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Placental physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775414/venoarterial-communication-mediates-arterial-wall-shear-stress-induced-maternal-uterine-vascular-remodeling-during-pregnancy
#1
Nga Ling Ko, Liam John, Aaron Gelinne, Maurizio Mandala, George Osol
Although expansive remodeling of the maternal uterine circulation during pregnancy is essential for maintaining uteroplacental perfusion and normal fetal growth, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood. Using a rat model, surgical approaches were used to alter uterine hemodynamics and wall shear stress (WSS) in order to evaluate the effects of WSS and venoarterial communication (e.g. transfer of placentally derived growth signals from post-placental veins to pre-placental arteries) on gestational uterine vascular remodeling...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769708/maternal-supraphysiological-hypercholesterolemia-associates-with-endothelial-dysfunction-of-the-placental-microvasculature
#2
Bárbara Fuenzalida, Bastián Sobrevia, Claudette Cantin, Lorena Carvajal, Rocío Salsoso, Jaime Gutiérrez, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Luis Sobrevia, Andrea Leiva
Maternal physiological or supraphysiological hypercholesterolemia (MPH, MSPH) occurs during pregnancy. MSPH is associated with foetal endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the potential effects of MSPH on placental microvasculature are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether MSPH alters endothelial function in the placental microvasculature both ex vivo in venules and arterioles from the placental villi and in vitro in primary cultures of placental microvascular endothelial cells (hPMEC)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767691/thyroid-hormones-and-female-reproduction
#3
Juneo F Silva, Natália M Ocarino, Rogéria Serakides
Thyroid hormones are vital for the proper functioning of the female reproductive system, since they modulate the metabolism and development of ovarian, uterine and placental tissues. Therefore, hypo- and hyperthyroidism may result in subfertility or infertility in both women and animals. Other well-documented sequelae of maternal thyroid dysfunctions include menstrual/estral irregularity, anovulation, abortion, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, postpartum thyroiditis, and mental retardation in children...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748882/evolution-of-ucp1
#4
Michael J Gaudry, Kevin L Campbell, Martin Jastroch
Brown adipose tissue (BAT), the specialized heat-producing organ found in many placental mammals including humans, may be accessible for clinical drug intervention to help combat metabolic diseases. Understanding the biology of BAT and its thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) will benefit from an assessment of its evolution, answering where UCP1 originated and how it has been modified and integrated into cellular energy metabolism. Here, we review topical insights regarding the molecular evolution of UCP1-also reconstructing the proximate and ultimate factors selecting for brown fat thermogenesis in placental mammals...
May 10, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746007/preterm-growth-restriction-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-the-vascular-hypothesis-and-related-physiology
#5
Arvind Sehgal, Stella M Gwini, Samuel Menahem, Beth J Allison, Suzanne L Miller, Graeme R Polglase
KEY POINTS: Approximately 5-10% pregnancies are affected by fetal growth restriction. Preterm infants affected by fetal growth restriction have a higher incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This study is the first to measure pulmonary artery thickness and stiffness. It highlights that impaired vasculogenesis may be a contributory factor in the higher incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm growth restricted infants. The study addresses the mechanistic link between fetal programming and vascular architecture and mechanics...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735634/evaluation-of-sildenafil-and-tadalafil-for-reversing-constriction-of-fetal-arteries-in-a-human-placenta-perfusion-model
#6
Robert B Walton, Luckey C Reed, Sarah M Estrada, Stacey S Schmiedecke, Diana L Villazana-Kretzer, Peter G Napolitano, Nicholas Ieronimakis
Fetal growth restriction resulting from reduced placental blood perfusion is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Aside from intense surveillance and early delivery, there is no treatment for fetal growth restriction. A potential treatment associated with placental vasoconstriction is the class of PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) inhibitors such as sildenafil, which is known to cross the placenta. In contrast, tadalafil, a more potent and selective PDE5 inhibitor has not been studied in pregnancy or experimental models of fetal growth restriction...
