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Placental physiology

Zbynĕk Straňák, Simona Feyereislová, Peter Korček, Eugene Dempsey
Postnatal adaptation in preterm newborn comprises complex physiological processes that involve significant changes in the circulatory and respiratory system. Increasing hemoglobin level and blood volume following placental transfusion may be of importance in enhancing arterial oxygen content, increasing cardiac output, and improving oxygen delivery. The European consensus on resuscitation of preterm infants recommends delayed cord clamping (DCC) for at least 60 s to promote placenta-fetal transfusion in uncompromised neonates...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
C L Depoix, F Haegemann, F Debiève, C Hubinont
STUDY QUESTION: Is 8% O2 a better percentage of atmospheric oxygen for long-term cultures of human primary term cytotrophoblasts than the conventional 21% O2 traditionally used in cell culture? SUMMARY ANSWER: Human primary term cytotrophoblasts are able to differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts under both atmospheric oxygen levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cell culture is traditionally done under 21% O2, which is equal to a pO2 of ~160 mm Hg...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Elvira Larqué, Eva Morales, Rosaura Leis, José E Blanco-Carnero
BACKGROUND: To what extent does the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration help to meet the physiological needs of humans is an ongoing subject of debate. Remaining unexposed to the sun to reduce melanoma cancer risk, current lifestyle with less out door activities, and increasing obesity rates, which in turn increases the storage of vitamin D in the adipose tissue, are presumably factors that contribute to the substantial upsurge in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in humans...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Simona Cardaropoli, Tullia Todros, Anna Maria Nuzzo, Alessandro Rolfo
Preeclampsia (PE) is a multifactorial pregnancy-induced syndrome and infection could have a role in its etiopathogenesis. Hepcidin, central regulator of iron homeostasis, is an antimicrobial peptide induced by inflammatory/infective stimuli. Therefore, hepcidin could be a good nonspecific marker of infection in PE. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed maternal serum levels (ELISA) and placental expression (Real-Time PCR and ELISA) of hepcidin in PE and normal pregnancies. In a prospective study, hepcidin maternal serum levels were assessed in early pregnancy before PE onset and in age matched controls...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
R Olivera, L N Moro, R Jordan, N Pallarols, A Guglielminetti, C Luzzani, S G Miriuka, G Vichera
Introduction: Cell plasticity is crucial in cloning to allow an efficient nuclear reprogramming and healthy offspring. Hence, cells with high plasticity, such as multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), may be a promising alternative for horse cloning. In this study, we evaluated the use of bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) as nuclear donors in horse cloning, and we compared the in vitro and in vivo embryo development with respect to fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Zona-free nuclear transfer was performed using BM-MSCs (MSC group, n=3432) or adult fibroblasts (AF group, n=4527)...
2018: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
Inés Velasco, Sarah C Bath, Margaret P Rayman
Iodine is an essential micronutrient incorporated into thyroid hormones. Although iodine deficiency can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders throughout life, it is most critical in the early stages of development, as the foetal brain is extremely dependent on iodine supply. During the last two decades, our understanding of thyroid physiology during gestation has substantially improved. Furthermore, thyroid hormone receptors have been identified and characterised in placental and embryonic tissues, allowing us to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of thyroid hormones...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Jossimara Polettini, Lauren S Richardson, Ramkumar Menon
OBJECTIVE: A physiologic increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is observed through pregnancy. ROS-induced damage to major cellular elements, specifically protein peroxidation, can lead to fetal and placental tissue senescence and inflammation often associated with normal parturition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of oxidative stress (OS) in inducing changes in proteins, senescence, and sterile inflammation in pregnant mice. METHODS: CD-1 mice (n = 5/group) on day 14 of gestation were subjected to minilaparotomy and the uterine horn between gestational sacs was injected with the following: saline (control), cigarette smoke extract (CSE) CSE diluted in saline and CSE + SB 203580 (SB) (a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor)...
