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Tumour heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452382/simulated-ablation-for-detection-of-cells-impacting-paracrine-signalling-in-histology-analysis
#1
Jake P Taylor-King, Etienne Baratchart, Andrew Dhawan, Elizabeth A Coker, Inga Hansine Rye, Hege Russnes, S Jon Chapman, David Basanta, Andriy Marusyk
Intra-tumour phenotypic heterogeneity limits accuracy of clinical diagnostics and hampers the efficiency of anti-cancer therapies. Dealing with this cellular heterogeneity requires adequate understanding of its sources, which is extremely difficult, as phenotypes of tumour cells integrate hardwired (epi)mutational differences with the dynamic responses to microenvironmental cues. The later comes in form of both direct physical interactions, as well as inputs from gradients of secreted signalling molecules. Furthermore, tumour cells can not only receive microenvironmental cues, but also produce them...
February 14, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449935/pleomorphic-liposarcoma-of-bone-a-rare-primary-malignant-bone-tumour
#2
G L Tiemeier, J M Brown, S E Pratap, C McCarthy, A Kastrenopoulou, K Bradley, S Wilson, Z Orosz, C L M H Gibbons, U Oppermann, N A Athanasou
Background: Liposarcoma is an extremely rare primary bone sarcoma. Case presentation: We report a case of primary pleomorphic liposarcoma that arose in an 18 year old male in the metaphysis of the left tibia. Plain radiographs showed a partly sclerotic lesion and MR imaging a heterogeneous tumour predominantly isointense on T1- and high-signal on T2-weighted sequences with focal areas of increased T1 signal that suppressed with fat saturation. PET/CT showed marked FDG uptake (SUV = 17...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449894/personalization-of-regorafenib-treatment-in-metastatic-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-in-real-life-clinical-practice
#3
Margherita Nannini, Maria Concetta Nigro, Bruno Vincenzi, Elena Fumagalli, Giovanni Grignani, Lorenzo D'Ambrosio, Giuseppe Badalamenti, Lorena Incorvaia, Raffaella Bracci, Silvia Gasperoni, Maristella Saponara, Lidia Gatto, Valentina Indio, Annalisa Astolfi, Valerio Di Scioscio, Paolo G Casali, Giuseppe Tonini, Massimo Aglietta, Antonio Russo, Guido Biasco, Maria A Pantaleo
Background: Regorafenib (REG) has now been approved as the standard third-line therapy in metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) patients at the recommended dose and schedule of 160 mg once daily for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. However, it has a relevant toxicity profile that mainly occurs within the first cycles of therapy, and dose and schedule adjustments are often required to reduce the frequency or severity of adverse events and to avoid early treatment discontinuation...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449437/dynamic-clonal-progression-in-xenografts-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-intrachromosomal-amplification-of-chromosome-21
#4
Paul B Sinclair, Helen H Blair, Sarra L Ryan, Lars Buechler, Joanna Cheng, Jake Clayton, Rebecca Hanna, Shaun Hollern, Zoe Hawking, Matthew Bashton, Claire J Schwab, Lisa Jones, Lisa J Russell, Helen Marr, Peter Carey, Christina Halsey, Olaf Heidenreich, Anthony V Moorman, Christine J Harrison
Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 is a heterogeneous chromosomal rearrangement occurring in 2% of childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. There are no cell lines with iAMP21 and these abnormalities are too complex to faithfully engineer in animal models. As a resource for future functional and pre-clinical studies, we have created xenografts from intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 leukemia patient blasts and characterised them by in-vivo and ex-vivo luminescent imaging, FLOW immunophenotyping, and histological and ultrastructural analysis of bone marrow and the central nervous system...
