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Placental physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920512/rhythmic-three-part-harmony-the-complex-interaction-of-maternal-placental-and-fetal-circadian-systems
#1
Peter J Mark, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Brendan J Waddell
From the perspective of circadian biology, mammalian pregnancy presents an unusual biological scenario in which an entire circadian system (i.e., that of the fetus) is embodied within another (i.e., that of the mother). Moreover, both systems are likely to be influenced at their interface by a third player, the placenta. Successful pregnancy requires major adaptations in maternal physiology, many of which involve circadian changes that support the high metabolic demands of the growing fetus. A functional role for maternal circadian adaptations is implied by the effects of circadian disruption, which result in pregnancy complications including higher risks for miscarriage, preterm labor, and low birth weight...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912064/cell-cycle-and-histone-modification-genes-were-decreased-in-placenta-tissue-from-unexplained-early-miscarriage
#2
Yuanchang Zhu, Bing Li, Tonghua Wu, Lijun Ye, Yong Zeng, Yaou Zhang
Genetic defect is a major cause of early miscarriage, but still in many cases the etiology are not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of genes in placenta tissue are participated in the pathogenesis of unexplained early miscarriage. The aim of our study is to explore mRNA expression profile in placental chorionic villi and to reveal the underlying mechanism of unexplained early miscarriage. Chorionic villous were isolated and extracted from early miscarriage (n=3) and control pregnancy (n=3) placenta with normal chromosome karyotype using MLPA assay, and then mRNA expression profiles were determined by microarray...
September 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900802/assessment-of-m2-anxa5-haplotype-as-a-risk-factor-in-couples-with-placenta-mediated-pregnancy-complications
#3
Nina Rogenhofer, Lara R M Nienaber, Lea C Amshoff, Nadia Bogdanova, David Petroff, Peter Wieacker, Christian J Thaler, Arseni Markoff
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to confirm the associated M2/ANXA5 carrier risk in women with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPC) and to test their male partners for such association. Further analysis evaluated the influence of maternal vs. paternal M2 alleles on miscarriage. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-eight couples with preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), or premature birth (PB) were recruited (n = 96 of each phenotype)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894161/microbial-communities-in-placentas-from-term-normal-pregnancy-exhibit-spatially-variable-profiles
#4
Lindsay A Parnell, Catherine M Briggs, Bin Cao, Omar Delannoy-Bruno, Andrew E Schrieffer, Indira U Mysorekar
The placenta is the principal organ nurturing the fetus during pregnancy and was traditionally considered to be sterile. Recent work has suggested that the placenta harbours microbial communities, however the location and possible function of these microbes remain to be confirmed and elucidated. Here, we employed genomic DNA sequencing of multiple variable (V) regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal gene, to interrogate microbial profiles in term pregnancies, from the basal plate, which is in direct contact with maternal uterine, endothelial, and immune cells; placental villi, which are bathed in maternal blood, and fetal membranes, which encapsulate the amniotic cavity...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871018/early-life-exposure-to-air-pollutants-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-beijing
#5
Jing Song, Yi Chen, Ling Wei, Ying Ma, Ning Tian, Shi Yun Huang, Yin Mei Dai, Li Hong Zhao, Yuan Yuan Kong
INTRODUCTION: The association between early exposure to ambient air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in China is unclear. This study will assess the risk of early-life exposure to air pollutants in Beijing and explore the viability of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biological indicator to assess oxidative stress induced by early-life exposure to air pollution. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Here, 2500 women with singleton pregnancies and their infants will be recruited from the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital...