March 2018: Placenta
Kelly A Landers, Huika Li, Robin H Mortimer, Donald S A McLeod, Michael C d'Emden, Kerry Richard
Transfer of thyroid hormone into cells is critical for normal physiology and transplacental transfer of maternal thyroid hormones is essential for normal fetal growth and development. Free thyroid hormone is known to enter cells through specific cell surface transport proteins, and for many years this uptake of unbound thyroid hormones was assumed to be the only relevant mechanism. Recently, evidence has emerged of alternate pathways for hormone entry into cells that are dependent on hormone binding proteins...
February 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Tomasz Wenta, Dorota Zurawa-Janicka, Michal Rychlowski, Miroslaw Jarzab, Przemyslaw Glaza, Andrea Lipinska, Krystyna Bienkowska-Szewczyk, Anna Herman-Antosiewicz, Joanna Skorko-Glonek, Barbara Lipinska
The human HtrA3 protease is involved in placentation, mitochondrial homeostasis, stimulation of apoptosis and proposed to be a tumor suppressor. Molecular mechanisms of the HtrA3 functions are poorly understood and knowledge concerning its cellular targets is very limited. There are two HtrA3 isoforms, the long (HtrA3L) and short (HtrA3S). Upon stress, their N-terminal domains are removed, resulting in the more active ΔN-HtrA3. By pull down and mass spectrometry techniques, we identified a panel of putative ΔN-HtrA3L/S substrates...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Sami P Makaroun, Katherine P Himes
Objective  The retroviral genes encoding Syncytin-1 ( SYN1 ) and Syncytin-2 ( SYN2 ) are epigenetically regulated, uniquely expressed in the placenta and critical to placental function. We sought to determine if placental expression and methylation patterns of SYN1 and SYN2 from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) differed from physiologic small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) controls. Study Design  Placental biopsies were obtained from AGA, SGA and FGR neonates delivered at >36 weeks gestation...
January 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Natalia V Nizyaeva, Tatiana V Sukhacheva, Roman A Serov, Galina V Kulikova, Marina N Nagovitsyna, Natalia E Kan, Victor L Tyutyunnik, Stanislav V Pavlovich, Rimma A Poltavtseva, Ekaterina L Yarotskaya, Aleksandr I Shchegolev, Gennadiy T Sukhikh
A new cell type, interstitial Cajal-like cell (ICLC), was recently described in different organs. The name was recently changed to telocytes (TCs), and their typical thin, long processes have been named telopodes (Tp). TCs regulate the contractile activity of smooth muscle cells and play a role in regulating vessel contractions. Although the placenta is not an innervated organ, we believe that TCs are present in the placenta. We studied placenta samples from physiological pregnancies and in different variants of preeclampsia (PE)...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hélène Collinot, Carmen Marchiol, Isabelle Lagoutte, Franck Lager, Nathalie Siauve, Gwennhael Autret, Daniel Balvay, Gilles Renault, Laurent J Salomon, Daniel Vaiman
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a major hypertensive disease caused by pregnancy, inducing proteinuria and increased blood pressure starting from the second half of pregnancy (early preeclampsia) or near the end of pregnancy (late preeclampsia). Pre-symptomatic diagnosis would allow for therapeutic interventions, such as with low-dose aspirin. Among non-invasive methods to explore organ physiology, Doppler ultrasonography (US) and functional blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI (which do not need radioactive contrast agents such as gadolinium) can be used in pregnant women...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Masoud Lotfan, Syed Azmal Ali, Munnalal Yadav, Suman Chuadhary, Manoj Kumar Jena, Sudarshan Kumar, Ashok Kumar Mohanty
The crosstalk between fetus and mother starts with the onset of placental attachment to the uterus. The cotyledons and caruncles are the two anatomically distinct structures that play a crucial role in this physiological communication. Using Agilent Gene Chip Genome microarray, we measured the expression profile of pregnancy cotyledons in comparison to caruncular reminiscence of the uteri in non-pregnant buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) for the detection of the early post-pregnancy rapid changes in cellular expression of mRNA transcripts...
February 14, 2018: Gene
Kevin Christian Bermea, Alejandro Rodríguez-García, Andrew Tsin, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña
IMPORTANCE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common of all diabetic complications. The number of people with DR in the United States is expected to increase to 16 million by 2050. DR is the leading cause of blindness among working-age adults in many different countries, including the United States. In later DR stages, neovascularization is associated with extensive retinal capillary non-perfusion and vitreo-proliferation leading to retinal detachment. This neovascularization is orchestrated by an imbalance of growth factors in the retina from which somatolactogens (pituitary growth hormone, GH-N; placental growth hormone, GH-V; prolactin, PRL; and placental lactogen, PL, also referred as chorionic somatomammotropin, CSH), may play an important role...
