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Placental nutrient transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590129/humanin-hn-and-glucose-transporter-8-glut8-in-pregnancies-complicated-by-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#1
Carla Janzen, Margarida Y Y Lei, Il Seok D Jeong, Amit Ganguly, Peggy Sullivan, Vladislava Paharkova, Gina Capodanno, Hiromi Nakamura, Alix Perry, Bo-Chul Shin, Kuk-Wha Lee, Sherin U Devaskar
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results from a lack of nutrients transferred to the developing fetus, particularly oxygen and glucose. Increased expression of the cytoprotective mitochondrial peptide, humanin (HN), and the glucose transporter 8, GLUT8, has been reported under conditions of hypoxic stress. However, the presence and cellular localization of HN and GLUT8 in IUGR-related placental pathology remain unexplored. Thus, we undertook this study to investigate placental expression of HN and GLUT8 in IUGR-affected versus normal pregnancies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499643/identification-of-placental-nutrient-transporters-associated-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-pre-eclampsia
#2
Xiao Huang, Pascale Anderle, Lu Hostettler, Marc U Baumann, Daniel V Surbek, Edgar C Ontsouka, Christiane Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Gestational disorders such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia (PE) are main causes of poor perinatal outcomes worldwide. Both diseases are related with impaired materno-fetal nutrient transfer, but the crucial transport mechanisms underlying IUGR and PE are not fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to identify membrane transporters highly associated with transplacental nutrient deficiencies in IUGR/PE. RESULTS: In silico analyses on the identification of differentially expressed nutrient transporters were conducted using seven eligible microarray datasets (from Gene Expression Omnibus), encompassing control and IUGR/PE placental samples...
March 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494508/iodine-as-essential-nutrient-during-the-first-1000-days-of-life
#3
REVIEW
Inés Velasco, Sarah C Bath, Margaret P Rayman
Iodine is an essential micronutrient incorporated into thyroid hormones. Although iodine deficiency can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders throughout life, it is most critical in the early stages of development, as the foetal brain is extremely dependent on iodine supply. During the last two decades, our understanding of thyroid physiology during gestation has substantially improved. Furthermore, thyroid hormone receptors have been identified and characterised in placental and embryonic tissues, allowing us to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of thyroid hormones...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477479/engineered-nanomaterial-applications-in-perinatal-therapeutics
#4
REVIEW
S B Fournier, J N D'Errico, P A Stapleton
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are widely used in commercial, domestic, and more recently biomedical applications. While the majority of exposures to ENM are unintentional, biomedical platforms are being evaluated for use in individualized and/or tissue-targeted therapies. Treatments are often avoided during prenatal periods to reduce adverse effects on the developing fetus. The placenta is central to maternal-fetal medicine. Perturbation of placental functions can limit transfer of necessary nutrients, alter production of hormones needed during pregnancy, or allow undesired passage of xenobiotics to the developing fetus...
February 23, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476301/the-placental-barrier-the-gate-and-the-fate-in-drug-distribution
#5
Nino Tetro, Sonia Moushaev, Miriam Rubinchik-Stern, Sara Eyal
Optimal development of the embryo and the fetus depends on placental passage of gases, nutrients, hormones, and waste products. These molecules are transferred across the placenta via passive diffusion, carrier-mediated cellular uptake and efflux, and transcytosis pathways. The same mechanisms additionally control the rate and extent of transplacental transfer of drugs taken by the pregnant mother. Essentially all drugs cross the placenta to a certain extent, and some accumulate in the placenta itself at levels that can even exceed those in maternal plasma...
February 23, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463583/alterations-in-placental-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-human-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#6
Stephanie Skuby Chassen, Veronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Madhulika B Gupta, Thomas Jansson, Theresa L Powell
Fatty acids (FA) are critical for fetal brain development and are transferred across the placenta by membrane-bound FA transport proteins (FATP), translocases (FAT/CD36) and cytosolic binding proteins (FABP). The cytosolic protein perilipin-2 aids in neutral lipid storage within lipid droplets. Decreased placental nutrient transport is believed to contribute to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, IUGR placental lipid transport and metabolism are poorly understood. We hypothesized protein expression of FATPs, FABPs, and perilipin-2 in human placenta is decreased and placental lipid content and incorporation into lipid classes are reduced in IUGR...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408374/effect-of-maternal-hypoglycaemia-during-gestation-on-materno-foetal-nutrient-transfer-and-embryo-foetal-development-evidence-from-experimental-studies-focused-primarily-on-the-rat
#7
REVIEW
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
Glucose is the major energy substrate during embryogenesis and the embryo is dependent on glucose from the maternal circulation to ensure normal metabolism and growth. The placenta plays a key role in this nutrient transfer in mammals, both during embryogenesis and after the development of the chorio-allantoic placental circulation. Maternal hypoglycaemia is accompanied by foetal hypoglycaemia and maternal counter-regulatory measures include a priority to nutrients in the maternal circulation by restricting their transfer to the foetus...
