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Placental physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336373/advances-of-long-noncoding-rnas-mediated-regulation-in-reproduction
#1
REVIEW
Kang-Sheng Liu, Tai-Ping Li, Hua Ton, Xiao-Dong Mao, Ya-Jun Chen
OBJECTIVE: Advances in genomics and molecular biology have led to the discovery of a large group of uncharacterized long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Emerging evidence indicated that many lncRNAs function in multiple biological processes and its dysregulation often causes diseases. Recent studies suggested that almost all regulatory lncRNAs interact with biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. LncRNAs regulate gene expression mainly on three levels, including epigenetic modification, transcription, and posttranscription, through DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334310/dendritic-polyglycerol-nanoparticles-show-charge-dependent-bio-distribution-in-early-human-placental-explants-and-reduce-hcg-secretion
#2
Herbert Juch, Liudmila Nikitina, Sabine Reimann, Martin Gauster, Gottfried Dohr, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Denise Hoch, Karin Kornmueller, Rainer Haag
A thorough understanding of nanoparticle bio-distribution at the feto-maternal interface will be a prerequisite for their diagnostic or therapeutic application in women of childbearing age and for teratologic risk assessment. Therefore, the tissue interaction of biocompatible dendritic polyglycerol nanoparticles (dPG-NPs) with first- trimester human placental explants were analyzed and compared to less sophisticated trophoblast-cell based models. First-trimester human placental explants, BeWo cells and primary trophoblast cells from human term placenta were exposed to fluorescence labeled, ∼5 nm dPG-NPs, with differently charged surfaces, at concentrations of 1 µM and 10 nM, for 6 and 24 h...
January 15, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329728/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-human-placental-trophoblast-differentiation
#3
Shi-Wen Jiang, Wei Zhou, Jianhao Wang, Lauren M Little, Lynn Leaphart, Jacob Jay, Eseosaserea Igbinigie, Haibin Chen, Jinping Li
Cell fusion is a hallmark of placental trophoblast cell differentiation and the mature syncytiotrophoblasts play essential roles for fetal-maternal exchange and production of pregnancy-related hormones. Using a well-established in vitro trophoblast differentiation model, we performed a microarray analysis on mRNA expression in trophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast cell cultures. Dramatic changes in gene expression patterns were detected during trophoblast differentiation. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the reliability of the microarray data...
January 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328041/von-willebrand-factor-immunohistochemical-staining-quantitative-optical-density-parameters-in-the-endothelium-and-fibrinoid-of-the-placenta-during-secundines-inflammation-and-concomitant-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-gravidas
#4
V Ilika, I Davydenko
The aim of the research was to set the optical density quantitative parameters of the von Willebrand factor immunohistochemical staining (vWF) in the endothelium and fibrinoid of the placenta during the secundines inflammation concomitant with iron deficiency anemia in gravidas. The total number of 198 placentas was studied. The immunohistochemical technique was performed using the visualization of the primary antibodies to vWF with a diaminobenzidine dye polymer system. The optical density of the histochemical staining was measured by means of computer microdensitometry after the digital copies of the images had been obtained...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319206/butyl-paraben-promotes-apoptosis-in-human-trophoblast-cells-through-increased-oxidative-stress-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#5
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Butyl paraben (BP) has antimicrobial effects and is widely used as a preservative in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceuticals. It is also absorbed into various tissues of the human body. It is known that BP is measurable in maternal and fetal tissues during pregnancy, but the effects of BP on placental development, essential for maintaining normal pregnancy, are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of BP on the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness of human trophoblast cells, using an HTR8/SVneo cell line...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287129/new-advances-in-fetal-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-quantifying-the-distribution-of-blood-flow-and-oxygen-transport-potential-applications-in-fetal-cardiovascular-disease-diagnosis-and-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Liqun Sun, Christopher K Macgowan, Sharon Portnoy, John G Sled, Shi-Joon Yoo, Lars Grosse-Wortmann, Edgar Jaeggi, John Kingdom, Mike Seed
Until recently, our modern understanding of fetal circulatory physiology has been largely based on invasive measurements made in fetal sheep. However, new MRI technology developed by our group has provided equivalent information about the distribution of blood flow and oxygen transport noninvasively. The initial findings largely confirm prior estimates about the human fetal circulation extrapolated from fetal sheep data and human ultrasound data. Here we describe the hemodynamics of the normal late gestation human fetal circulation by MRI and speculate about what the advent of this technology might mean in terms of the management of fetuses affected by placental insufficiency and congenital heart disease...
