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Placental nutrient transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227866/modelling-nutrient-transfer-based-on-3d-imaging-of-the-human-placental-microstructure
#1
S Perazzolo, R M Lewis, B G Sengers, S Perazzolo, R M Lewis, B G Sengers, B G Sengers, R M Lewis, S Perazzolo
Impaired transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus can affect pregnancy outcomes. The placenta has a complex microstructure, including the maternal intervillous space and fetal capillaries. Previous computational models of placental transfer either assumed a simplified idealized local geometry or were based on 2D imaging. In this study, we present a novel 3D computational model to assess the placental transfer of nutrients at the microscale in interaction with the maternal flow environment. A stack of confocal microscopy images of the placental terminal villi was collected and reconstructed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222833/invited-review-impact-of-specific-nutrient-interventions-during-mid-to-late-gestation-on-physiological-traits-important-for-survival-of-multiple-born-lambs
#2
S A McCoard, F A Sales, Q L Sciascia
To improve production efficiency, the sheep meat industry has increased flock prolificacy. However, multiple-born lambs have lower birth weights, increased mortality and reduced growth rate compared with single-born lambs. Lamb mortality is a major issue for livestock farming globally and solutions are required to increase survival to realise the value of increased flock fecundity. Nutrition during gestation can influence maternal-foetal placental nutrient transfer and thus foetal growth and organ/tissue development, as well as improve postnatal productivity...
February 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145561/placentation-in-watersnakes-ii-placental-ultrastructure-in-nerodia-erythrogaster-colubridae-natricinae
#3
Daniel G Blackburn, Kristie E Anderson, Amy R Lo, Emily C Marquez, Ian P Callard
Ultrastructure of the placental tissues from redbelly watersnakes (Nerodia erythrogaster) was analyzed during late pregnancy to provide insight into placental development and function. Examination of the chorioallantoic placenta with transmission electron microscopy reveals that chorionic and uterine epithelia are extremely attenuated but intact and that the eggshell membrane is vestigial and lacks a calcareous layer. These features minimize the interhemal diffusion distance across the placenta. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that fetal and maternal components of the placentas are richly vascularized by dense networks of capillaries...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110332/role-of-insulin-in-placental-transport-of-nutrients-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#4
María Ruiz-Palacios, Antonio José Ruiz-Alcaraz, María Sanchez-Campillo, Elvira Larqué
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased fetal adiposity, which may increase the risk of obesity in adulthood. The placenta has insulin receptors and maternal insulin can activate its signaling pathways, affecting the transport of nutrients to the fetus. However, the effects of diet or insulin treatment on the placental pathophysiology of GDM are unknown. SUMMARY: There are very few studies on possible defects in the insulin signaling pathway in the GDM placenta...
January 21, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069900/impact-of-donor-and-recipient-adiposity-on-feto-placental-growth-in-adolescent-sheep
#5
Jacqueline M Wallace, John S Milne, Clare L Adam, Raymond P Aitken
The influence of maternal obesity during oocyte development and its putative interaction with nutrient reserves at conception on pregnancy outcome were examined in an adolescent sheep model. Donor ewes were nutritionally managed to achieve contrasting adiposity (control [CD]/obese [ObD]) for 6 weeks prior to superovulation, and inseminated by a non-obese sire. Morulae from 6 CD and 7 ObD were transferred in singleton into adolescent recipients of identical age but differing adiposity, classified as relatively fat or thin, respectively...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024805/review-placental-mitochondrial-function-and-structure-in-gestational-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Olivia Holland, Marloes Dekker Nitert, Linda A Gallo, Meliha Vejzovic, Joshua J Fisher, Anthony V Perkins
The aetiology of many gestational disorders is still unknown. However, insufficient trans-placental nutrient and oxygen transfer due to abnormal placentation is characteristic of several pathologies, and may alter the function of placental mitochondria. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that respond to a wide range of stimuli - such as physiological changes in cellular energy demands or various pathologies - by reshaping via fusion or fission, increasing/decreasing in number, altering oxidative phosphorylation, and signalling cellular functions such as apoptosis...
December 14, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925392/environmental-and-maternal-factors-associated-with-gross-placental-morphology-in-dairy-cattle
#7
M M Kamal, M Van Eetvelde, L Vandaele, G Opsomer
This article reports on a study of gross placental morphology of 282 expelled placentas from 89 primi- and 193 multiparous Holstein dams immediately after calving and examines associations with environmental factors such as typical herd features and season of calving, and maternal factors such as age at calving, level of milk yield at conception and cumulative amount of milk produced during gestation. The highest correlation between calf measurements and placental characteristics was found between the weight of the calf and the total cotyledonary surface (r = ...