February 3, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380317/assessment-of-placental-transport-function-in-studies-of-disease-programming
#8
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
Environmental conditions during pregnancy affect fetal growth and development and program the offspring for poor future health. These effects may be mediated by the placenta, which develops to transfer nutrients from the mother to the fetus for growth. The ability to measure the unidirectional maternofetal transfer of non-metabolizable radio-analogues of glucose and amino acid by the placenta in vivo has thus been invaluable to our understanding of the regulation of fetal growth, particularly in small animal models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377190/review-human-placental-oxygenation-in-late-gestation-experimental-and-theoretical-approaches
#9
Gareth A Nye, Emma Ingram, Edward D Johnstone, Oliver E Jensen, Henning Schneider, Rohan M Lewis, Igor L Chernyavsky, Paul Brownbill
The placenta is crucial for life. It is an ephemeral but complex organ acting as the barrier interface between maternal and fetal circulations, providing exchange of gases, nutrients, hormones, waste products and immunoglobulins. Many gaps exist in our understanding of the detailed placental structure and function, particularly in relation to oxygen handling and transfer in healthy and pathological states in utero. Measurements to understand oxygen transfer in vivo in the human are limited, with no general agreement on the most appropriate methods...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208246/history-of-reptile-placentology-part-iii-giacomini-s-1891-histological-monograph-on-lizard-placentation
#10
REVIEW
D G Blackburn, L Paulesu, A M Avanzati, M Roth
By the 1890s, placental arrangements had been documented macroscopically in lizards and fishes, but placental studies on such species lagged far behind research on mammals. In 1891, the biologist Ercole Giacomini (at the University of Siena, Italy) published the first histological analysis of a reptile placenta. Focusing on a placentotrophic lizard (Chalcides chalcides) with a morphologically complex placenta, Giacomini documented the histological and cellular bases for placental nutrient transfer and gas exchange...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207294/placental-structure-and-function-in-different-breeds-in-horses
#11
M Robles, P M Peugnet, S A Valentino, C Dubois, M Dahirel, M-C Aubrière, F Reigner, D Serteyn, L Wimel, A Tarrade, P Chavatte-Palmer
Ponies and sometimes draft horses are often used as experimental models for horses although size and metabolic parameters are known to vary between horse breeds. So far, there is little information about differences of placental structure and no information about differences of placental function between breeds. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in placental size, structure and function at birth in relation to foal size and weight in ponies, Saddlebred and draft horses. Pony, Saddlebred and draft horse pregnancies were obtained by artificial insemination over 2 successive breeding seasons...
March 1, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197013/placental-lipid-transport
#12
Evemie Dubé, Guillaume Desparois, Julie Lafond
The human placenta is responsible for the adequate supply of nutrients essential for proper embryonic and fetal development such as glucose, amino acids, and lipids. Processes involved in the placental transport of these nutrients are complex and tightly regulated and involve many transporters, receptors, and regulators. In this chapter, we describe the current methods to study the impact of maternal metabolic disorders on key players of human placental transfer of nutrients.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163373/placental-nutrient-transport-in-gestational-diabetic-pregnancies
#13
REVIEW
Marisol Castillo-Castrejon, Theresa L Powell
Maternal obesity during pregnancy is rising and is associated with increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy (1). Fetal growth is determined by the maternal nutrient supply and placental nutrient transfer capacity. GDM-complicated pregnancies are more likely to be complicated by fetal overgrowth or excess adipose deposition in utero . Infants born from GDM mothers have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150340/placental-transfer-and-levels-of-mercury-selenium-vitamin-e-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-maternal-and-umbilical-cord-blood
#14
Mineshi Sakamoto, Hing Man Chan, José L Domingo, Chihaya Koriyama, Katsuyuki Murata
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxicant known to affect the developing fetal brain as a sensitive target organ. As most mercury (Hg) in blood is MeHg, total mercury (THg) levels in blood are used to estimate the body burden of MeHg. The nutrients selenium (Se), vitamin E, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are protective against MeHg toxicity. We compared maternal and cord blood concentrations of biochemical substances, THg and Se, vitamin E, DHA, and other elements, fatty acids, and amino acids in 54 Japanese mother-newborn pairs to elucidate the fetal risk of MeHg toxicity...
