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Placental physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435983/-effect-of-high-altitude-hypoxia-on-fetal-development-during-pregnancy-and-the-reason-analysis
#1
Juan-Li Liu, Si-Qing Ma, Ta-Na Wuren
High altitude hypoxia is an important factor to affect fetal development during pregnancy. In the special environment, maternal physiological functions are regulated to maintain the maternal and fetal homeostasis, so that limited oxygen is to meet the needs of fetal growth and development. In this review, the literatures about the effects of hypoxic environment on fetal development during pregnancy in recent years were summarized, in which the fetal growth characteristics, maternal physiological regulation, genetic and placental influencing factors in high altitude areas were involved...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420494/molecular-regulation-and-role-of-angiogenesis-in-reproduction
#2
REVIEW
Momchil Rizov, Petya Andreeva, Ivanka Dimova
Angiogenesis is an essential process for proper functioning of the female reproductive system and for successful pregnancy realization. The multitude of factors required for physiological angiogenesis and the complexity of regulation of their temporal-spatial activities contribute to aberrations in human fertilization and pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we reviewed the current knowledge of the temporal expression patterns, functions, and regulatory mechanisms of angiogenic factors during foliculogenesis, early implantation/placentation and embryo development, as well as recurrent spontaneous abortions...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414111/screening-for-the-best-detergent-for-the-isolation-of-placental-membrane-proteins
#3
Dragana Robajac, Martina Zámorová, Jaroslav Katrlík, Željko Miković, Olgica Nedić
Although membrane proteins (MPs) play crucial roles in physiological processes, information on them are insufficient, mostly due to their peculiar nature and surrounding which demand specific procedures for their extraction (using detergents) and analysis. A pallet of ten detergents and β-cyclodextrin was employed to investigate their efficiency in extracting total placental MPs, glycoproteins and insulin-like growth factor receptors (IR/IGF1R/IGF2R). Regardless of detergent used, the identity of major extracted proteins was the same...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402449/enhancement-of-trophoblast-differentiation-and-survival-by-low-molecular-weight-heparin-requires-heparin-binding-egf-like-growth-factor
#4
Alan D Bolnick, Jay M Bolnick, Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Brian A Kilburn, Omar J Pasalodos, Pankaj K Singhal, Jing Dai, Michael P Diamond, D Randall Armant, Sascha Drewlo
STUDY QUESTION: Does low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) require heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HBEGF) signaling to induce extravillous trophoblast differentiation and decrease apoptosis during oxidative stress? SUMMARY ANSWER: LMWH increased HBEGF expression and secretion, and HBEGF signaling was required to stimulate trophoblast extravillous differentiation, increase invasion in vitro and reduce trophoblast apoptosis during oxidative stress...
April 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397763/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-homeostasis-in-reproductive-physiology-and-pathology
#5
REVIEW
Elif Guzel, Sefa Arlier, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Mehmet Selcuk Tabak, Tugba Ekiz, Nihan Semerci, Kellie Larsen, Frederick Schatz, Charles Joseph Lockwood, Umit Ali Kayisli
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394035/rapid-conceptus-elongation-in-the-pig-an-interleukin-1-beta-2-and-estrogen-regulated-phenomenon
#6
REVIEW
Rodney D Geisert, Jeffrey J Whyte, Ashley E Meyer, Daniel J Mathew, María R Juárez, Matthew C Lucy, Randall S Prather, Thomas E Spencer
Establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in the pig involves activating many physiological, cellular, and molecular signaling pathways between the developing conceptus and hormonally regulated maternal endometrium. Rapid elongation of the pig trophoblast allows for the establishment of sufficient placental surface area for the transport of nutrients to the fetus throughout pregnancy. Estrogens secreted by the conceptus during elongation act on uterine epithelia to induce secretion of uterine factors required for conceptus development and for preventing endocrine secretion of prostaglandin F2α, which would cause luteolysis...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382681/a-western-style-obesogenic-diet-alters-maternal-metabolic-physiology-with-consequences-for-fetal-nutrient-acquisition-in-mice
#7
Barbara Musial, Owen R Vaughan, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Peter Voshol, Susan E Ozanne, Abigail L Fowden, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
KEY POINTS: In the Western world, obesogenic diets containing high fat and high sugar (HFHS) are commonly consumed during pregnancy, although their effects on the metabolism of the mother, in relation to feto-placental glucose utilization and growth, are unknown. In the present study, the consumption of an obesogenic HFHS diet compromised maternal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in late pregnancy in association with dysregulated lipid and glucose handling by the dam. These maternal metabolic changes induced by HFHS feeding were related to altered feto-placental glucose metabolism and growth...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380326/sex-specific-differences-and-developmental-programming-for-diseases-in-later-life
#8
Deepali P Sundrani, Suchitra S Roy, Anjali T Jadhav, Sadhana R Joshi
Epidemiological data indicate that developmental programming of various non-communicable diseases (NCDs) occurs as a consequence of altered maternal metabolic and physiological status due to a number of environmental insults during pregnancy. Sex-specific differences have also been reported in most NCDs. Evidence suggests that beginning from conception, the maternal and neonatal metabolic environment, including hormones, contributes to sex-specific placental development. The placenta then regulates the sex-specific differences in NCDs via the epigenetic mechanisms that are further affected by hormones...
