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Placental nutrient transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762057/placental-metabolism-substrate-requirements-and-the-response-to-stress
#1
O R Vaughan, A L Fowden
The placenta is a dynamic, metabolically active organ with significant nutrient and energy requirements for growth, nutrient transfer and protein synthesis. It uses a range of substrates to meet its energy needs and has a higher rate of oxygen (O2 ) consumption than many other foetal and adult tissues. Placental metabolism varies with species and alters in response to a range of nutritional and endocrine signals of adverse environmental conditions. The placenta integrates these signals and adapts its metabolic phenotype to help maintain pregnancy and to optimize offspring fitness by diversifying the sources of carbon and nitrogen available for energy production, hormone synthesis and foeto-placental growth...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707701/moderate-folic-acid-supplementation-and-mthfd1-synthetase-deficiency-in-mice-a-model-for-the-r653q-variant-result-in-embryonic-defects-and-abnormal-placental-development
#2
Karen E Christensen, Wenyang Hou, Renata H Bahous, Liyuan Deng, Olga V Malysheva, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Marie A Caudill, Loydie A Jerome-Majewska, Rima Rozen
BACKGROUND: Moderately high folic acid intake in pregnant women has led to concerns about deleterious effects on the mother and fetus. Common polymorphisms in folate genes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) R653Q, may modulate the effects of elevated folic acid intake. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of moderate folic acid supplementation on reproductive outcomes and assessed the potential interaction of the supplemented diet with MTHFD1-synthetase (Mthfd1S) deficiency in mice, which is a model for the R653Q variant...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633272/the-effects-of-nrf2-deletion-on-placental-morphology-and-exchange-capacity-in-the-mouse
#3
Nisreen Kweider, Berthold Huppertz, Werner Rath, Jessica Lambertz, Rebecca Caspers, Mohamed ElMoursi, Ulrich Pecks, Mamed Kadyrov, Athanassios Fragoulis, Thomas Pufe, Christoph Jan Wruck
OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined as a pathological decreased fetal growth. Oxidative stress has been connected to the restriction in the fetal growth. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a potent activator of the cellular antioxidant response. The effect Nrf2 on fetal-placental development has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Here, we evaluated the placental and fetal growth in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-KO) and Nrf2-wild type mice (Nrf2-WT) throughout pregnancy...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621448/maternal-and-fetal-genomes-interplay-through-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-p110%C3%AE-signaling-to-modify-placental-resource-allocation
#4
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Jorge López-Tello, Abigail L Fowden, Miguel Constancia
Pregnancy success and life-long health depend on a cooperative interaction between the mother and the fetus in the allocation of resources. As the site of materno-fetal nutrient transfer, the placenta is central to this interplay; however, the relative importance of the maternal versus fetal genotypes in modifying the allocation of resources to the fetus is unknown. Using genetic inactivation of the growth and metabolism regulator, Pik3ca (encoding PIK3CA also known as p110α, α/+), we examined the interplay between the maternal genome and the fetal genome on placental phenotype in litters of mixed genotype generated through reciprocal crosses of WT and α/+ mice...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527665/placental-control-of-drug-delivery
#5
Sanaalarab Al-Enazy, Shariq Ali, Norah Albekairi, Marwa El-Tawil, Erik Rytting
The placenta serves as the interface between the maternal and fetal circulations and regulates the transfer of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products. When exogenous substances are present in the maternal bloodstream-whether from environmental contact, occupational exposure, medication, or drug abuse-the extent to which this exposure affects the fetus is determined by transport and biotransformation processes in the placental barrier. Advances in drug delivery strategies are expected to improve the treatment of maternal and fetal diseases encountered during pregnancy...
August 12, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466227/maternal-gametophyte-effects-on-seed-development-in-maize
#6
Antony M Chettoor, Allison R Phillips, Clayton T Coker, Brian Dilkes, Matthew M S Evans
Flowering plants, like placental mammals, have an extensive maternal contribution toward progeny development. Plants are distinguished from animals by a genetically active haploid phase of growth and development between meiosis and fertilization, called the gametophyte. Flowering plants are further distinguished by the process of double fertilization that produces sister progeny, the endosperm and the embryo, of the seed. Because of this, there is substantial gene expression in the female gametophyte that contributes to the regulation of growth and development of the seed...
