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Placental physiology

Maïlys De Sousa Mendes, Gabrielle Lui, Yi Zheng, Claire Pressiat, Deborah Hirt, Elodie Valade, Naïm Bouazza, Frantz Foissac, Stephane Blanche, Jean-Marc Treluyer, Saik Urien, Sihem Benaboud
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and their fetuses are exposed to numerous drugs; however, they are orphan populations with respect to the safety and efficacy of drugs. Therefore, the prediction of maternal and fetal drug exposure prior to administration would be highly useful. METHODS: A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nevirapine, which is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2B6 and 2D6 pathways, was developed to predict maternal and fetal pharmacokinetics (PK)...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Jing Li, Jun Zhou, Yuanhua Ye, Qunying Liu, Xiaojin Wang, Ning Zhang, Xietong Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that oxidative stress is an important factor in preeclampsia (PE). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) are protective proteins that are involved in combating oxidative stress in the body. Nrf2 is also an essential upstream transcription factor regulating HO-1. This study was aimed at exploring the physiological roles of HO-1 and Nrf2 in PE. METHODS: Serum and placenta were collected from 30 patients who presented with severe PE and 30 healthy pregnant females...
October 21, 2016: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Bora Lee, Lindsay L Kroener, Ning Xu, Erica T Wang, Alexandra Banks, John Williams, Mark O Goodarzi, Yii-der I Chen, Jie Tang, Yizhou Wang, Vineela Gangalapudi, Margareta D Pisarska
Pregnancies resulting from fresh in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles exposed to supra-physiologic estrogen levels have been associated with higher rates of low birth weight and small for gestational age babies. We identified GATA3, a transcription factor selectively expressed in the trophectoderm during the blastocyst stage of embryo development, in an upstream analysis of genes that were differentially methylated in chorionic villus samples between IVF and non-IVF infertility treatment (NIFT) pregnancies. In this study, we investigate the hypothesis that GATA3 is hormonally regulated and plays an important functional role in trophoblast migration, invasion and placentation...
October 12, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Jeffrey Pudney, Xianbao He, Zahrah Masheeb, David W Kindelberger, Wendy Kuohung, Robin R Ingalls
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an essential component of the innate immune system. While a number of studies have described TLR expression in the female reproductive tract, few have examined the temporal expression of TLRs within the human placenta. We hypothesized that the pattern of TLR expression in the placenta changes throughout the first and second trimester, coincident with physiological changes in placental function and the demands of innate immunity. We collected first and second trimester placental tissue and conducted quantitative PCR analysis for TLRs 1-10, followed by immunohistochemistry to define the cell specific expression pattern of a subset of these receptors...
October 2016: Placenta
Tejas Shah, Kalpana Joshi, Sanjay Mishra, Suhas Otiv, Vijay Kumbar
Folic acid (FA) and iron are essential supplements during pregnancy. Similarly effects of vitamin B12 (B12) inadequacy and high folate and low B12 status, on pregnancy outcome are available. However there are no mandatory recommendations for B12. There are many forms of B12 viz. Cyanocobalamin (Cbl), Methylcobalamin (MeCbl), Adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl), and Hydroxycobalamin (HCbl) though there is limited consensus on which form has better efficacy. In the present study we have determined effect of various forms of B12 in the presence of two FA concentrations namely normal physiological (20ng/mL; NPFA) and supra-physiological (2000ng/mL; SPFA) concentration to mimic real time situation where FA is in excess due to supplementation...
September 28, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Maie D Al-Bader, Sara A Jasem, Narayana Kilarkaje
Gestational carbenoxolone exposure inhibits placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD), the physiological barrier for glucocorticoids, which increases fetal exposure to glucocorticoids and induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We hypothesized that carbenoxolone exposure influences the expression of placental estrogen receptors-α and β (ERα & ERβ) and p53 leading to inhibited fetal and placental growth. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice daily with either carbenoxolone (10mg/kg; s...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Farah H Amro, Hind N Moussa, Olaide A Ashimi, Baha M Sibai
Hypertensive disorders have become increasingly prevalent and complicate an increasing number of pregnancies. Therefore it is essential that the medications used to treat these disorders be well understood. Furthermore the management is complicated by special consideration needed for the physiologic changes of pregnancy as well as the consideration for possible adverse fetal effects. Areas covered: We performed a review of the scientific literature of medications used to treat hypertensive disorders in pregnancy...
October 11, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Avi Z Rosenberg, Weiying Yu, D Ashley Hill, Christine A Reyes, David A Schwartz
Context .- The placenta is an important component in understanding the fetal response to intrauterine Zika virus infection, but the pathologic changes in this organ remain largely unknown. Hofbauer cells are fetal-derived macrophages normally present in the chorionic villous stroma. They have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathologic processes, in particular involving infectious agents. Objectives .- To characterize the fetal and maternal responses and viral localization in the placenta following Zika virus transmission to an 11 weeks' gestation fetus...