December 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275823/is-there-a-role-for-placental-senescence-in-the-genesis-of-obstetric-complications-and-fetal-growth-restriction
#7
REVIEW
Zakia Sultana, Kaushik Maiti, Lee Dedman, Roger Smith
The placenta ages as pregnancy advances, yet its continued function is required for a successful pregnancy outcome. Placental aging is a physiological phenomenon; however, there are some placentas that show signs of aging earlier than others. Premature placental senescence and aging are implicated in a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, spontaneous preterm birth, and intrauterine fetal death. Here we discuss cellular senescence, a state of terminal proliferation arrest, and how senescence is regulated...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237141/lessons-from-the-barn-to-the-operating-suite-a-comprehensive-review-of-animal-models-for-fetal-surgery
#8
Sandra K Kabagambe, Chelsey J Lee, Laura F Goodman, Y Julia Chen, Melissa A Vanover, Diana L Farmer
The International Fetal Medicine and Surgery Society was created in 1982 and proposed guidelines for fetal interventions that required demonstrations of the safety and feasibility of intended interventions in animal models prior to application in humans. Because of their short gestation and low cost, small animal models are useful in early investigation of fetal strategies. However, owing to the anatomic and physiologic differences between small animals and humans, repeated studies in large animal models are usually needed to facilitate translation to humans...
December 13, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235113/postnatal-effects-of-intrauterine-treatment-of-the-growth-restricted-ovine-fetus-with-intra-amniotic-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#9
A M Spiroski, M H Oliver, A L Jaquiery, T C R Prickett, E A Espiner, J E Harding, F H Bloomfield
Placental insufficiency-mediated fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with altered postnatal growth and metabolism, which are, in turn, associated with increased risk of adult disease. Intra-amniotic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) treatment of ovine FGR increases growth rate in late gestation, but the effects on postnatal growth and metabolism are unknown. We investigated the effects of intra-amniotic IGF1 administration to ovine fetuses with uteroplacental embolisation-induced FGR on phenotypic and physiologic characteristics in the two weeks after birth...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230859/placenta-microstructure-and-microcirculation-imaging-with-diffusion-mri
#10
Paddy J Slator, Jana Hutter, Laura McCabe, Ana Dos Santos Gomes, Anthony N Price, Eleftheria Panagiotaki, Mary A Rutherford, Joseph V Hajnal, Daniel C Alexander
PURPOSE: To assess which microstructural models best explain the diffusion-weighted MRI signal in the human placenta. METHODS: The placentas of nine healthy pregnant subjects were scanned with a multishell, multidirectional diffusion protocol at 3T. A range of multicompartment biophysical models were fit to the data, and ranked using the Bayesian information criterion. RESULTS: Anisotropic extensions to the intravoxel incoherent motion model, which consider the effect of coherent orientation in both microvascular structure and tissue microstructure, consistently had the lowest Bayesian information criterion values...
December 11, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212865/the-placenta-controls-the-physiology-of-pregnancy-by-increasing-the-half-life-in-blood-and-receptor
#11
Phil Lowry, Russell Woods
An efficient functioning placenta is essential for a healthy pregnancy and yet the way this is achieved has been the subject of much discussion and confusion, particularly with the occurrence of pathological conditions such as preeclampsia, morning sickness and hyperemesis/ptyalism gravidarum. We will attempt to explain the underlying physiology and the potential roles played by the placental tachykinins, neurokinin B and endokinin.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210999/adverse-intrauterine-environment-and-cardiac-mirna-expression
#12
REVIEW
Mitchell C Lock, Kimberley J Botting, Ross L Tellam, Doug Brooks, Janna L Morrison
Placental insufficiency, high altitude pregnancies, maternal obesity/diabetes, maternal undernutrition and stress can result in a poor setting for growth of the developing fetus. These adverse intrauterine environments result in physiological changes to the developing heart that impact how the heart will function in postnatal life. The intrauterine environment plays a key role in the complex interplay between genes and the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate their expression. In this review we describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs) and how these changes may impact heart development...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208663/haemodynamic-effects-of-umbilical-cord-milking-in-premature-sheep-during-the-neonatal-transition
#13
Douglas A Blank, Graeme R Polglase, Martin Kluckow, Andrew William Gill, Kelly J Crossley, Alison Moxham, Karyn Rodgers, Valerie Zahra, Ishmael Inocencio, Fiona Stenning, Domeic A LaRosa, Peter G Davis, Stuart B Hooper
OBJECTIVE: Umbilical cord milking (UCM) at birth may benefit preterm infants, but the physiological effects of UCM are unknown. We compared the physiological effects of two UCM strategies with immediate umbilical cord clamping (UCC) and physiological-based cord clamping (PBCC) in preterm lambs. METHODS: At 126 days' gestational age, fetal lambs were exteriorised, intubated and instrumented to measure umbilical, pulmonary and cerebral blood flows and arterial pressures...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208235/modelling-the-effect-of-intervillous-flow-on-solute-transfer-based-on-3d-imaging-of-the-human-placental-microstructure
#14
S Perazzolo, R M Lewis, B G Sengers