February 6, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Stefan Markovic, Anne Fages, Tangi Roussel, Ron Hadas, Alexander Brandis, Michal Neeman, Lucio Frydman
Placental functions, including transport and metabolism, play essential roles in pregnancy. This study assesses such processes in vivo , from a hyperpolarized MRI perspective. Hyperpolarized urea, bicarbonate, and pyruvate were administered to near-term pregnant rats, and all metabolites displayed distinctive behaviors. Little evidence of placental barrier crossing was observed for bicarbonate, at least within the timescales allowed by 13 C relaxation. By contrast, urea was observed to cross the placental barrier, with signatures visible from certain fetal organs including the liver...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mee-Na Park, Kyung-Hee Park, Jae-Eon Lee, Ye Young Shin, Sung-Min An, Seong Soo Kang, Wan-Seob Cho, Beum-Soo An, Seung Chul Kim
Estrogen and progesterone are the main pregnancy hormones produced by the placenta. It is well understood that estrogen stimulates angiogenesis in the uterus during the reproductive cycle. Although the estrogen and progesterone signaling pathways are assumed to be associated with placental vascularization and preeclampsia, expression of estrogen receptors (ESRs) and progesterone receptor (PGR) in the placenta have not been well studied. The present study examined the expression patterns of steroid hormone receptors in placentas...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Jung Woo Kwon, Seung Eun Hong, So Ra Kang, Bo Young Park
BACKGROUND: Human placental extract (HPE), prepared from the placentas of healthy, postpartum females, displays various physiological activities, including antioxidative properties. In this study, a dorsal skin flap model was used to investigate the effect of HPE on flap viability in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent random-pattern skin flap surgeries. The animals were randomly divided among a control group and three treatment groups (localized injection (LI), 10 mg/kg/d localized HPE injections; low-dose treatment (LT), 10 mg/kg/d systemic HPE injections; high-dose treatment (HT), 40 mg/kg/d systemic HPE injections)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Chiara Agostinis, Damiano Rami, Paola Zacchi, Fleur Bossi, Tamara Stampalija, Alessandro Mangogna, Leonardo Amadio, Romana Vidergar, Liza Vecchi Brumatti, Giuseppe Ricci, Claudio Celeghini, Oriano Radillo, Ian Sargent, Roberta Bulla
PROBLEM: Procalcitonin (PCT) is the prohormone of calcitonin which is usually released from neuroendocrine cells of the thyroid gland (parafollicular) and the lungs (K cells). PCT is synthesized by almost all cell types and tissues, including monocytes and parenchymal tissue, upon LPS stimulation. To date, there is no evidence for PCT expression in the placenta both in physiological and pathological conditions. METHOD: Circulating and placental PCT levels were analysed in pre-eclamptic (PE) and control patients...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Jaqueline Vieira Carletti, Ana Correia-Branco, Claudia Raquel Silva, Nelson Andrade, Lenir Orlandi Pereira Silva, Fátima Martel
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disorder characterized by maternal blood pressure, fetal growth restriction and intrauterine hypoxia. Folic acid is a vitamin required during pregnancy. In this work, we investigated the relationship between preeclampsia and the intake of distinct doses of folic acid during pregnancy. Considering that preeclampsia is associated with increased placental oxidative stress levels, we investigated the effect of oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBH) in human trophoblast-derived cells cultured upon deficient/low, physiological and supra-physiological folic acid levels...
February 6, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Joseph Y Ting, John C Kingdom, Prakesh S Shah
A diagnosis of fetal growth restriction and subsequent preterm birth is associated with increased risks of adverse perinatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes and potentially long-lasting effects to adulthood. Most such cases are associated with placental insufficiency and the fetal response to chronic intrauterine hypoxemia and nutrient deprivation leads to substantial physiological and metabolic adaptations. The management of such pregnancies, especially with respect to perinatal interventions and birth mode, remains an unresolved dilemma...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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