May 7, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731692/amount-and-distribution-of-selected-biologically-active-factors-in-amniotic-membrane-depends-on-the-part-of-amnion-and-mode-of-childbirth-can-we-predict-properties-of-amnion-dressing-a-proof-of-concept-study
#7
Małgorzata Litwiniuk, Małgorzata Radowicka, Alicja Krejner, Anna Śladowska, Tomasz Grzela
Aim of the study: The amniotic membrane is used as a dressing material, e.g. in ocular surgery or treatment of non-healing wounds. Of note, results of previous studies differ significantly, presumably due to the biological properties of amnion. Some authors suggest that these properties may depend on inter-donor variations, as well as the method of delivery. The aim of our study was to analyse the content of selected factors important for tissue regeneration in various areas of amnion samples originating from elective caesarean sections and on-term natural deliveries...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730538/sequential-concentrations-of-placental-growth-factor-and-haptoglobin-and-their-relation-to-oestrone-sulphate-and-progesterone-in-pregnant-spanish-purebred-mare
#8
K Satué, M Marcilla, P Medica, A Ferlazzo, E Fazio
The objectives of this study were to establish reference values for serum concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) and haptoglobin (Hp), and to analyze whether the levels of oestrone sulphate (E1 S) and progesterone (P4 ) are physiologically involved in the dynamic modifications of the above parameters in pregnant mares. A total of 30 healthy Spanish Purebred mares ranging in age 9.33 ± 3.31 years were studied during the 11 months of gestation. Serum concentrations of PlGF were detected by EIA, Hp using commercial Phase Haptoglobin assay and E1 S and P4 levels through RIA...
April 27, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728721/characterization-of-the-placenta-in-the-newborn-with-congenital-heart-disease-distinctions-based-on-type-of-cardiac-malformation
#9
Jack Rychik, Donna Goff, Eileen McKay, Antonio Mott, Zhiyun Tian, Daniel J Licht, J William Gaynor
The placenta is a complex organ that influences prenatal growth and development, and through fetal programming impacts postnatal health and well-being lifelong. Little information exists on placental pathology in the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD). Our objective is to characterize the placenta in CHD and investigate for distinctions based on type of malformation present. Placental pathology from singleton neonates prenatally diagnosed and delivered at > 37 weeks gestation was analyzed. Placental findings of absolute weight, placental weight-to-newborn birth weight ratio, chorangiosis, villus maturity, thrombosis, and infarction were recorded and analyzed based on four physiological categories of CHD: (1) single ventricle-aortic obstruction, (2) single ventricle-pulmonic obstruction, (3) two-ventricle anomalies, and (4) transposition of the great arteries (TGA)...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716435/micromolar-zinc-in-annexin-a5-anticoagulation-as-a-potential-remedy-for-rprgl3-associated-recurrent-pregnancy-loss
#10
Hayrünnisa Danisik, Nadia Bogdanova, Arseni Markoff
Deficient expression of the placental anticoagulant annexin A5 (ANXA5) has been associated with thrombophilia-related pregnancy complications and ultimately with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Carrier status of M2/ANXA5 ( RPRGL3), common ANXA5 promoter variant, has been identified as genetic cause of reduced ANXA5 levels and proposed as biomarker for successful anticoagulant treatment of RPL women. A murine model of AnxA5 loss of function displayed characteristic placental pathology and fetal loss that was alleviated through anticoagulant intervention...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704394/identification-of-uterine-pacemaker-regions-at-the-myometrial-placental-interface-in-the-rat
#11
E Josiah Lutton, Wim J E P Lammers, Sean James, Hugo A van den Berg, Andrew M Blanks
Coordinated contraction of the uterine smooth muscle is essential to parturition. Histologically and physiologically defined pacemaker structures have not been identified in uterine smooth muscle. Here we report combined electrophysiological and histological evidence of zones associated with pacemaker activity in the rat myometrium (MPPZ = myometrial/placental pacemaking zone) Our method relies crucially on the integration of histological and electrophysiological data in an in silico 3-dimensional reconstruction of the rat myometrium at 10 micrometer resolution We find that MPPZs are closely related with placental sites and the area of disruptive myometrial remodelling surrounding such sites If analogues of the MPPZ are present in the human, defining their histology and physiology will be important steps towards treatment of pre-term birth, pre-eclampsia, and post-partum haemorrhage ABSTRACT: Coordinated uterine contractions are essential for delivering viable offspring in mammals...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694411/unusual-morphological-adaptations-and-processes-associated-with-viviparity-in-an-epizoic-dermapteran
#12
Szczepan M Bilinski, Mariusz K Jaglarz, Ali Halajian, Waclaw Tworzydlo
Matrotrophic viviparity is a reproductive pattern in which offspring develop inside a female's body which provides gas exchange and nutrients necessary for development. Besides placental mammals, structural and physiological aspects of matrotrophic viviparity are poorly characterized. In insects, the majority of species is oviparous, i.e. lay eggs, and viviparous reproduction has been reported only in 11 out of 44 orders, including earwigs (Dermaptera). Among dermapterans, matrotrophic viviparity has been reported in two epizoic subgroups: Arixeniidae and Hemimeridae...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693263/clinical-associations-of-maternal-thyroid-function-with-fetal-brain-development-epidemiological-interpretation-and-overview-of-available-evidence
#13
Tim I M Korevaar, Henning Tiemeier, Robin P Peeters