INTRODUCTION: A healthy pregnancy depends on placental transfer from mother to fetus. Placental transfer takes place at the micro scale across the placental villi. Solutes from the maternal blood are taken up by placental villi and enter the fetal capillaries. This study investigated the effect of maternal blood flow on solute uptake at the micro scale. METHODS: A 3D image based modelling approach of the placental microstructures was undertaken. Solute transport in the intervillous space was modelled explicitly and solute uptake with respect to different maternal blood flow rates was estimated...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194396/aquaporins-during-pregnancy-their-function-and-significance
#15
REVIEW
Eszter Ducza, Adrienn Csányi, Róbert Gáspár
Water is the major component of cells and tissues, and the movement of water across the cell membrane is a fundamental property of life. Until the discovery of the first water channel, aquaporin, it was long assumed that the transport of water was due to simple diffusion through the lipid bilayer membrane that encloses cells. Aquaporin (AQP) molecules were first discovered in the human uterus in 1994, and since then several studies have investigated these channels in the female reproductive system. The expressions of AQPs have been proven in the reproductive system...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193463/placental-exosomes-a-proxy-to-understand-pregnancy-complications
#16
Jin Jin, Ramkumar Menon
Exosomes (30- to 150-nm particles), originating from multivesicular bodies by the invagination of the endosomal membrane, are communication channels between cells. Exosomes are released by various cell types and cargo proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids reflecting the physiologic status of their cells of origin and cause functional changes in recipient cells, which are likely dependent on their quantity and/or cargo contents. Recently, placental exosomes, produced by various placental cell types, have been isolated from maternal blood using the placental protein-specific marker, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP)...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185488/microrna-regulation-of-transthyretin-in-trophoblast-differentiation-and-intra-uterine-growth-restriction
#17
Sarbani Saha, Shreeta Chakraborty, Agnihotri Bhattacharya, Arati Biswas, Rupasri Ain
Placental trophoblast cells produce various cytokines, transporters vital to normal embryogenesis. Transthyretin (TTR) aids trans-placental passage of maternal thyroxin (TH) to fetal circulation. Inadequate TH delivery leads to developmental abnormality. Regulation of TTR biosynthesis in placenta is critical for normal embryo development. We showed here that TTR transcripts were expressed more in fetal placenta. Using bioinformatic analysis and confirmation with dual-luciferase reporter assays, we found that miR-200a-3p and miR-141-3p inhibited TTR expression by directly binding to the 3'UTR of TTR, which is reversed by mutation in the microRNA binding site...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180825/novel-predators-emit-novel-cues-a-mechanism-for-prey-naivety-towards-alien-predators
#18
Alexandra J R Carthey, Martin P Bucknall, Kaja Wierucka, Peter B Banks
Detecting enemies is crucial for survival and a trait that develops over an evolutionary timeframe. Introduced species disrupt coevolved systems of communication and detection in their new ranges, often leading to devastating impacts. The classic example is prey naivety towards alien predators, whereby prey fail to recognise a new predator. Yet exactly why native prey fail to recognise alien predators remains puzzling. Naivety theory predicts that it is because novel predators emit novel cues. Distantly related animals have distinct evolutionary histories, physiologies and ecologies, predicting they will emit different cues...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173474/metallothionein-2a-gene-polymorphism-and-trace-elements-in-mother-newborn-pairs-in-the-croatian-population
#19
Ankica Sekovanić, Jasna Jurasović, Martina Piasek, Daria Pašalić, Tatjana Orct, Antonija Sulimanec Grgec, Sandra Stasenko, Karmen Branović Čakanić, Anamarija Jazbec
The main source of exposure for all essential and toxic elements in the general population is diet. In smokers, the main route for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) intake is the inhalation of tobacco smoke. Besides gender, age, nutrition, lifestyle, and physiological conditions such as pregnancy, specific genetic characteristics also influence individual element uptake. Metallothionein MT2 is a cysteine-rich low-weight protein found ubiquitously throughout the body. Specific gene polymorphism may influence MT2 expression and subsequent binding, transfer and organ accumulation of metals, though data on these influences are lacking, especially in human mother-newborn pairs...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172831/the-placental-bed-vascular-pathology-revisited-a-risk-indicator-for-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Ivo Brosens, Marisa Benagiano, Patrick Puttemans, Mario M D'Elios, Giuseppe Benagiano
The present paper intends in the first place to clarify the confusing terminology for describing the vascular pathology of the placental bed in relation to long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. The maternal blood supply to the placenta is achieved by some 100 utero-placental spiral arteries with an outside diameter varying between 200 and 600 microns. Defective physiological changes of the myometrial segment of utero-placental spiral arteries and, particularly in preeclampsia associated to hypertensive disease, the presence of atherosclerosis in their proximal segment are a cause of obstructive vascular pathology...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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