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Placental physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319199/a-computational-analysis-of-in-vivo-vegfr-activation-by-multiple-co-expressed-ligands
#1
Lindsay E Clegg, Feilim Mac Gabhann
The splice isoforms of vascular endothelial growth A (VEGF) each have different affinities for the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the coreceptor NRP1, which leads to distinct vascular phenotypes in model systems expressing only a single VEGF isoform. ECM-immobilized VEGF can bind to and activate VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) directly, with a different pattern of site-specific phosphorylation than diffusible VEGF. To date, the way in which ECM binding alters the distribution of isoforms of VEGF and of the related placental growth factor (PlGF) in the body and resulting angiogenic signaling is not well-understood...
March 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#2
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318555/regulation-of-the-prorenin-angiotensin-system-by-oxygen-and-mirnas-parallels-between-placentation-and-tumour-development
#3
Sarah J Delforce, Eugenie R Lumbers, Kirsty G Pringle
Tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) are involved in tissue growth and development as they are important regulators of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and migration. The placental RAS is most highly expressed in early gestation, at a time when the oxygen tension within the conceptus is reduced, and plays a key role in placental growth and development. Similar to the placenta, tumour development relies on proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion in order to grow and metastasize. The RAS is known to be upregulated in a variety of solid tumours, including ovarian, endometrial, cervical, breast and prostate...
March 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315746/optimized-protocol-for-soluble-prokaryotic-expression-purification-and-structural-analysis-of-human-placenta-specific-1-plac1
#4
Mahboobeh Nazari, Amir-Hassan Zarnani, Roya Ghods, Rahman Emamzadeh, Somayeh Najafzadeh, Arash Minai-Tehrani, Jafar Mahmoudian, Maryam Yousefi, Sedigheh Vafaei, Sam Massahi, Mohammad-Reza Nejadmoghaddam
Placenta specific -1 (PLAC1) has been recently introduced as a small membrane-associated protein mainly involved in placental development. Expression of PLAC1 transcript has been documented in almost one hundred cancer cell lines standing for fourteen distinct cancer types. The presence of two disulfide bridges makes difficult to produce functional recombinant PLAC1 in soluble form with high yield. This limitation also complicates the structural studies of PLAC1, which is important for prediction of its physiological roles...
March 15, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301889/geburtshilfe-an%C3%A3-sthesie-bei-exit-prozedur
#5
Alexander Torossian
The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is performed as a part of an extended caesarean section for example to treat fetal airway disorders. For treatment, optimal uterine relaxation is necessary, however utero-placental supply of the fetus has to be guaranteed as well. "Balanced" anesthesia, tocolysis and tight maternal arterial blood pressure control are recommended. Standard fetal monitoring comprises pulse oxymetry and echocardiography. The article describes the physiology and anesthestic goals of the EXIT procedure, discusses alternative anesthesia techniques and gives an outlook on emerging progress...
March 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301888/geburtshilfe-an%C3%A3-sthesie-bei-fetaler-chirurgie
#6
Emmanuel Schneck, Christian Koch, Christoph Arens, Rainer Schürg, Thomas Zajonz, Anastasiia Khaleeva, Thomas Kohl, Markus A Weigand, Michael Sander
Due to the responsibility for the mother and the unborn child, fetal surgery represents a challenging task for the anesthesiologist. Maternal changes during pregnancy have to be considered as well as the fetal physiology and the surgeon's needs. Main principles of the anesthesiological management of fetal surgery include the stabilization of the mean arterial pressure in order to preserve a sufficient placental blood flow, sustainment of an adequate oxygenation and ventilation as well as thorough temperature surveillance...
March 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301585/a-maternal-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-has-sex-specific-effects-on-fetal-glucocorticoids-with-little-consequence-for-offspring-metabolism-and-voluntary-locomotor-activity-in-mice
#7
Eunice H Chin, Kim L Schmidt, Kaitlyn M Martel, Chi Kin Wong, Jordan E Hamden, William T Gibson, Kiran K Soma, Julian K Christians
Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11β-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292023/green-tea-and-its-anti-angiogenesis-effects
#8
REVIEW
Bahman Rashidi, Mehrnoush Malekzadeh, Mohammad Goodarzi, Aria Masoudifar, Hamed Mirzaei
The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis...