September 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27326761/evidence-of-placental-autophagy-during-early-pregnancy-after-transfer-of-in-vitro-produced-ivp-sheep-embryos
#7
Paola Toschi, Marta Czernik, Federica Zacchini, Antonella Fidanza, Pasqualino Loi, Grażyna Ewa Ptak
Pregnancies obtained by Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) are associated with limited maternal nutrient uptake. Our previous studies shown that in vitro culture of sheep embryos is associated with vascularization defects in their placentae and consequent reduction of embryo growth. Autophagy is a pro-survival cellular mechanism triggered by nutrient insufficiency. Therefore, the goal of our present study was to determine if autophagy is involved in early placental development after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239793/altered-development-and-function-of-the-placental-regions-in-preeclampsia-and-its-association-with-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#8
REVIEW
Alka Rani, Nisha Wadhwani, Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Sadhana Joshi
The placenta is an essential organ formed during pregnancy that mainly transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. Nutrients taken up by the placenta are required for its own growth and development and to optimize fetal growth. Hence, placental function is an important determinant of pregnancy outcome. Among various nutrients, fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, are essential for placental development from the time of implantation...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102939/comparative-genomics-of-hormonal-signaling-in-the-chorioallantoic-membrane-of-oviparous-and-viviparous-amniotes
#9
Oliver W Griffith, Matthew C Brandley, Camilla M Whittington, Katherine Belov, Michael B Thompson
In oviparous amniotes (reptiles, birds, and mammals) the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) lines the inside of the egg and acts as the living point of contact between the embryo and the outside world. In livebearing (viviparous) amniotes, communication during embryonic development occurs across placental tissues, which form between the uterine tissue of the mother and the CAM of the embryo. In both oviparous and viviparous taxa, the CAM is at the interface of the embryo and the external environment and can transfer signals from there to the embryo proper...
April 18, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090932/dynamic-integrated-analysis-of-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-profiles-in-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-fertilized-mouse-post-implantation-extraembryonic-and-placental-tissues
#10
Kun Tan, Zhenni Zhang, Kai Miao, Yong Yu, Linlin Sui, Jianhui Tian, Lei An
STUDY HYPOTHESIS: How does in vitro fertilization (IVF) alter promoter DNA methylation patterns and its subsequent effects on gene expression profiles during placentation in mice? STUDY FINDING: IVF-induced alterations in promoter DNA methylation might have functional consequences in a number of biological processes and functions during IVF placentation, including actin cytoskeleton organization, hematopoiesis, vasculogenesis, energy metabolism and nutrient transport...
July 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014074/the-programming-power-of-the-placenta
#11
REVIEW
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Emily J Camm
Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992680/magnesium-deficiency-during-pregnancy-in-mice-impairs-placental-size-and-function
#12
J Y Rosner, M Gupta, M McGill, X Xue, P K Chatterjee, M Yoshida-Hay, W Robeson, C N Metz
OBJECTIVE: Maternal magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with fetal growth restriction. Using a mouse model of maternal Mg deficiency-induced fetal growth restriction, we sought to investigate the effect of Mg deficiency on placental physiology and function. METHODS: In vivo: Pregnant Swiss Webster mice were fed either 100% of the recommended amount of Mg (control) or 10%Mg (Mg-deficient) (8 per group). Dams were euthanized on gestational day 17 and placentas were collected, weighed and assessed for Mg concentrations, as well as nutrient transporter mRNA expression...
March 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972897/placental-origins-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-potential-molecular-targets-an-executive-workshop-summary-of-the-eunice-kennedy-shriver-national-institute-of-child-health-and-human-development
#13
REVIEW
John V Ilekis, Ekaterini Tsilou, Susan Fisher, Vikki M Abrahams, Michael J Soares, James C Cross, Stacy Zamudio, Nicholas P Illsley, Leslie Myatt, Christine Colvis, Maged M Costantine, David M Haas, Yoel Sadovsky, Carl Weiner, Erik Rytting, Gene Bidwell
Although much progress is being made in understanding the molecular pathways in the placenta that are involved in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-related disorders, a significant gap exists in the utilization of this information for the development of new drug therapies to improve pregnancy outcome. On March 5-6, 2015, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health sponsored a 2-day workshop titled Placental Origins of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Potential Molecular Targets to begin to address this gap...
July 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903878/placental-adaptation-what-can-we-learn-from-birthweight-placental-weight-ratio
#14
REVIEW
Christina E Hayward, Samantha Lean, Colin P Sibley, Rebecca L Jones, Mark Wareing, Susan L Greenwood, Mark R Dilworth
Appropriate fetal growth relies upon adequate placental nutrient transfer. Birthweight:placental weight ratio (BW:PW ratio) is often used as a proxy for placental efficiency, defined as the grams of fetus produced per gram placenta. An elevated BW:PW ratio in an appropriately grown fetus (small placenta) is assumed to be due to up-regulated placental nutrient transfer capacity i.e., a higher nutrient net flux per gram placenta. In fetal growth restriction (FGR), where a fetus fails to achieve its genetically pre-determined growth potential, placental weight and BW:PW ratio are often reduced which may indicate a placenta that fails to adapt its nutrient transfer capacity to compensate for its small size...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850609/-impact-of-maternal-obesity-and-diabetes-on-placental-function
#15
Anne Gabory, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Anne Vambergue, Anne Tarrade
Located at the feto-maternal interface, the placenta is involved in exchange, endocrine and immune functions, which impact fetal development. In contact with the maternal environment, this organ is sensitive to metabolic disorders as over-nutrition, obesity or diabetes. The alteration of blood parameters associated with these pathologies affects placental histology, vascularization and nutrient transfers and, according to the types of troubles, induces local inflammation or hypoxia. These placental changes lead to disturbance of development and fetal growth, which increase the risk of pathologies in offspring in adulthood...