November 14, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963763/placental-alterations-in-structure-and-function-in-intra-uterine-growth-retarded-horses
#15
M Robles, P M Peugnet, S A Valentino, C Dubois, M Dahirel, M-C Aubrière, F Reigner, D Serteyn, L Wimel, A Tarrade, P Chavatte-Palmer
BACKGROUND: Following embryo transfer (ET), the size and breed of the recipient mare can affect fetal development and subsequent postnatal growth rate and insulin sensitivity in foals. OBJECTIVES: To investigate placental adaptation in pregnancies where increased or restricted fetal growth was induced through ET between Pony, Saddlebred and Draught horses. STUDY DESIGN: In vivo experiment. METHODS: Control Pony (P, n = 21) and Saddlebred (S, n = 28) pregnancies were obtained by artificial insemination...
September 30, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864025/birth-weight-umbilical-and-placental-traits-in-relation-to-neonatal-loss-in-cloned-pigs
#16
Zheng Ao, Dewu Liu, Chengfa Zhao, Zhimin Yue, Junsong Shi, Rong Zhou, Gengyuan Cai, Enqin Zheng, Zicong Li, Zhenfang Wu
Cloned piglets generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have a high rate of neonatal death. Postnatal loss is associated with low birth weight, umbilical status and placental parameters in fertilisation-derived piglets. To investigate whether or not this relationship also exists in cloned piglets, birth weight, umbilical status, placental parameters, placental morphology and gene expression pattern were compared among four piglet groups, namely, SCNT-derived male piglets that died within 4 days (SCNT-DW4), SCNT-derived male piglets that survived over 4 days (SCNT-SO4), artificial insemination (AI)-generated male piglets that died within 4 days (AI-DW4) and AI-generated male piglets that survived over 4 days (AI-SO4)...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846140/an-examination-of-surface-epithelium-structures-of-the-embryo-across-the-genus-poeciliopsis-poeciliidae
#17
Tami M Panhuis, Megan Fris, Laura Tuhela, Lucia Kwan
In viviparous, teleost fish, with postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning, embryonic structures that facilitate maternal-fetal nutrient transfer are predicted to be present. For the family Poeciliidae, only a handful of morphological studies have explored these embryonic specializations. Here, we present a comparative morphological study in the viviparous poeciliid genus, Poeciliopsis. Using microscopy techniques, we examine the embryonic surface epidermis of Poeciliopsis species that vary in their level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning and placentation across two phylogenetic clades and three independent evolutionary origins of placentation...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809844/the-4-vessel-sampling-approach-to-integrative-studies-of-human-placental-physiology-in-vivo
#18
Ane M Holme, Maia B Holm, Marie C P Roland, Hildegunn Horne, Trond M Michelsen, Guttorm Haugen, Tore Henriksen
The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798074/the-influence-of-prenatal-exercise-and-pre-eclampsia-on-maternal-vascular-function
#19
REVIEW
Rachel J Skow, Emily C King, Craig D Steinback, Margie H Davenport
During healthy pregnancy, the cardiovascular system undergoes diverse adaptations to support adequate transfer of oxygen and nutrients from mother to fetus. In order to accommodate the large expansion of blood volume and associated cardiac output, the structure, mechanics, and function of the arteries are altered. Specifically, in healthy pregnancy there is a remodeling of arteries (increased angiogenesis and vasodilation), a generalized reduction in arterial stiffness (increased compliance), and an enhanced endothelial function...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789824/apoptosis-and-cell-proliferation-in-porcine-placental-vascularization
#20
Eva G Sanchis, Andrea L Cristofolini, Mariana R Fiorimanti, Claudio G Barbeito, Cecilia I Merkis
The placenta is a highly vascularized organ, indispensable tothe transfer of nutrients to the growing fetuses. During gestation, there exists an expansion of the placental vascular network through active angiogenesis. The aim of this research was to study cell proliferation and apoptosis through high resolution light microscopy (HRLM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ultrastructure, immunohistochemistry for Ki67and caspase-3, determination of placental vascular area,and TUNEL assay. Crossbred sows placental tissues from approximately 30±2(n=5), 40±2(n=5), 60±2 (n=5), 80±2(n=5), 90±2(n=5) and 114±2(n=5) days of gestation were used...
July 23, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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