TH is an important regulator of metabolism, growth and development in practically all tissues of the human body. During pregnancy, major changes occur in thyroid physiology including an increase in TH binding globulins, an increase in TH degradation by thyroid degrading enzymes (due to placental expression of type 3 deiodinase) and an increase in thyroid stimulation through high concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Both overt hypothyroidism and Graves' hyperthyroidism, which occur in approximately 0...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692274/isolating-the-direct-effects-of-adverse-developmental-conditions-on-in-vivo-cardiovascular-function-at-adulthood-the-avian-model
#14
K L Skeffington, C Beck, N Itani, D A Giussani
It is now well accepted that exposure to adverse environmental conditions in utero can predispose a fetus to disease later in life. Using an avian model to study the programming of disease has a unique advantage as it allows isolation of the direct effects of adverse conditions on fetal physiology, without any confounding effects via the mother or placenta. However, experiments in avian models are limited by the lack of well-established surgical protocols for the adult bird, which we have established in this study...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679395/placental-adaptations-to-micronutrient-dysregulation-in-the-programming-of-chronic-disease
#15
Pierre Hofstee, Daniel McKeating, Anthony V Perkins, James S M Cuffe
Poor nutrition during pregnancy is known to impair foetal development and increase the risk of chronic disease in offspring. Both macronutrients and micronutrients are required for a healthy pregnancy although significantly less is understood about the role of micronutrients in the programming of chronic disease. This is despite the fact that modern calorie rich diets are often also deficient in key micronutrients. The importance of micronutrients in gestational disorders is clearly understood but how they impact long term disease in humans requires further investigation...
April 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668899/how-uterine-microbiota-might-be-responsible-for-a-receptive-fertile-endometrium
#16
Marilen Benner, Gerben Ferwerda, Irma Joosten, Renate G van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Fertility depends on a receptive state of the endometrium, influenced by hormonal and anatomical adaptations, as well as the immune system. Local and systemic immunity is greatly influenced by microbiota. Recent discoveries of 16S rRNA in the endometrium and the ability to detect low-biomass microbiota fueled the notion that the uterus may be indeed a non-sterile compartment. To date, the concept of the 'sterile womb' focuses on in utero effects of microbiota on offspring and neonatal immunity...
April 16, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668014/oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-systems-in-the-domestication-process
#17
Bibiana S O Fam, Pamela Paré, Aline B Felkl, Pedro Vargas-Pinilla, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Lucas Henriques Viscardi, Maria Cátira Bortolini
Domestication is of unquestionable importance to the technological revolution that has given rise to modern human societies. In this study, we analyzed the DNA and protein sequences of six genes of the oxytocin and arginine vasopressin systems (OXT-OXTR; AVP-AVPR1a, AVPR1b and AVPR2) in 40 placental mammals. These systems play an important role in the control of physiology and behavior. According to our analyses, neutrality does not explain the pattern of molecular evolution found in some of these genes. We observed specific sites under positive selection in AVPR1b (ω = 1...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652744/clinical-pearls-part-3-anaesthetic-management-of-abnormally-invasive-placentation
#18
Vinod Patil, Gamunu Ratnayake, Galina Fastovets, D S Wijayatilake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abnormal placentation is a clinical condition seen increasingly in the pregnant population. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which may be mitigated through robust multidisciplinary care for these patients. The role of maternal critical care for these patients has largely been ignored in the literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in pharmacological management of bleeding with recent publications of large multicentre trials in addition to new technologies in the management of massive obstetric haemorrhage (MOH) have revolutionized the management of abnormal placentation...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626984/the-proteome-of-fetal-fluids-in-mares-with-experimentally-induced-placentitis
#19
S C Loux, B A Ball
INTRODUCTION: Placental inflammation (placentitis) is one of the leading causes of late-term abortion in mares. Although prognosis is good assuming early diagnosis and treatment, diagnostics are limited. METHODS: To better characterize the disease and identify potential biomarkers, we analyzed the proteome of fetal fluids (amniotic and allantoic) in both control mares (n = 5) and mares with experimentally-induced placentitis (n = 5) using LTQ-Orbitrap mass-spectrometry...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621925/transport-kinetics-of-chromium-in-perfused-human-placental-lobule-in-late-gestation-in-vitro-study
#20
B Al-Sannan, M Nandakumaran, J Al-Harmi, M Al-Shammari, M Fouda
OBJECTIVE: Reports relating to maternal-fetal transport kinetics of chromium, an essential trace element in the human pregnancies are scanty. Hence, we thought it interesting to investigate the transport kinetics of this trace element in the human placenta in late gestation in vitro. METHODS: Human placentae were collected immediately after delivery from normal uncomplicated pregnancies. Chromium chloride solution (GFS Chem Inc, Ohio, USA) at 10 times the physiological concentrations and antipyrine (Sigma Chem Co...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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