September 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868163/new-insights-into-the-vitamin-d-requirements-during-pregnancy
#6
REVIEW
Bruce W Hollis, Carol L Wagner
Pregnancy represents a dynamic period with physical and physiological changes in both the mother and her developing fetus. The dramatic 2-3 fold increase in the active hormone 1,25(OH)2D concentrations during the early weeks of pregnancy despite minimal increased calcium demands during that time of gestation and which are sustained throughout pregnancy in both the mother and fetus suggests an immunomodulatory role in preventing fetal rejection by the mother. While there have been numerous observational studies that support the premise of vitamin D's role in maintaining maternal and fetal well-being, until recently, there have been few randomized clinical trials with vitamin D supplementation...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864986/the-role-of-maternal-nutrition-during-the-periconceptional-period-and-its-effect-on-offspring-phenotype
#7
Tom P Fleming, Judith J Eckert, Oleg Denisenko
The early preimplantation embryo has been rigorously studied for decades to understand inherent reproductive and developmental mechanisms driving its morphogenesis from before fertilisation through to and beyond implantation. Recent research has demonstrated that this short developmental window is also critical for the embryo's interaction with external, maternal factors, particularly nutritional status. Here, maternal dietary quality has been shown to alter the pattern of development in an enduring way that can influence health throughout the lifetime...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864018/bovine-placentomal-heparanase-and-syndecan-expression-is-related-to-placental-maturation
#8
N Hambruch, S Kumstel, J-D Haeger, C Pfarrer
INTRODUCTION: Impaired placental maturation has been associated with retention of fetal membranes, which is a major reproductive disease in cattle. This maturation includes alterations in all tissue compartments of the placenta, specifically of epithelial and stroma cells and extracellular matrix. It is believed to be controlled by hormones, adhesion molecules and proteolytic enzymes. To investigate if the proteolytic enzyme heparanase and its substrates, the syndecans (SDCs) could be involved in the release of fetal membranes, their expression in bovine placentomes was analyzed...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864006/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-responses-in-placentation-a-true-balancing-act
#9
Daniel Bastida-Ruiz, Elizabeth Aguilar, Agnès Ditisheim, Lucile Yart, Marie Cohen
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is recognized as a key mechanism to promote protein folding and processing in eukaryotes when endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) occurs. Some conditions such as hypoxia or glucose deprivation are factors that may elicit ERS response. Recent literature collectively proposes that ERS response is crucial for mammalian reproduction by allowing decidualization and placentation to occur. However, prolonged ERS and activation of UPR pathways can lead to apoptosis and autophagy, which in turn could pose adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes and placentation...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855042/insulinotropic-nucleobindin-2-nesfatin-1-is-dynamically-expressed-in-the-haemochorial-mouse-and-human-placenta
#10
Crystalyn B Legg-St Pierre, Martina Mackova, Ewa I Miskiewicz, Denise G Hemmings, Suraj Unniappan, Daniel J MacPhee
The placenta is the physiological bridge between mother and fetus and has life-sustaining functions during pregnancy, including metabolic regulation, fetal protection and hormone secretion. Nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) is a calcium- and DNA-binding protein and precursor of nesfatin-1, a signalling peptide with multiple functions, including regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose transport. These are also key functions of the placenta, yet NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expression has never been comprehensively studied in this organ...
August 31, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846166/cortisol-inhibits-csf2-and-csf3-via-dna-methylation-and-inhibits-invasion-in-first-trimester-trophoblast-cells
#11
Arianna Smith, Elizabeth Witte, Devin McGee, Jason Knott, Kavita Narang, Karen Racicot
PROBLEM: Heightened maternal stress affects trophoblast function and increases risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS OF STUDY: Studies were performed using the first-trimester trophoblast cell line, Sw.71. Cytokines were quantified using qPCR and ELISA. Epigenetic regulation of cytokines was characterized by inhibiting histone deacetylation (1 μmol/L suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA]) or methylation (5 μmol/L 5-azacytidine), or with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with a pan-acetyl histone-3 antibody...
August 28, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826363/human-parturition-nothing-more-than-a-delayed-menstruation
#12
Mihaela Pavlicev, Errol R Norwitz
Humans are one of the few mammalian viviparous species in which pregnancy is extended beyond the luteal phase, the phase during which progesterone is synthesized by the maternal ovary. Instead, it is the fetal placenta that produces progesterone throughout the latter 2 trimesters of human pregnancy. The placenta is developmentally crucial for reproductive success and is the most conspicuous anatomical novelty of placental mammals. However, before it can exert its dual functions as both an endocrine organ and an organ capable of facilitating gas and nutrient exchange, enormous changes must take place within the uterus to not only tolerate the presence of this hemiallogeneic tissue but to also accommodate and support placental development...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825972/angiogenesis-and-oxidative-stress-related-gene-variants-in-recurrent-pregnancy-loss
#13
Marcela Felix Fortis, Lucas Rosa Fraga, Juliano André Boquett, Thayne Woycinck Kowalski, Caroline Gross Dutra, Rozana Oliveira Gonçalves, Fernanda Sales Luiz Vianna, Lavinia Schüler-Faccini, Maria Teresa Vieira Sanseverino
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects ~3-5% of couples attempting to conceive and in around 50% of cases the aetiology remains unknown. Adequate vascularisation and placental circulation are indispensable for the development of a normal pregnancy. Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the nitric oxide (NO) systems play important roles in reproductive physiology, participating in several steps including implantation and apoptosis of trophoblast cells. In this study we evaluated genetic polymorphisms in the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), PTGS2 and VEGFA genes as susceptibility factors for RPL...