December 7, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762057/placental-metabolism-substrate-requirements-and-the-response-to-stress
#8
REVIEW
O R Vaughan, A L Fowden
The placenta is a dynamic, metabolically active organ with significant nutrient and energy requirements for growth, nutrient transfer and protein synthesis. It uses a range of substrates to meet its energy needs and has a higher rate of oxygen (O2 ) consumption than many other foetal and adult tissues. Placental metabolism varies with species and alters in response to a range of nutritional and endocrine signals of adverse environmental conditions. The placenta integrates these signals and adapts its metabolic phenotype to help maintain pregnancy and to optimize offspring fitness by diversifying the sources of carbon and nitrogen available for energy production, hormone synthesis and foeto-placental growth...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707701/moderate-folic-acid-supplementation-and-mthfd1-synthetase-deficiency-in-mice-a-model-for-the-r653q-variant-result-in-embryonic-defects-and-abnormal-placental-development
#9
Karen E Christensen, Wenyang Hou, Renata H Bahous, Liyuan Deng, Olga V Malysheva, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Marie A Caudill, Loydie A Jerome-Majewska, Rima Rozen
BACKGROUND: Moderately high folic acid intake in pregnant women has led to concerns about deleterious effects on the mother and fetus. Common polymorphisms in folate genes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) R653Q, may modulate the effects of elevated folic acid intake. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of moderate folic acid supplementation on reproductive outcomes and assessed the potential interaction of the supplemented diet with MTHFD1-synthetase (Mthfd1S) deficiency in mice, which is a model for the R653Q variant...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633272/the-effects-of-nrf2-deletion-on-placental-morphology-and-exchange-capacity-in-the-mouse
#10
Nisreen Kweider, Berthold Huppertz, Werner Rath, Jessica Lambertz, Rebecca Caspers, Mohamed ElMoursi, Ulrich Pecks, Mamed Kadyrov, Athanassios Fragoulis, Thomas Pufe, Christoph Jan Wruck
OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined as a pathological decreased fetal growth. Oxidative stress has been connected to the restriction in the fetal growth. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a potent activator of the cellular antioxidant response. The effect Nrf2 on fetal-placental development has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Here, we evaluated the placental and fetal growth in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-KO) and Nrf2-wild type mice (Nrf2-WT) throughout pregnancy...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621448/maternal-and-fetal-genomes-interplay-through-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-p110%C3%AE-signaling-to-modify-placental-resource-allocation
#11
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Jorge López-Tello, Abigail L Fowden, Miguel Constancia
Pregnancy success and life-long health depend on a cooperative interaction between the mother and the fetus in the allocation of resources. As the site of materno-fetal nutrient transfer, the placenta is central to this interplay; however, the relative importance of the maternal versus fetal genotypes in modifying the allocation of resources to the fetus is unknown. Using genetic inactivation of the growth and metabolism regulator, Pik3ca (encoding PIK3CA also known as p110α, α/+), we examined the interplay between the maternal genome and the fetal genome on placental phenotype in litters of mixed genotype generated through reciprocal crosses of WT and α/+ mice...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527665/placental-control-of-drug-delivery
#12
REVIEW
Sanaalarab Al-Enazy, Shariq Ali, Norah Albekairi, Marwa El-Tawil, Erik Rytting
The placenta serves as the interface between the maternal and fetal circulations and regulates the transfer of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products. When exogenous substances are present in the maternal bloodstream-whether from environmental contact, occupational exposure, medication, or drug abuse-the extent to which this exposure affects the fetus is determined by transport and biotransformation processes in the placental barrier. Advances in drug delivery strategies are expected to improve the treatment of maternal and fetal diseases encountered during pregnancy...
August 12, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466227/maternal-gametophyte-effects-on-seed-development-in-maize
#13
Antony M Chettoor, Allison R Phillips, Clayton T Coker, Brian Dilkes, Matthew M S Evans
Flowering plants, like placental mammals, have an extensive maternal contribution toward progeny development. Plants are distinguished from animals by a genetically active haploid phase of growth and development between meiosis and fertilization, called the gametophyte. Flowering plants are further distinguished by the process of double fertilization that produces sister progeny, the endosperm and the embryo, of the seed. Because of this, there is substantial gene expression in the female gametophyte that contributes to the regulation of growth and development of the seed...