March 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288009/update-on-adrenal-insufficiency-diagnosis-and-management-in-pregnancy
#9
Fabienne Langlois, Dawn S T Lim, Maria Fleseriu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal insufficiency in pregnancy, although relatively rare, has significant clinical implications on both maternal and fetal outcomes. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dynamics and physiological changes are complex, thus diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency in pregnancy remain challenging. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies consistently demonstrate a rise in total serum cortisol with pregnancy, but less data are available on free cortisol levels...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276106/provocative-ideas-on-human-placental-biology-a-prerequisite-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-health-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Shilpi Sehgal, Shinjini Bhatnagar, S K Pallavi
A 2-day invite-only meeting on generating "Provocative Ideas on human placental research" was organized on 1-2 December 2015 at the Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad. This meeting was sponsored by Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India. The objectives of this meeting were the critical evaluation of placental physiology and its development. Special emphasis was placed on understanding the consequences and implications of placental development in sustenance of pregnancy and in pregnancy-associated complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm birth...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263753/the-maternal-plasma-proteome-changes-as-a-function-of-gestational-age-in-normal-pregnancy-a-longitudinal-study
#11
Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Eli Maymon, Piya Chaemsaithong, Zhonghui Xu, Percy Pacora, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Bogdan Done, Sonia S Hassan, Adi L Tarca
OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy is accompanied by dramatic physiologic changes in maternal plasma proteins. Characterization of the maternal plasma proteome in normal pregnancy is an essential step for understanding changes to predict pregnancy outcome. The objective of this study was to describe maternal plasma proteins that change in abundance with advancing gestational age, and determine biological processes that are perturbed in normal pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study included 43 normal pregnancies that had a term delivery of an infant who was appropriate for gestational age (AGA) without maternal or neonatal complications...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262230/placental-hemostasis-and-sterile-inflammation-new-insights-into-gestational-vascular-disease
#12
Shrey Kohli, Berend Isermann
Activation of the coagulation and inflammatory systems are physiologically occurring during pregnancy. However, excess activation of either system is well documented in gestational vascular diseases (GVD). GVD are placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and a major cause of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. The causal relevance of excess coagulation and inflammatory responses for GVD remains largely unknown. Deciphering the causal relationship of excess coagulation and inflammation in GVD may allow conceptualizing new therapeutic approaches to combat GVD...
March 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258413/viscosity-and-haemodynamics-in-a-late-gestation-rat-feto-placental-arterial-network
#13
Nikhilesh Bappoo, Lachlan J Kelsey, Louis Parker, Tim Crough, Carmel M Moran, Adrian Thomson, Megan C Holmes, Caitlin S Wyrwoll, Barry J Doyle
The placenta is a transient organ which develops during pregnancy to provide haemotrophic support for healthy fetal growth and development. Fundamental to its function is the healthy development of vascular trees in the feto-placental arterial network. Despite the strong association of haemodynamics with vascular remodelling mechanisms, there is a lack of computational haemodynamic data that may improve our understanding of feto-placental physiology. The aim of this work was to create a comprehensive 3D computational fluid dynamics model of a substructure of the rat feto-placental arterial network and investigate the influence of viscosity on wall shear stress (WSS)...
March 3, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252309/-influence-of-hcg-glycosylation-on-its-functions-in-female-reproduction
#14
I Oborná, H Fingerová
OBJECTIVE: To review contemporary knowledge of the hCG molecule, its isoforms and the importance of glycosylation. Biologic variants and glycoforms of hCG have different biological activities and functions related to the control of menstrual cycle, conception, gestation as well as gynaecologic and non-gynaecologic malignancies. DESIGN: A review. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Olomouc. METHODS: To present own experience and an overview of recent literature in molecular biology, clinical biochemistry and clinical practice...
2017: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251419/transcriptome-profile-of-the-human-placenta
#15
Marta Majewska, Aleksandra Lipka, Lukasz Paukszto, Jan Pawel Jastrzebski, Kamil Myszczynski, Marek Gowkielewicz, Marcin Jozwik, Mariusz Krzysztof Majewski
The human placenta is a particular organ that inseparably binds the mother and the fetus. The proper development and survival of the conceptus relies on the essential interplay between maternal and fetal factors involved in cooperation within the placenta. In our study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was applied to analyze the global transcriptome of the human placenta during uncomplicated pregnancies. The RNA-seq was utilized to identify the global pattern of the gene expression in placentas (N = 4) from women in single and twin pregnancies...
