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Tumour heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244222/diffusion-weighted-imaging-features-of-breast-tumours-and-the-surrounding-stroma-reflect-intrinsic-heterogeneous-characteristics-of-molecular-subtypes-in-breast-cancer
#1
Ming Fan, Ting He, Peng Zhang, Hu Cheng, Juan Zhang, Xin Gao, Lihua Li
Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3...
December 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241727/simple-classifiers-for-molecular-subtypes-of-colorectal-cancer
#2
Woo Gyeong Kim, Joo Yeon Kim, Do Youn Park
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease entity with a diverse biological pathogenesis. This study aims to validate the two studies published in 2013 which established a separate CRC molecular subtype classification by utilizing a rapidly accessible miniclassifier, and verify a simplified version thereof. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants diagnosed with CRC (n = 568) were subtyped in three classifications for characteristic, and prognostic purposes...
December 11, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239037/well-differentiated-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-pannets-and-poorly-differentiated-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-pannecs-concepts-issues-and-a-practical-diagnostic-approach-to-high-grade-g3-cases
#3
REVIEW
Aatur D Singhi, David S Klimstra
With increasing accessibility and advancements in abdominal imaging modalities, the incidence of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms has increased steadily during the past few decades. By definition, neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas show neuroendocrine differentiation, but they represent a broad and heterogeneous group of neoplasms with diverse clinical and pathological characteristics. The majority of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms can be classified as well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs) or poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (PanNECs)...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238848/biology-of-bone-sarcomas-and-new-therapeutic-developments
#4
REVIEW
Hannah K Brown, Kristina Schiavone, François Gouin, Marie-Françoise Heymann, Dominique Heymann
Bone sarcomas are tumours belonging to the family of mesenchymal tumours and constitute a highly heterogeneous tumour group. The three main bone sarcomas are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma each subdivided in diverse histological entities. They are clinically characterised by a relatively high morbidity and mortality, especially in children and adolescents. Although these tumours are histologically, molecularly and genetically heterogeneous, they share a common involvement of the local microenvironment in their pathogenesis...
December 13, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235571/the-hypoxia-marker-caix-is-prognostic-in-the-uk-phase-iii-vortex-biobank-cohort-an-important-resource-for-translational-research-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#5
Laura Forker, Piers Gaunt, Stefano Sioletic, Patrick Shenjere, Robert Potter, Darren Roberts, Joely Irlam, Helen Valentine, David Hughes, Ana Hughes, Lucinda Billingham, Rob Grimer, Beatrice Seddon, Ananya Choudhury, Martin Robinson, Catharine M L West
BACKGROUND: Despite high metastasis rates, adjuvant/neoadjuvant systemic therapy for localised soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is not used routinely. Progress requires tailoring therapy to features of tumour biology, which need exploration in well-documented cohorts. Hypoxia has been linked to metastasis in STS and is targetable. This study evaluated hypoxia prognostic markers in the phase III adjuvant radiotherapy VorteX trial. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour biopsies, fresh tumour/normal tissue and blood were collected before radiotherapy...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230678/fractal-based-radiomic-approach-to-predict-complete-pathological-response-after-chemo-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer
#6
Davide Cusumano, Nicola Dinapoli, Luca Boldrini, Giuditta Chiloiro, Roberto Gatta, Carlotta Masciocchi, Jacopo Lenkowicz, Calogero Casà, Andrea Damiani, Luigi Azario, Johan Van Soest, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin, Marco De Spirito, Vincenzo Valentini
The aim of this study was to propose a methodology to investigate the tumour heterogeneity and evaluate its ability to predict pathologically complete response (pCR) after chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). This approach consisted in normalising the pixel intensities of the tumour and identifying the different sub-regions using an intensity-based thresholding. The spatial organisation of these subpopulations was quantified using the fractal dimension (FD). This approach was implemented in a radiomic workflow and applied to 198 T2-weighted pre-treatment magnetic resonance (MR) images of LARC patients...
December 11, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222604/model-based-analysis-of-the-heterogeneity-in-the-tumour-size-dynamics-differentiates-vemurafenib-dabrafenib-and-trametinib-in-metastatic-melanoma
#7
Hitesh B Mistry, David Orrell, Raluca Eftimie
PURPOSE: Explore the heterogeneity in dynamics of tumour response to vemurafenib, dabrafenib and trametinib using routinely collected clinical trial imaging data. METHODS: Time-series imaging data from the phase III studies of vemurafenib, dabrafenib and trametinib were collected through a data repository. A mathematical model based on basic mechanisms of tumour growth was placed within a statistical modelling framework to analyse the data. RESULTS: The analysis revealed: (1) existence of homogeneity in drug response and resistance development within a patient; (2) tumour shrinkage rate does not relate to rate of resistance development; (3) vemurafenib and dabrafenib, two BRAF inhibitors, have different variability in tumour shrinkage rates...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221462/ethical-frameworks-for-obtaining-informed-consent-in-tumour-profiling-an-evidence-based-case-for-singapore
#8
Yasmin Bylstra, Tamra Lysaght, Jyothi Thrivikraman, Sangeetha Watson, Patrick Tan
BACKGROUND: Genomic profiling of malignant tumours has assisted clinicians in providing targeted therapies for many serious cancer-related illnesses. Although the characterisation of somatic mutations is the primary aim of tumour profiling for treatment, germline mutations may also be detected given the heterogenous origin of mutations observed in tumours. Guidance documents address the return of germline findings that have health implications for patients and their genetic relations...