September 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27326761/evidence-of-placental-autophagy-during-early-pregnancy-after-transfer-of-in-vitro-produced-ivp-sheep-embryos
#14
Paola Toschi, Marta Czernik, Federica Zacchini, Antonella Fidanza, Pasqualino Loi, Grażyna Ewa Ptak
Pregnancies obtained by Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) are associated with limited maternal nutrient uptake. Our previous studies shown that in vitro culture of sheep embryos is associated with vascularization defects in their placentae and consequent reduction of embryo growth. Autophagy is a pro-survival cellular mechanism triggered by nutrient insufficiency. Therefore, the goal of our present study was to determine if autophagy is involved in early placental development after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239793/altered-development-and-function-of-the-placental-regions-in-preeclampsia-and-its-association-with-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#15
REVIEW
Alka Rani, Nisha Wadhwani, Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Sadhana Joshi
The placenta is an essential organ formed during pregnancy that mainly transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. Nutrients taken up by the placenta are required for its own growth and development and to optimize fetal growth. Hence, placental function is an important determinant of pregnancy outcome. Among various nutrients, fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, are essential for placental development from the time of implantation...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102939/comparative-genomics-of-hormonal-signaling-in-the-chorioallantoic-membrane-of-oviparous-and-viviparous-amniotes
#16
Oliver W Griffith, Matthew C Brandley, Camilla M Whittington, Katherine Belov, Michael B Thompson
In oviparous amniotes (reptiles, birds, and mammals) the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) lines the inside of the egg and acts as the living point of contact between the embryo and the outside world. In livebearing (viviparous) amniotes, communication during embryonic development occurs across placental tissues, which form between the uterine tissue of the mother and the CAM of the embryo. In both oviparous and viviparous taxa, the CAM is at the interface of the embryo and the external environment and can transfer signals from there to the embryo proper...
April 18, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090932/dynamic-integrated-analysis-of-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-profiles-in-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-fertilized-mouse-post-implantation-extraembryonic-and-placental-tissues
#17
Kun Tan, Zhenni Zhang, Kai Miao, Yong Yu, Linlin Sui, Jianhui Tian, Lei An
STUDY HYPOTHESIS: How does in vitro fertilization (IVF) alter promoter DNA methylation patterns and its subsequent effects on gene expression profiles during placentation in mice? STUDY FINDING: IVF-induced alterations in promoter DNA methylation might have functional consequences in a number of biological processes and functions during IVF placentation, including actin cytoskeleton organization, hematopoiesis, vasculogenesis, energy metabolism and nutrient transport...
July 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014074/the-programming-power-of-the-placenta
#18
REVIEW
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Emily J Camm
Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992680/magnesium-deficiency-during-pregnancy-in-mice-impairs-placental-size-and-function
#19
J Y Rosner, M Gupta, M McGill, X Xue, P K Chatterjee, M Yoshida-Hay, W Robeson, C N Metz
OBJECTIVE: Maternal magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with fetal growth restriction. Using a mouse model of maternal Mg deficiency-induced fetal growth restriction, we sought to investigate the effect of Mg deficiency on placental physiology and function. METHODS: In vivo: Pregnant Swiss Webster mice were fed either 100% of the recommended amount of Mg (control) or 10%Mg (Mg-deficient) (8 per group). Dams were euthanized on gestational day 17 and placentas were collected, weighed and assessed for Mg concentrations, as well as nutrient transporter mRNA expression...
March 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972897/placental-origins-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-potential-molecular-targets-an-executive-workshop-summary-of-the-eunice-kennedy-shriver-national-institute-of-child-health-and-human-development
#20
REVIEW
John V Ilekis, Ekaterini Tsilou, Susan Fisher, Vikki M Abrahams, Michael J Soares, James C Cross, Stacy Zamudio, Nicholas P Illsley, Leslie Myatt, Christine Colvis, Maged M Costantine, David M Haas, Yoel Sadovsky, Carl Weiner, Erik Rytting, Gene Bidwell
Although much progress is being made in understanding the molecular pathways in the placenta that are involved in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-related disorders, a significant gap exists in the utilization of this information for the development of new drug therapies to improve pregnancy outcome. On March 5-6, 2015, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health sponsored a 2-day workshop titled Placental Origins of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Potential Molecular Targets to begin to address this gap...
July 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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