January 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727403/placental-metal-concentrations-in-relation-to-maternal-and-infant-toenails-in-a-u-s-cohort
#16
Tracy Punshon, Zhigang Li, Carmen J Marsit, Brian P Jackson, Emily R Baker, Margaret R Karagas
Metal contaminants cross the placenta, presenting a heightened risk of perturbing fetal development. Information about placental concentrations and transfer of multiple potentially toxic metals from low to moderate exposure is lacking. We measured concentrations of Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn, Se, and Zn in 750 placentas collected from women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study and examined the correlation between elements, and profiles of potentially toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, and Mn) stratified by nutrient concentrations (Zn and Se) using principal components analyses...
February 2, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26300992/the-placenta-phenotypic-and-epigenetic-modifications-induced-by-assisted-reproductive-technologies-throughout-pregnancy
#17
REVIEW
Cécile Choux, Virginie Carmignac, Céline Bruno, Paul Sagot, Daniel Vaiman, Patricia Fauque
Today, there is growing interest in the potential epigenetic risk related to assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Much evidence in the literature supports the hypothesis that adverse pregnancy outcomes linked to ART are associated with abnormal trophoblastic invasion. The aim of this review is to investigate the relationship between epigenetic dysregulation caused by ART and subsequent placental response. The dialogue between the endometrium and the embryo is a crucial step to achieve successful trophoblastic invasion, thus ensuring a non-complicated pregnancy and healthy offspring...
2015: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246504/reduced-placental-amino-acid-transport-in-response-to-maternal-nutrient-restriction-in-the-baboon
#18
Priyadarshini Pantham, Fredrick J Rosario, Mark Nijland, Alex Cheung, Peter W Nathanielsz, Theresa L Powell, Henry L Galan, Cun Li, Thomas Jansson
Intrauterine growth restriction increases the risk of perinatal complications and predisposes the infant to diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life. Mechanisms by which maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) reduces fetal growth are poorly understood. We hypothesized that MNR decreases placental amino acid (AA) transporter activity, leading to reduced transplacental transfer of AAs. Pregnant baboons were fed either a control (ad libitum, n = 7), or MNR diet (70% of control diet, n = 7) from gestational day (GD) 30...
October 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26220785/placental-morphology-in-two-sympatric-andean-lizards-of-the-genus-liolaemus-reptilia-liolaemidae
#19
César Aguilar, Michael R Stark, Juan A Arroyo, Michael D Standing, Shary Rios, Trevor Washburn, Jack W Sites
Viviparity is a remarkable feature in squamate sauropsids and it has evolved multiple times in parallel with the formation of a placenta. One example of this repeated evolution of viviparity and placentation occurs in the species-rich South American genus Liolaemus with at least six independent origins of viviparity. However, evolutionary studies of placentation in this genus are limited by a lack of data on placental morphology. The aim of this study is to describe and compare the microanatomy and vessel diameter (Dv, a function of blood flow) of the placenta using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM) in two sympatric Andean viviparous but highly divergent species, Liolaemus robustus and Liolaemus walkeri...
October 2015: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26138477/a-trans-homologue-interaction-between-reciprocally-imprinted-mir-127-and-rtl1-regulates-placenta-development
#20
Mitsuteru Ito, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Carol A Edwards, Bjorn T Adalsteinsson, Sarah E Allen, Tsui-Han Loo, Moe Kitazawa, Tomoko Kaneko-Ishino, Fumitoshi Ishino, Colin L Stewart, Anne C Ferguson-Smith
The paternally expressed imprinted retrotransposon-like 1 (Rtl1) is a retrotransposon-derived gene that has evolved a function in eutherian placentation. Seven miRNAs, including miR-127, are processed from a maternally expressed antisense Rtl1 transcript (Rtl1as) and regulate Rtl1 levels through RNAi-mediated post-transcriptional degradation. To determine the relative functional role of Rtl1as miRNAs in Rtl1 dosage, we generated a mouse specifically deleted for miR-127. The miR-127 knockout mice exhibit placentomegaly with specific defects within the labyrinthine zone involved in maternal-fetal nutrient transfer...
July 15, 2015: Development
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