December 8, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219230/similar-length-of-colon-is-removed-regardless-of-localization-in-right-sided-colonic-cancer-surgery
#9
Matthieu Siebert, Bertrand Trilling, Anna Lamotte, Nicolas Taton, Alexandre Bellier, Jean Luc Faucheron
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancers represent a heterogenous group of tumours. While left segmental colectomy is an accepted and oncologically safe practice for left-sided colonic cancer (CC), some authors suggest that limited segmental resection of right-sided cancer should be debated in order to preserve length of the resected colon. To our knowledge, caecum and ascending CC have not been analysed as different groups of tumours. The objective of this study was to assess if, retrospectively, surgical treatment of caecal cancer differed from ascending CC...
December 8, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218271/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-precision-radiation-therapy-for-lung-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Hannah Bainbridge, Ahmed Salem, Rob H N Tijssen, Michael Dubec, Andreas Wetscherek, Corinne Van Es, Jose Belderbos, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Fiona McDonald
Radiotherapy remains the cornerstone of curative treatment for inoperable locally advanced lung cancer, given concomitantly with platinum-based chemotherapy. With poor overall survival, research efforts continue to explore whether integration of advanced radiation techniques will assist safe treatment intensification with the potential for improving outcomes. One advance is the integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the treatment pathway, providing anatomical and functional information with excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure of the patient to radiation...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214010/giant-cell-tumour-of-the-distal-radius-ulna-response-to-pre-operative-treatment-with-short-term-denosumab
#11
Catherine L McCarthy, Christopher L M H Gibbons, Kevin M Bradley, A Bass Hassan, Henk Giele, Nicholas A Athanasou
Background: Treatment of giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) of the distal radius/ulna poses a surgical challenge, as complex reconstructive surgery may be required. This study evaluates the clinical, radiological and pathological findings in five cases of GCTB of the distal forearm where a 3 month course of denosumab was given prior to surgery. Methods: Patients with biopsy proven distal forearm GCTB, treated for 3 months with denosumab, followed by salvage surgery (curettage and cementation) were included...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209894/mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-and-signalling-in-human-glioblastoma-cell-lines-with-different-pten-gene-status
#12
Marina Comelli, Ivan Pretis, Alessia Buso, Irene Mavelli
Glioblastomas epidemiology and aggressiveness demand for a well characterization of biochemical mechanisms of the cells. The discovery of oxidative tumours related to chemoresistance is changing the prevalent view of dysfunctional mitochondria in cancer cells. Thus, glioblastomas metabolism is now an area of intense research, wherein was documented a high heterogeneity in energy metabolism and in particular in mitochondrial OxPhos. We report results gained by investigating mitochondrial OxPhos and bioenergetics, in a model of three human glioblastoma cell lines characterized by a different PTEN gene status...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209524/heterogeneity-of-colon-cancer-from-bench-to-bedside
#13
REVIEW
Marco C Merlano, Cristina Granetto, Elena Fea, Vincenzo Ricci, Ornella Garrone
The large bowel shows biomolecular, anatomical and bacterial changes that proceed from the proximal to the distal tract. These changes account for the different behaviour of colon cancers arising from the diverse sides of the colon-rectum as well as for the sensitivity to the therapy, including immunotherapy. The gut microbiota plays an important role in the modulation of the immune response and differs between the right colon cancer and the left colorectal cancer. The qualitative and quantitative difference of the commensal bacteria between the right side and the left side induces epigenetic changes in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the resident immune population...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208047/non-conventional-dosing-of-oral-anticancer-agents-in-oncology-and-malignant-haematology-a-systematic-review-protocol
#14
Faouzi Djebbari, Nicola Stoner, Verna Lavender
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in cancer therapeutics have resulted in significantly improved overall survival and progression-free survival for patients. Targeted oral systemic anticancer therapies (SACT) offer a range of treatment approaches that differ from traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy: non-cytotoxic oral SACT target malignant disease continuously, have less broad and more favourable safety profiles, which can improve patients' quality of life (QoL). Toxicities associated with daily oral SACT administration can, however, result in non-adherence and a reduced QoL...
