capillaries into the uterine epithelium reduce the distance between the fetal and maternal blood, ensuring nutrient transfer for proper conceptus development. Another unique feature of pig pregnancy is conceptus-mediated immune cell enrichment during the early stages of conceptus attachment (around gestation Day 15). This period coincides with the development of vasculature networks at the maternal-fetal interface, which is critical for successful conceptus growth...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646147/whole-organ-vascular-casting-and-microct-examination-of-the-human-placental-vascular-tree-reveals-novel-alterations-associated-with-pregnancy-disease
#13
Toluwalope O Junaid, Robert S Bradley, Rohan M Lewis, John D Aplin, Edward D Johnstone
Experimental methods that allow examination of the intact vascular network of large organs, such as the human placenta are limited, preventing adequate comparison of normal and abnormal vascular development in pregnancy disease. Our aims were (i) to devise an effective technique for three-dimensional analyses of human placental vessels; (ii) demonstrate the utility of the technique in the comparison of placental vessel networks in normal and fetal growth restriction (FGR) complicated pregnancies. Radiopaque plastic vessel networks of normal and FGR placentas (n = 12/group) were created by filling the vessels with resin and corroding the surrounding tissues...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583471/expression-of-glucose-transporter-proteins-in-human-diabetic-placenta
#14
REVIEW
Paweł Jan Stanirowski, Dariusz Szukiewicz, Monika Pazura-Turowska, Włodzimierz Sawicki, Krzysztof Cendrowski
Gestational diabetes mellitus and pregestational diabetes mellitus constitute carbohydrate metabolism disorders, which, if not diagnosed and adequately treated, lead to serious and often life-threatening pregnancy complications. According to a recently formulated hypothesis, some diabetes-related complications, such as fetal macrosomia, may be the result of disturbances in the transplacental transport of nutrients-in particular, excessive maternal-fetal glucose transfer. Throughout pregnancy, glucose flux across the placenta is mediated by the group of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), the expression of which in different placental compartments is the precondition for effective glucose uptake from maternal blood and its subsequent transfer to the fetal circulation...
June 2, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542142/deletion-of-pdcd5-in-mice-led-to-the-deficiency-of-placenta-development-and-embryonic-lethality
#15
Ge Li, Chentong Xu, Xin Lin, Liujing Qu, Dan Xia, Beiqi Hongdu, Yan Xia, Xiaokun Wang, Yaxin Lou, Qihua He, Dalong Ma, Yingyu Chen
Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) is an apoptosis promoter molecule that displays multiple biological activities. However, the function of PDCD5 in vivo has not yet been investigated. Here, we generated a Pdcd5 knockout mouse model to study the physiological role of PDCD5 in vivo. Knockout of the Pdcd5 gene resulted in embryonic lethality at mid-gestation. Histopathological analysis revealed dysplasia in both the LZs and JZs in Pdcd5(-/-) placentas with defects in spongiotrophoblasts and trophoblast giant cells...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487135/estrogen-enhanced-apical-and-basolateral-secretion-of-apolipoprotein-b-100-by-polarized-trophoblast-derived-bewo-cells
#16
Miriam Kamper, Florian Mittermayer, Rosalinda Cabuk, Katharina Gelles, Isabella Ellinger, Marcela Hermann
Cholesterol is an important nutrient for fetal development and transplacental transport occurs at all stages of human pregnancy. Furthermore, cholesterol is required for membrane building as well as steroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, all placental cell types require cholesterol for proper function. In human term placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) faces the maternal circulation. Uptake of maternal-derived cholesterol at the apical membrane of the STB is well understood, but the route by which cholesterol exits at the basal side for subsequent transfer across the fetal endothelial cells (FEC) or to other placental cell types remains not well characterized...
July 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463968/differential-microrna-expression-in-human-placentas-of-term-intra-uterine-growth-restriction-that-regulates-target-genes-mediating-angiogenesis-and-amino-acid-transport
#17
Shanthie Thamotharan, Alison Chu, Katie Kempf, Carla Janzen, Tristan Grogan, David A Elashoff, Sherin U Devaskar
Placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) demonstrates perturbed gene expression affecting placental angiogenesis and nutrient transfer from mother to fetus. To understand the post-transcriptional mechanisms underlying such placental gene expression changes, our objective was to identify key non-coding microRNAs that express biological function. To this end, we initially undertook microarrays targeting microRNAs in a small sub-set of placentas of appropriate (AGA) versus small for gestational age (SGA) weight infants, and observed up-regulation of 97 miRs and down-regulation of 44 miRs in SGA versus AGA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411942/transplacental-nutrient-transfer-in-the-human-in%C3%A2-vivo-determined-by-4-vessel-sampling
#18
Trond M Michelsen, Ane M Holme, Tore Henriksen
BACKGROUND: The intrauterine environment and especially the fetal nutritional conditions affect lifelong health. There are few human in vivo studies on fetal nutrition. The importance to test experimentally based concepts of fetal nutrition in a human in vivo setting is becoming increasingly apparent. A way of testing nutrient transfer in human is 4-vessel sampling, which implies blood sampling from artery and vein on both sides of the placenta. Here we give a brief review of the studies using the 4-vessel sampling method...
November 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322267/exposure-of-pregnant-mice-to-triclosan-impairs-placental-development-and-nutrient-transport
#19
Xinyuan Cao, Xu Hua, Xiaoli Wang, Ling Chen
Triclosan (TCS) is associated with spontaneous abortions and fetal growth restriction. Here, we showed that when pregnant mice were treated with 8 mg/kg TCS (8-TCS mice) on gestational days (GD) 6-18 fetal body weights were lower than controls. Placental weights and volumes were reduced in 8-TCS mice. The placental proliferative cells and expression of PCNA and Cyclin D3 on GD13 were remarkably decreased in 8-TCS mice. The decreases in activities and expression of placental System A amino acid or glucose transporters on GD14 and GD17 were observed in 8-TCS mice...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301855/placental-lipid-and-fatty-acid-transfer-in-maternal-overnutrition
#20
Rohan M Lewis, Gernot Desoye
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of childhood obesity is a significant public health challenge, the consequences of which extend across the life course. SUMMARY: Diet and exercise are clearly the major contributors to childhood obesity, but the factors predisposing to obesity may become established in the womb. Worryingly maternal overnutrition, in particular when it leads to obesity and diabetes, perpetuate an intergenerational cycle of obesity through its effects on placental function and fetal metabolism...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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