February 15, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439059/noninvasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features
#5
Isabel Amendoeira, Tiago Maia, M Sobrinho-Simões
The 2017 edition of the WHO book on Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs includes a new section entitled "Other encapsulated follicular-patterned thyroid tumours", in which the newly created NIFTP (Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features) is identified and detailed described. Despite deleting the word "carcinoma" from its name, NIFTP is not a benign tumor either, and is best regarded as a neoplasm with "very low malignant potential"...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433465/strengthening-health-data-on-a-rare-and-heterogeneous-disease-sarcoma-incidence-and-histological-subtypes-in-germany
#6
Meike Ressing, Eva Wardelmann, Peter Hohenberger, Jens Jakob, Bernd Kasper, Katharina Emrich, Andrea Eberle, Maria Blettner, Sylke Ruth Zeissig
BACKGROUND: The population-based incidence of sarcoma and its histological subtypes in Germany is unknown. Up-to-date information on a disease with an incidence comparable to other cancer entities is of high public health relevance. The aim of this study was to determine this incidence and to detect significant changes in incidence trends using data from German epidemiological cancer registries. METHODS: Pooled data from the German Centre for Cancer Registry Data with a primary diagnosis occurring in 2013 were used...
February 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431183/transcriptomic-definition-of-molecular-subgroups-of-small-round-cell-sarcomas
#7
Sarah Watson, Virginie Perrin, Delphine Guillemot, Stephanie Reynaud, Jean-Michel Coindre, Marie Karanian, Jean-Marc Guinebretière, Paul Freneaux, François Le Loarer, Megane Bouvet, Louise Galmiche-Rolland, Frédérique Larousserie, Elisabeth Longchampt, Dominique Ranchere-Vince, Gaelle Pierron, Olivier Delattre, Franck Tirode
Sarcoma represents a highly heterogeneous group of tumours. We report here the first unbiased and systematic search for gene fusions combined with unsupervised expression analysis of a series of 184 small round cell sarcomas. Fusion genes were detected in 59% percent of samples, with half of them being observed recurrently. We identified biologically homogeneous groups of tumours such as the CIC-fused (to DUX4, FOXO4 or NUTM1) and BCOR-rearranged (BCOR-CCNB3, BCOR-MAML3, ZC3H7B-BCOR and BCOR internal duplication) tumour groups...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428954/tumour-heterogeneity-of-breast-cancer-from-morphology-to-personalised-medicine
#8
Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Michel E Vandenberghe, Caterina Marchiò, Ian O Ellis, Anna Sapino, Emad A Rakha
Breast cancer (BC) displays striking clinical, morphological, and behavioural diversity within a single tumour and between tumours. Currently, mounting evidence indicates that the morphological heterogeneity of BC reflects an underlying spectrum of genetic and epigenetic portraits that control BC behaviour. Further understanding of BC heterogeneity will have an impact, not only on the routine diagnostic practices but also on patients' management decisions. Phenomena like diagnostic inconsistencies and therapeutic resistance, both primary and acquired, could be attributed, at least in part, to tumour heterogeneity within the same cancer and between the primary disease and subsequent recurrences...
February 10, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422598/genetic-insights-into-the-morass-of-metastatic-heterogeneity
#9
REVIEW
Kent W Hunter, Ruhul Amin, Sarah Deasy, Ngoc-Han Ha, Lalage Wakefield
Tumour heterogeneity poses a substantial problem for the clinical management of cancer. Somatic evolution of the cancer genome results in genetically distinct subclones in the primary tumour with different biological properties and therapeutic sensitivities. The problem of heterogeneity is compounded in metastatic disease owing to the complexity of the metastatic process and the multiple biological hurdles that the tumour cell must overcome to establish a clinically overt metastatic lesion. New advances in sequencing technology and clinical sample acquisition are providing insights into the phylogenetic relationship of metastases and primary tumours at the level of somatic tumour genetics while also illuminating fundamental mechanisms of the metastatic process...