April 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379911/treatment-of-pregnant-patients-with-orthopaedic-trauma
#9
Nirmal Tejwani, Kevin Klifto, Christopher Looze, Christopher Scott Klifto
Fracture management in pregnant patients is challenging. Anatomic and physiologic changes in pregnancy increase the complexity of treatment. Maternal trauma increases the risk of fetal loss, preterm birth, placental abruption, cesarean delivery, and maternal death. Initial resuscitation and treatment in a facility equipped to handle the orthopaedic injury and preterm births are paramount. Pelvic and acetabular injuries are potentially life threatening. The benefits and risks of surgical treatment must be carefully considered...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361433/ultrastructural-characteristics-of-placental-telocytes
#10
N V Nizyaeva, T V Sukhacheva, G V Kulikova, M N Nagovitsyna, R A Poltavtseva, N E Kan, V L Tyutyunnik, S V Pavlovich, R A Serov, A I Shchyogolev
Telocytes of placental villi were studied by electronic microscopy during physiological pregnancy. Ultrastructural features of telocytes indicating their heterogeneity and presence of at least three types of villi depending on their localization and kind were observed. All placental telocytes were characterized by small amount of organelles including mitochondria. Presence of long thin processes, which generated a branching network by contacting with each other, served as a typical feature of telocytes including telocytes of the stroma and intermediate villi...
March 31, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330647/hypoxia-and-hif-pathway-in-cancer-and-the-placenta
#11
Philip S Macklin, James McAuliffe, Christopher W Pugh, Atsushi Yamamoto
In this review we note that the placenta and cancer both develop in microenvironments in which there are gradients of oxygen availability. Whilst fundamentally different in that placental development is organised and physiological whilst cancer is chaotic and pathological, there are similarities in their respective capacities to proliferate, invade adjacent tissues, generate a blood supply and avoid rejection by the immune system. We provide a brief description of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and indicate the ways by which HIF activity can be regulated to achieve oxygen homeostasis...
March 16, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327211/reduced-fetal-vitamin-d-status-by-maternal-undernutrition-during-discrete-gestational-windows-in-sheep
#12
J K Cleal, M R Hargreaves, K R Poore, J C Y Tang, W D Fraser, M A Hanson, L R Green
Placental transport of vitamin D and other nutrients (e.g. amino acids, fats and glucose) to the fetus is sensitive to maternal and fetal nutritional cues. We studied the effect of maternal calorific restriction on fetal vitamin D status and the placental expression of genes for nutrient transport [aromatic T-type amino acid transporter-1 (TAT-1); triglyceride hydrolase/lipoprotein uptake facilitator lipoprotein lipase (LPL)] and vitamin D homeostasis [CYP27B1; vitamin D receptor (VDR)], and their association with markers of fetal cardiovascular function and skeletal muscle growth...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322134/reproductive-microbiomes
#13
Michael L Power, Caroline Quaglieri, Jay Schulkin
Almost every part of our body has a coevolved microbial community. The expressed microbial genes comprise the various microbiomes that play important roles in normal physiology and development. The various microbiomes are separate, yet often connected, with the species composition of one affecting others. The female reproductive system microbiomes (eg, vaginal, placental, and mammary/milk) remain less well explored than the gut microbiome although they comprise a large proportion of the female microbial network...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320484/nutritional-intervention-preconception-and-during-pregnancy-to-maintain-healthy-glucose-metabolism-and-offspring-health-nipper-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Keith M Godfrey, Wayne Cutfield, Shiao-Yng Chan, Philip N Baker, Yap-Seng Chong
BACKGROUND: Improved maternal nutrition and glycaemic control before and during pregnancy are thought to benefit the health of the mother, with consequent benefits for infant body composition and later obesity risk. Maternal insulin resistance and glycaemia around conception and in early pregnancy may be key determinants of maternal physiology and placental function, affecting fetal nutrient supply and maternal-feto-placental communications throughout gestation, with implications for later postnatal health...