March 1, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250194/evidence-favoring-a-positive-feedback-loop-for-physiologic-auto-upregulation-of-hnrnp-e1-during-prolonged-folate-deficiency-in-human-placental-cells
#16
Ying-Sheng Tang, Rehana A Khan, Suhong Xiao, Deborah K Hansen, Sally P Stabler, Praveen Kusumanchi, Hiremagalur N Jayaram, Aśok C Antony
Background: Previously, we determined that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP-E1) functions as an intracellular physiologic sensor of folate deficiency. In this model, l-homocysteine, which accumulates intracellularly in proportion to the extent of folate deficiency, covalently binds to and thereby activates homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 to interact with folate receptor-α mRNA; this high-affinity interaction triggers the translational upregulation of cell surface folate receptors, which enables cells to optimize folate uptake from the external milieu...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238935/tryptophan-and-purine-metabolites-are-consistently-upregulated-in-the-urinary-metabolome-of-patients-diagnosed-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-throughout-pregnancy-a-longitudinal-metabolomics-study-of-chinese-pregnant-women-part-2
#17
Kai P Law, Ting-Li Han, Xun Mao, Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pathological state of glucose intolerance associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and an increased risk of developing maternal type 2 diabetes later in life. The mechanisms underlying GDM development are not fully understood. We examined the pathophysiology of GDM through comprehensive metabolic profiling of maternal urine, using participants from a longitudinal cohort of normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by GDM. METHODS: Based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, an untargeted metabolomics study was performed to explore the differences in the urinary metabolome of GDM cases and healthy controls over the course of pregnancy...
February 24, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238455/androgen-dependent-mechanisms-of-pro-angiogenic-networks-in-placental-and-tumor-development
#18
Veronika M Metzler, Simone de Brot, Robert S Robinson, Jennie N Jeyapalan, Emad Rakha, Thomas Walton, David S Gardner, Emma F Lund, Jonathan Whitchurch, Daisy Haigh, Jack M Lochray, Brian D Robinson, Cinzia Allegrucci, Rupert G Fray, Jenny L Persson, Niels Ødum, Regina R Miftakhova, Albert A Rizvanov, Ieuan A Hughes, Rieko Tadokoro-Cuccaro, David M Heery, Catrin S Rutland, Nigel P Mongan
The placenta and tumors share important characteristics, including a requirement to establish effective angiogenesis. In the case of the placenta, optimal angiogenesis is required to sustain the blood flow required to maintain a successful pregnancy, whereas in tumors establishing new blood supplies is considered a key step in supporting metastases. Therefore the development of novel angiogenesis inhibitors has been an area of active research in oncology. A subset of the molecular processes regulating angiogenesis are well understood in the context of both early placentation and tumorigenesis...
February 20, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223455/acute-fetal-demise-with-first-trimester-maternal-infection-resulting-from-listeria-monocytogenes-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model
#19
Bryce Wolfe, Gregory J Wiepz, Michele Schotzko, Gennadiy I Bondarenko, Maureen Durning, Heather A Simmons, Andres Mejia, Nancy G Faith, Emmanuel Sampene, Marulasiddappa Suresh, Sophia Kathariou, Charles J Czuprynski, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222833/invited-review-impact-of-specific-nutrient-interventions-during-mid-to-late-gestation-on-physiological-traits-important-for-survival-of-multiple-born-lambs
#20
S A McCoard, F A Sales, Q L Sciascia
To improve production efficiency, the sheep meat industry has increased flock prolificacy. However, multiple-born lambs have lower birth weights, increased mortality and reduced growth rate compared with single-born lambs. Lamb mortality is a major issue for livestock farming globally and solutions are required to increase survival to realise the value of increased flock fecundity. Nutrition during gestation can influence maternal-foetal placental nutrient transfer and thus foetal growth and organ/tissue development, as well as improve postnatal productivity...
February 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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