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Tumour heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030654/predictive-and-prognostic-value-of-tumor-volume-and-its-changes-during-radical-radiotherapy-of-stage%C3%A2-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#1
Lukas Käsmann, Maximilian Niyazi, Oliver Blanck, Christian Baues, René Baumann, Sophie Dobiasch, Chukwuka Eze, Daniel Fleischmann, Tobias Gauer, Frank A Giordano, Yvonne Goy, Jan Hausmann, Christoph Henkenberens, David Kaul, Lisa Klook, David Krug, Matthias Mäurer, Cédric M Panje, Johannes Rosenbrock, Lisa Sautter, Daniela Schmitt, Christoph Süß, Alexander H Thieme, Maike Trommer-Nestler, Sonia Ziegler, Nadja Ebert, Daniel Medenwald, Christian Ostheimer
PURPOSE: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes heterogeneous presentation of the disease including lymph node involvement and large tumour volumes with infiltration of the mediastinum, heart or spine. In the treatment of stage III NSCLC an interdisciplinary approach including radiotherapy is considered standard of care with acceptable toxicity and improved clinical outcome concerning local control...
October 13, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027350/liposome-encapsulated-chemotherapy-current-evidence-for-its-use-in-companion-animals
#2
REVIEW
B Børresen, A E Hansen, A Kjaer, T L Andresen, A T Kristensen
Cytotoxic drugs encapsulated into liposomes were originally designed to increase the anticancer response, while minimizing off-target adverse effects. The first liposomal chemotherapeutic drug was approved for use in humans more than 20 years ago, and the first publication regarding its use in a canine cancer patient was published shortly thereafter. Regardless, no general application for liposomal cytotoxic drugs has been established in veterinary oncology till now. Due to the popularity of canines as experimental models for pharmacokinetic analyses and toxicity studies, multiple publications exist describing various liposomal drugs in healthy dogs...
October 13, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027209/heterogeneous-distribution-of-alectinib-in-neuroblastoma-xenografts-revealed-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionisation-mass-spectrometry-imaging-a-pilot-study
#3
Shoraku Ryu, Mitsuhiro Hayashi, Hiroaki Aikawa, Isamu Okamoto, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Akinobu Hamada
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The penetration of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor alectinib in neuroblastomas and the relationship between alectinib and ALK expression are unknown. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative investigation of the inter- and intra-tumoural distribution of alectinib in different neuroblastoma xenograft models using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The distribution of alectinib in NB1 (ALK amplification) and SK-N-FI (ALK wild-type) xenograft tissues was analysed using MALDI-MSI...
October 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025247/molecular-and-histological-characteristics-of-early-triploid-and-partial-molar-pregnancies
#4
Katerina Kubelka-Sabit, Dzengis Jasar, Vanja Filipovski, Gorgi Bozinovski, Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska
Molar pregnancy has the highest incidence of all gestational trophoblastic diseases. This is a heterogeneous group of diseases, composed of precancerous lesions and gestational trophoblastic tumours. The hydatidiform mole is characterised by varying degrees of proliferation of syncytiotrophoblastic and cytotrophoblastic cells and stromal oedema. Based on established morphological and cytogenetic criteria, molar pregnancy is divided into partial and complete. The risk of persistent trophoblastic disease is higher in complete moles compared with partial moles...
2017: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022911/the-level-of-caveolin-1-expression-determines-response-to-tgf-%C3%AE-as-a-tumour-suppressor-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#5
Joaquim Moreno-Càceres, Daniel Caballero-Díaz, Zeribe Chike Nwosu, Christoph Meyer, Judit López-Luque, Andrea Malfettone, Raquel Lastra, Teresa Serrano, Emilio Ramos, Steven Dooley, Isabel Fabregat
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous tumour associated with poor prognostic outcome. Caveolin-1 (CAV1), a membrane protein involved in the formation of caveolae, is frequently overexpressed in HCC. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine having a dual role in hepatocarcinogenesis: inducer of apoptosis at early phases, but pro-tumourigenic once cells acquire mechanisms to overcome its suppressor effects. Apoptosis induced by TGF-β is mediated by upregulation of the NADPH oxidase NOX4, but counteracted by transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018573/how-many-diseases-is-triple-negative-breast-cancer-the-protagonism-of-the-immune-microenvironment
#6
REVIEW
Diana P Saraiva, M Guadalupe Cabral, António Jacinto, Sofia Braga
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a type of breast cancer (BC) that does not express the oestrogen and the progesterone receptors and the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2). Since there are no positive markers to reliably classify TNBC, these tumours are not yet treated with targeted therapies. Perhaps for this reason they are the most aggressive form of breast carcinomas. However, the clinical observation that these patients do not carry a uniformly dismal prognosis, coupled with data coming from pathology and epidemiology, suggests that this negative definition is not capturing a single clinical entity, but several...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993384/can-coenzyme-q10-supplementation-effectively-reduce-human-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-interleukin-6-levels-in-chronic-diseases-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#7
Farnaz Farsi, Javad Heshmati, Leila Janani, Pardis Irandoost, Naeimeh Mesri Alamdari, Abbasali Keshtkar, Abolfazl Akbari, Mohammadreza Vafa