March 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319199/a-computational-analysis-of-in-vivo-vegfr-activation-by-multiple-co-expressed-ligands
#15
Lindsay E Clegg, Feilim Mac Gabhann
The splice isoforms of vascular endothelial growth A (VEGF) each have different affinities for the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the coreceptor NRP1, which leads to distinct vascular phenotypes in model systems expressing only a single VEGF isoform. ECM-immobilized VEGF can bind to and activate VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) directly, with a different pattern of site-specific phosphorylation than diffusible VEGF. To date, the way in which ECM binding alters the distribution of isoforms of VEGF and of the related placental growth factor (PlGF) in the body and resulting angiogenic signaling is not well-understood...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#16
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318555/regulation-of-the-prorenin-angiotensin-system-by-oxygen-and-mirnas-parallels-between-placentation-and-tumour-development
#17
Sarah J Delforce, Eugenie R Lumbers, Kirsty G Pringle
Tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) are involved in tissue growth and development as they are important regulators of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and migration. The placental RAS is most highly expressed in early gestation, at a time when the oxygen tension within the conceptus is reduced, and plays a key role in placental growth and development. Similar to the placenta, tumour development relies on proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion in order to grow and metastasize. The RAS is known to be upregulated in a variety of solid tumours, including ovarian, endometrial, cervical, breast and prostate...
March 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315746/optimized-protocol-for-soluble-prokaryotic-expression-purification-and-structural-analysis-of-human-placenta-specific-1-plac1
#18
Mahboobeh Nazari, Amir-Hassan Zarnani, Roya Ghods, Rahman Emamzadeh, Somayeh Najafzadeh, Arash Minai-Tehrani, Jafar Mahmoudian, Maryam Yousefi, Sedigheh Vafaei, Sam Massahi, Mohammad-Reza Nejadmoghaddam
Placenta specific -1 (PLAC1) has been recently introduced as a small membrane-associated protein mainly involved in placental development. Expression of PLAC1 transcript has been documented in almost one hundred cancer cell lines standing for fourteen distinct cancer types. The presence of two disulfide bridges makes difficult to produce functional recombinant PLAC1 in soluble form with high yield. This limitation also complicates the structural studies of PLAC1, which is important for prediction of its physiological roles...
March 16, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301889/geburtshilfe-an%C3%A3-sthesie-bei-exit-prozedur
#19
Alexander Torossian
The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is performed as a part of an extended caesarean section for example to treat fetal airway disorders. For treatment, optimal uterine relaxation is necessary, however utero-placental supply of the fetus has to be guaranteed as well. "Balanced" anesthesia, tocolysis and tight maternal arterial blood pressure control are recommended. Standard fetal monitoring comprises pulse oxymetry and echocardiography. The article describes the physiology and anesthestic goals of the EXIT procedure, discusses alternative anesthesia techniques and gives an outlook on emerging progress...
March 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301888/geburtshilfe-an%C3%A3-sthesie-bei-fetaler-chirurgie
#20
Emmanuel Schneck, Christian Koch, Christoph Arens, Rainer Schürg, Thomas Zajonz, Anastasiia Khaleeva, Thomas Kohl, Markus A Weigand, Michael Sander
Due to the responsibility for the mother and the unborn child, fetal surgery represents a challenging task for the anesthesiologist. Maternal changes during pregnancy have to be considered as well as the fetal physiology and the surgeon's needs. Main principles of the anesthesiological management of fetal surgery include the stabilization of the mean arterial pressure in order to preserve a sufficient placental blood flow, sustainment of an adequate oxygenation and ventilation as well as thorough temperature surveillance...
March 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
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