February 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420225/tonicity-responsive-enhancer-binding-protein-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinogenesis-recurrence-and-metastasis
#10
Jun Ho Lee, Jae Hee Suh, Soo Youn Choi, Hyun Je Kang, Hwan Hee Lee, Byeong Jin Ye, Gap Ryol Lee, Seok Won Jung, Chang Jae Kim, Whaseon Lee-Kwon, Jiyoung Park, Kyungjae Myung, Neung Hwa Park, Hyug Moo Kwon
OBJECTIVES: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer with high rate of recurrence and mortality. Diverse aetiological agents and wide heterogeneity in individual tumours impede effective and personalised treatment. Tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) is a transcriptional cofactor for the expression of proinflammatory genes. Although inflammation is intimately associated with the pathogenesis of HCC, the role of TonEBP is unknown. We aimed to identify function of TonEBP in HCC...
February 2, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414946/asparagine-bioavailability-governs-metastasis-in-a-model-of-breast-cancer
#11
Simon R V Knott, Elvin Wagenblast, Showkhin Khan, Sun Y Kim, Mar Soto, Michel Wagner, Marc-Olivier Turgeon, Lisa Fish, Nicolas Erard, Annika L Gable, Ashley R Maceli, Steffen Dickopf, Evangelia K Papachristou, Clive S D'Santos, Lisa A Carey, John E Wilkinson, J Chuck Harrell, Charles M Perou, Hani Goodarzi, George Poulogiannis, Gregory J Hannon
Using a functional model of breast cancer heterogeneity, we previously showed that clonal sub-populations proficient at generating circulating tumour cells were not all equally capable of forming metastases at secondary sites. A combination of differential expression and focused in vitro and in vivo RNA interference screens revealed candidate drivers of metastasis that discriminated metastatic clones. Among these, asparagine synthetase expression in a patient's primary tumour was most strongly correlated with later metastatic relapse...
February 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413688/predictive-factors-of-outcome-in-poorly-differentiated-thyroid-carcinomas
#12
Christelle de la Fouchardière, Myriam Decaussin-Petrucci, Julien Berthiller, Françoise Descotes, Jonathan Lopez, Jean-Christophe Lifante, Jean-Louis Peix, Anne-Laure Giraudet, Armelle Delahaye, Sandrine Masson, Claire Bournaud-Salinas, Françoise Borson Chazot
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDTC) is heterogeneous though generally poor. The objectives of this study were to identify clinical and molecular factors of poor prognosis. METHODS: One hundred four consecutive patients treated for a PDTC between 01/01/2000 and 31/12/2010 were included in this study. A pathological review was done for all cases (blinded to clinical data and outcome). RESULTS: All patients underwent thyroidectomy...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413586/smoking-and-early-retirement-due-to-chronic-disability
#13
Tommy Bengtsson, Anton Nilsson
This paper considers the long-term effects of smoking on disability retirement in Sweden. Smoking is known to have damaging effects on health, but there is limited evidence on how the effects of smoking translate into worse labour market outcomes, such as the inability to work. In contrast to the few previous studies on smoking and disability retirement, we use a large population sample with registry information on smoking, which is recorded for all women who give birth in Sweden. Thanks to these comprehensive data, we are able to account for a much broader range of potential confounders...
January 11, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408820/heterogeneity-of-thyroid-cancer
#14
Ewa Chmielik, Dagmara Rusinek, Malgorzata Oczko-Wojciechowska, Michal Jarzab, Jolanta Krajewska, Agnieszka Czarniecka, Barbara Jarzab
There are 5 main histological types of thyroid cancers (TCs): papillary, follicular (also known as differentiated), poorly differentiated, anaplastic (the most aggressive form), and medullary TC, and only the latter arises from thyroid C cells. These different forms of TCs show significant variability, both among and within tumours. This great variation is particularly notable among the first 4 types, which all originate from thyroid follicular cells. Importantly, this heterogeneity is not limited to histopathological diversity only but is also manifested as variation in several genetic and/or epigenetic alterations, the numbers of interactions between the tumour and surrounding microenvironment, and interpatient differences, for example...