December 6, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207682/over-forty-years-of-bladder-cancer-glycobiology-where-do-glycans-stand-facing-precision-oncology
#15
REVIEW
Rita Azevedo, Andreia Peixoto, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Elisabete Fernandes, Manuel Neves, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
The high molecular heterogeneity of bladder tumours is responsible for significant variations in disease course, as well as elevated recurrence and progression rates, thereby hampering the introduction of more effective targeted therapeutics. The implementation of precision oncology settings supported by robust molecular models for individualization of patient management is warranted. This effort requires a comprehensive integration of large sets of panomics data that is yet to be fully achieved. Contributing to this goal, over 40 years of bladder cancer glycobiology have disclosed a plethora of cancer-specific glycans and glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans) accompanying disease progressions and dissemination...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207318/her2-copy-number-of-circulating-tumour-dna-functions-as-a-biomarker-to-predict-and-monitor-trastuzumab-efficacy-in-advanced-gastric-cancer
#16
Haixing Wang, Beifang Li, Zhentao Liu, Jifang Gong, Lin Shao, Jun Ren, Yunyun Niu, Shiping Bo, Zhongwu Li, Yumei Lai, Sijia Lu, Jing Gao, Lin Shen
BACKGROUND: HER2 status is significant to trastuzumab therapy; however, it is difficult to determine HER2 status accurately with few pieces of biopsies from advanced gastric cancer (AGC) due to highly heterogeneity and invasive behaviour, which will be investigated in this study. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with AGC were included in this study. Primary tumour tissues and matched plasmas before medication from 36 patients were retrospectively collected, and the other 20 patients with primary tumour tissues and paired plasmas were prospectively collected...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205995/volume-and-health-outcomes-evidence-from-systematic-reviews-and-from-evaluation-of-italian-hospital-data
#17
Laura Amato, Danilo Fusco, Anna Acampora, Katia Bontempi, Alessandro Cesare Rosa, Paola Colais, Fabio Cruciani, Mariangela D'Ovidio, Francesca Mataloni, Silvia Minozzi, Zuzana Mitrova, Luigi Pinnarelli, Rosella Saulle, Salvatore Soldati, Chiara Sorge, Simona Vecchi, Martina Ventura, Marina Davoli
BACKGROUND Improving quality and effectiveness of healthcare is one of the priorities of health policies. Hospital or physician volume represents a measurable variable with an impact on effectiveness of healthcare. An Italian law calls for the definition of «qualitative, structural, technological, and quantitative standards of hospital care». There is a need for an evaluation of the available scientific evidence in order to identify qualitative, structural, technological, and quantitative standards of hospital care, including the volume of care above or below which the public and private hospitals may be accredited (or not) to provide specific healthcare interventions...
September 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201450/the-role-of-surgery-in-high-grade-neuroendocrine-tumours-of-the-lung
#18
Stefan Welter, Clemens Aigner, Christian Roesel
High grade lung neuroendocrine tumours are a heterogeneous subtype of pulmonary cancers including small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). LCNEC represents approximately 2-3% of lung cancers, whereas SCLC represents 15-20% of lung cancers. Patients with SCLC and LCNEC have a poor prognosis compared with patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). LCNEC is treated with primary surgical resection in stages I-II, which is similar to other NSCLCs. Neo-adjuvant treatment in stage III is similar to NSCLC but has not been well studied...
November 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198588/how-much-is-enough-can-resting-state-fmri-provide-a-demarcation-for-neurosurgical-resection-in-glioma
#19
REVIEW
Diana C Ghinda, Jin-Song Wu, Niall W Duncan, Georg Northoff
This study represents a systematic review of the insights provided by resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) use in the glioma population. Following PRISMA guidelines, 45 studies were included in the review and were classified in glioma-related neuronal changes (n=28) and eloquent area localization (n=17). Despite the heterogeneous nature of the studies, there is considerable evidence of diffuse functional reorganization occurring in the setting of gliomas with local and interhemispheric functional connectivity alterations involving different functional networks...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193395/androgen-and-oestrogen-receptors-as-potential-prognostic-markers-for-patients-with-ductal-carcinoma-in%C3%A2-situ-treated-with-surgery-and-radiotherapy
#20
Sara Ravaioli, Maria Maddalena Tumedei, Flavia Foca, Roberta Maltoni, Andrea Rocca, Ilaria Massa, Elisabetta Pietri, Sara Bravaccini
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a heterogeneous disease that has been investigated less extensively than invasive breast cancer. Women with DCIS are mainly treated with conservative surgery almost exclusively followed by radiotherapy. However, as radiation treatment is not always effective, the search for biomarkers capable of identifying DCIS lesions that could progress to invasive cancer is ongoing. Although conventional biomarkers have been thoroughly studied in invasive tumours, little is known about the role played by androgen receptor (AR), widely expressed in DCIS...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
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