August 22, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809844/the-4-vessel-sampling-approach-to-integrative-studies-of-human-placental-physiology-in-vivo
#14
Ane M Holme, Maia B Holm, Marie C P Roland, Hildegunn Horne, Trond M Michelsen, Guttorm Haugen, Tore Henriksen
The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808304/hypoxia-induced-tet1-facilitates-trophoblast-cell-migration-and-invasion-through-hif1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#15
Jingping Zhu, Kai Wang, Ting Li, Jiayu Chen, Dandan Xie, Xinwen Chang, Julei Yao, Jinting Wu, Qian Zhou, Yuanhui Jia, Tao Duan
Low oxygen is a typical extrinsic factor for the regulation of trophoblast biological function, including cell migration, invasion and proliferation. Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1), an enzyme converting 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), is transcriptionally activated by hypoxia in cancer cells. Therefore, we focus on the role of TET1 on trophoblast function in a physiologically hypoxic environment (3% oxygen), which is related to early placentation. Here, we found that TET1 was highly expressed in first trimester villi compared with normal term placentas...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806624/bcl-2-bax-protein-and-mrna-expression-in-yak-bos-grunniens-placentomes
#16
JiangFeng Fan, SiJiu Yu, Yan Cui, Gengquan Xu, Libin Wang, Yangyang Pan, Honghong He
Placental function is complex and influenced by various factors; furthermore, it depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are key apoptosis regulators and are considered to play an important role in the maintenance of both dynamic balance and integrity of many tissues. Changes in Bcl-2 and Bax expressions have been described during different developmental stages in normal human placentas. Studies furthermore indicated several pathological placental changes to be related to abnormal Bcl-2 and Bax expressions...
July 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796236/genetic-disruption-of-the-oncogenic-hmga2-plag1-igf2-pathway-causes-fetal-growth-restriction
#17
Walid Abi Habib, Frédéric Brioude, Thomas Edouard, James T Bennett, Anne Lienhardt-Roussie, Frédérique Tixier, Jennifer Salem, Tony Yuen, Salah Azzi, Yves Le Bouc, Madeleine D Harbison, Irène Netchine
PurposeFetal growth is a complex process involving maternal, placental and fetal factors. The etiology of fetal growth retardation remains unknown in many cases. The aim of this study is to identify novel human mutations and genes related to Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), a syndromic form of fetal growth retardation, usually caused by epigenetic downregulation of the potent fetal growth factor IGF2.MethodsWhole-exome sequencing was carried out on members of an SRS familial case. The candidate gene from the familial case and two other genes were screened by targeted high-throughput sequencing in a large cohort of suspected SRS patients...
August 10, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795885/the-influence-of-amniotic-membrane-extracts-on-cell-growth-depends-on-the-part-of-membrane-and-childbirth-mode-selected-a-proof-of-concept-study
#18
M Litwiniuk, M Radowicka, A Krejner, T Grzela
OBJECTIVE: The amniotic membrane (AM) is a rich source of biologically active factors, important for wound healing and is widely used in various clinical applications, including tissue engineering, reconstructive surgery and wound management. The aim of the present proof-of-concept study was to assess the influence of amniotic membrane extracts on in vitro proliferation of main cells involved in tissue regeneration. The assessment was done in regards to the content of selected biologically active factors in amniotic membrane extracts...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781260/-impairments-of-placental-amino-acid-metabolism-in-fetal-growth-restriction
#19
T N Pogorelova, V O Gunko, V V Avrutskaya, L V Kaushanskaya, O A Durnitsyna
The content of the amino acids in the placenta during physiological pregnancy and fetal growth restriction (FGR) has been investigated my means of the method of ion-exchange chromatography. It has been found that in FGR the placental amino acid pool is characterized by a decreased content of arginine, proline, alanine, serine, cysteine, methionine, tryptophan, leucine, threonine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, glutamine and an increased content of dicarboxylic amino acids, lysine, histidine and glycine. These changes are accompanied by altered activity of some enzymes of amino acid metabolism, and the degree of these changes correlates with the level of corresponding amino acids...
May 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780627/primary-pediatric-hypertension-current-understanding-and-emerging-concepts
#20
REVIEW
Andrew C Tiu, Michael D Bishop, Laureano D Asico, Pedro A Jose, Van Anthony M Villar
The rising prevalence of primary pediatric hypertension and its tracking into adult hypertension point to the importance of determining its pathogenesis to gain insights into its current and emerging management. Considering that the intricate control of BP is governed by a myriad of anatomical, molecular biological, biochemical, and physiological systems, multiple genes are likely to influence an individual's BP and susceptibility to develop hypertension. The long-term regulation of BP rests on renal and non-renal mechanisms...
September 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
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