September 28, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
J Tay, L Foo, C McEniery, I Wilkinson, C Lees
INTRODUCTION: Studies in pre-eclampsia have demonstrated that central haemodynamic changes give more insight than peripheral measures into maternal cardiac and vascular physiology. This study aims to investigate augmentation index (AIX) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction (FGR) and compare them to healthy women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Augmentation index (AIx) is a measure of systemic arterial stiffness derived from the ascending aortic pressure waveform...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Yuuka Mukai, Fumika Hoshi, Shin Sato
BACKGROUND: High fructose intake induces disruption of lipid metabolism via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in the liver and peripheral tissues. Maternal lipid metabolism is physiologically altered by the activity of pregnancy hormones such as human placental lactogen (PL). To elucidate the influence of high fructose intake on hepatic lipid metabolism during pregnancy, we examined the effects of fructose on lipid metabolism via the AMPK pathway in hepatocytes stimulated with PL...
August 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part B, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
Isabella Ellinger
Active placental transport of maternal serum calcium (Ca(2+)) to the offspring is pivotal for proper development of the fetal skeleton as well as various organ systems. Moreover, extracellular Ca(2+) levels impact on distinct processes in mammalian reproduction. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) translates changes in extracellular Ca(2+)-concentrations into cellular reactions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the expression of CaSR and its putative functions in reproductive organs. CaSR was detected in placental cells mediating materno-fetal Ca(2+)-transport such as the murine intraplacental yolk sac (IPYS) and the human syncytiotrophoblast...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Sudtawin Manthati, Busadee Pratumvinit, Ratchaneekorn Hanyongyuth, Suthipol Udompunthurak, Amprapha Phaophan, Tuangsit Wataganara
BACKGROUND: Data on first-trimester circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and ischemic placental disease is limited and conflicting. This study aimed to study its physiology in relation to trophoblastic mass as the source of production. METHODS: Low-risk (representing normal placentation) women from 11 0/7 to 13 6/7 weeks' gestation were prospectively enrolled. Selective measurement of serum free sFlt-1 using a new automated assay from 100 eligible subjects was analyzed with gestational age, maternal weight, fetal crown-rump length (CRL), and mean uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index (PI)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Baiba Steinbrekera, Robert D Roghair
The risk of hypertension is increased by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth. In the search for modifiable etiologies for this life-threatening cardiovascular morbidity, a number of pathways have been investigated, including excessive glucocorticoid exposure, nutritional deficiency, and aberration in sex hormone levels. As a neurotrophic hormone intimately involved in cardiovascular regulation whose levels are influenced by glucocorticoids, nutritional status and sex hormones, leptin has emerged as a putative etiologic and thus therapeutic agent...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Camilo Mejia, Josh Lewis, Clinton Jordan, Juan Mejia, Connor Ogden, Troy Monson, Duane Winden, Marc Watson, Paul R Reynolds, Juan A Arroyo
Cigarette smoke is known to be a risk for the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Our objective was to assess the effects of secondhand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy and to what extent it regulates the activation of mTOR family members and murine trophoblast invasion. Mice were treated to SHS for 4 days. Placental and fetal weights were recorded at the time of necropsy. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the level of placental trophoblast invasion. Western blots were utilized to assess the activation of caspase 3, XIAP, mTOR, p70 and 4EBP1 in treated and control placental lysates...
September 9, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Claudia Gundacker, Jürgen Neesen, Elisabeth Straka, Isabella Ellinger, Helmut Dolznig, Markus Hengstschläger
Exposure to chemicals and environmental pollutants among them cadmium, lead, and mercury can harm reproduction. The metals cross the placenta, accumulate in placental tissue, and pass onto fetal blood and fetal organs to variable amounts. Still, the mechanisms underlying their transplacental passage are largely unknown and the human placenta is the most poorly understood organ in terms of reproduction toxicology. The genetic factors modulating placental toxicokinetics remain unclear just as well. From a genetic perspective, three aspects, which influence capacities of the human placenta to metabolize and transport toxicants, need to be considered...
November 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Asim Hassain
The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Asim Hassain
The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Akshaya P Meher, Nisha Wadhwani, Karuna Randhir, Savita Mehendale, Girija Wagh, Sadhana R Joshi
BACKGROUND: A very large number of fatty acids play wide range of physiological roles in cellular growth and function in placental as well as fetal growth. However, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in addition to its critical role in cellular membranes, is known to act as a ligand for several nuclear receptors and regulates the activity of transcription factor families like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, liver X receptor (LXR), retinoid X receptor (RXR), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Ammar Muhammad, Sebastian J Neggers, Aart J van der Lely
INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is a rare disorder in which, due to the high incidence of secondary hypogonadism, pregnancies are relatively rare. However, some women with acromegaly do get pregnant, which brings along questions about medication, complications and follow-up. This review tries to address these issues and provide the reader with practical information. METHODS: This review summarizes published data. CONCLUSIONS: Acromegaly is a disorder that is characterized by changes in growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin concentrations and actions...
August 27, 2016: Pituitary
Jorge R Pasqualini, Gérard S Chetrite
The fetal endocrine system constitutes the earliest system developing in fetal life and operates during all the steps of gestation. Its regulation is in part dependent on the secretion of placental and/or maternal precursors emanating across the feto-maternal interface. Human fetal and placental compartments possess all the enzymatic systems necessary to produce steroid hormones. However, their activities are different and complementary: the fetus is very active in converting acetate into cholesterol, in transforming pregnanes to androstanes, various hydroxylases, sulfotransferases, while all these transformations are absent or very limited in the placenta...
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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