February 6, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404766/pre-treatment-magnetic-resonance-based-texture-features-as-potential-imaging-biomarkers-for-predicting-event-free-survival-in-anal-cancer-treated-by-chemoradiotherapy
#15
Arnaud Hocquelet, Thibaut Auriac, Cynthia Perier, Clarisse Dromain, Marie Meyer, Jean-Baptiste Pinaquy, Alban Denys, Hervé Trillaud, Baudouin Denis De Senneville, Véronique Vendrely
AIM: To assess regular MRI findings and tumour texture features on pre-CRT imaging as potential predictive factors of event-free survival (disease progression or death) after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) without metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively included 28 patients treated by CRT for pathologically proven ASCC with a pre-CRT MRI. Texture analysis was carried out with axial T2W images by delineating a 3D region of interest around the entire tumour volume...
February 5, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402700/chromatin-organisation-and-cancer-prognosis-a-pan-cancer-study
#16
Andreas Kleppe, Fritz Albregtsen, Ljiljana Vlatkovic, Manohar Pradhan, Birgitte Nielsen, Tarjei S Hveem, Hanne A Askautrud, Gunnar B Kristensen, Arild Nesbakken, Jone Trovik, Håkon Wæhre, Ian Tomlinson, Neil A Shepherd, Marco Novelli, David J Kerr, Håvard E Danielsen
BACKGROUND: Chromatin organisation affects gene expression and regional mutation frequencies and contributes to carcinogenesis. Aberrant organisation of DNA has been correlated with cancer prognosis in analyses of the chromatin component of tumour cell nuclei using image texture analysis. As yet, the methodology has not been sufficiently validated to permit its clinical application. We aimed to define and validate a novel prognostic biomarker for the automatic detection of heterogeneous chromatin organisation...
February 2, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400100/-colorectal-cancer-heterogeneity-the-clinical-impact-of-sporadic-lesions-arising-via-the-serrated-pathway
#17
Emese Irma Ágoston, Evelin Horváth, Balázs Győrffy, László Harsányi, A Marcell Szász
Today, colorectal cancer is regarded as a heterogeneous disease. Its heterogeneity is caused by genetic alterations, molecular aberrations, different developing pathways as well as by micro- and macroenviromental agents. In the last decade, beside the classic genetic model for colorectal tumuorgenesis that follows the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, an alternative pathway has been identified. This pathway is called the serrated pathway and it is responsible for approximately one third of all colorectal lesions...
February 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396703/immunologic-milieu-of-mature-t-cell-and-nk-cell-lymphomas-implications-for-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Eric Tse, Yok-Lam Kwong
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells share the same ontogeny, and lymphomas derived from them are clinically diverse, occurring in nodal and extranodal sites. In addition to inherent properties of these lymphomas, their microenvironment also impacts on pathogenesis and response to therapy. An understanding of the milieu of T-cell and NK cell lymphomas has important implications on treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Components of the microenvironment include tumour-associated macrophages (TAM), non-neoplastic T-cells and B-cells, eosinophils, dendritic cells, endothelial cells and blood vessels...
February 2, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395222/contrast-enhanced-ct-findings-of-intravenous-leiomyomatosis
#19
H Wang, P Nie, B Chen, F Hou, C Dong, F He, W Xu
AIM: To characterise the contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of nine patients with intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The contrast-enhanced CT imaging findings of nine patients with histopathologically proven IVL were examined. The location, morphology, extension pathway, adhesion, and degree and pattern of enhancement of the tumour were assessed. RESULTS: Four patients had tumours located within the inferior vena cava, and five had tumours that involved the right heart...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395152/controversies-in-the-management-of-ovarian-tumours-in-prepubertal-children-a-baps-and-uk-cclg-surgeons-cancer-group-national-survey
#20
Sarah Braungart, Ross J Craigie, Paul D Losty
BACKGROUND: No clear treatment and follow-up protocols have been established for prepubertal patients with ovarian tumours. The lack of adequate prospective data in the literature includes all aspects of their management. A significant number of children with ovarian masses present out of hours as a surgical emergency and are initially managed by paediatric surgeons without special interest in surgical oncology. Clear guidance on the management of such tumours is therefore fundamental...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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