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation, as a critical factor, can cause numerous chronic diseases by creating various proinflammatory cytokines. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) can potentially exert an anti-inflammatory agent; in turn, this agent can reduce the systemic inflammatory response. The aims of this study are to conduct a comprehensive systematic review and a meta-analysis for the determination of the CoQ10 efficacy on the changes in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in unhealthy subjects...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993028/the-case-for-dna-methylation-based-molecular-profiling-to-improve-diagnostic-accuracy-for-central-nervous-system-embryonal-tumors-not-otherwise-specified-in-adults
#8
Gail C Halliday, Reimar C Junckerstorff, Jacqueline M Bentel, Andrew Miles, David T W Jones, Volker Hovestadt, David Capper, Raelene Endersby, Catherine H Cole, Tom van Hagen, Nicholas G Gottardo
Central nervous system primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (CNS-PNETs), have recently been re-classified in the most recent 2016 WHO Classification into a standby catch all category, "CNS Embryonal Tumor, not otherwise specified" (CNS embryonal tumor, NOS) based on epigenetic, biologic and histopathologic criteria. CNS embryonal tumors (NOS) are a rare, histologically and molecularly heterogeneous group of tumors that predominantly affect children, and occasionally adults. Diagnosis of this entity continues to be challenging and the ramifications of misdiagnosis of this aggressive class of brain tumors are significant...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988196/the-oral-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer-is-distinctive-and-predictive
#9
Burkhardt Flemer, Ryan D Warren, Maurice P Barrett, Katryna Cisek, Anubhav Das, Ian B Jeffery, Eimear Hurley, Micheal O'Riordain, Fergus Shanahan, Paul W O'Toole
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Microbiota alterations are linked with colorectal cancer (CRC) and notably higher abundance of putative oral bacteria on colonic tumours. However, it is not known if colonic mucosa-associated taxa are indeed orally derived, if such cases are a distinct subset of patients or if the oral microbiome is generally suitable for screening for CRC. METHODS: We profiled the microbiota in oral swabs, colonic mucosae and stool from individuals with CRC (99 subjects), colorectal polyps (32) or controls (103)...
October 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987748/consequences-of-introducing-geometric-gtv-to-ctv-margin-expansion-in-dahanca-contouring-guidelines-for-head-and-neck-radiotherapy
#10
Christian Rønn Hansen, Jørgen Johansen, Eva Samsøe, Elo Andersen, Jørgen B B Petersen, Kenneth Jensen, Lisbeth J Andersen, Hella M B Sand, Anders S Bertelsen, Cai Grau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Defining margins around the Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) to create a Clinical Target Volume (CTV) for head and neck cancer radiotherapy has traditionally been based on presumed knowledge of anatomical routes of spread. However, using a concentric geometric expansion around the GTV may be more reproducible. The purpose of this study was to analyse the inter-observer consistency of geometric CTV delineation with adaptation for anatomical boundaries versus anatomically defined CTVs...
October 4, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987653/diagnostic-hierarchy-of-radiological-features-in-soft-tissue-tumours-and-proposition-of-a-simple-diagnostic-algorithm-to-estimate-malignant-potential-of-an-unknown-mass
#11
Leonhard Gruber, Hannes Gruber, Anna K Luger, Bernhard Glodny, Benjamin Henninger, Alexander Loizides
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the diagnostic utility of imaging features in soft tissue masses (STMs) and to provide a ranked list of predictors for malignancy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Imaging features in 260 cases of STMs with verified histology were assessed. Diagnostic properties including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood/odds ratios (OR) and normalized variance (NV) via random forest analysis were calculated. The diagnostic utility of an 8-item checklist consisting of the highest-ranked features was evaluated through a receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC) curve...
October 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983402/regulatory-t-cell-heterogeneity-and-the-cancer-immune-response
#12
REVIEW
Kirsten A Ward-Hartstonge, Roslyn A Kemp
The frequency of circulating or tumour-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been associated with poor patient survival in many cancers including breast, melanoma and lung. It has been hypothesised that Tregs impact the anti-tumour function of effector T cells, resulting in worse outcomes for patients. However, high infiltrates of Tregs have been associated with a positive outcome of patients in a minority of cancers including colorectal, bladder and oesophageal. In addition, many studies have shown no impact of Tregs in patient outcome...
September 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978573/a-rare-case-of-localised-pigmented-villonodular-synovitis-in-the-knee-of-a-24-year-old-female-soccer-player-diagnosis-management-and-summary-of-tenosynovial-giant-cell-tumours
#13
Casper Falster, Simon Stockmann Poulsen, Uffe Joergensen
Localised pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the knee is a rare diagnosis, with clinical signs and symptoms mimicking meniscal damage or other common knee injuries.We report the case of a 24-year-old female soccer player, seeking treatment after 7 months of persisting knee pain. Additionally, we present an overview of tenosynovial giant cell tumours.On examination, the patient was found to have tenderness in the medial joint space of the knee. MRI revealed a heterogeneous formation in the central part of the knee...
October 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978572/primary-dural-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-mimicking-parafalcine-meningioma
#14
Surya Nandan Prasad, Hira Lal, Sushila Jaiswal, Kuntal Kanti Das
A 58-year-old immunocompetent woman presented with complaints of recent onset recurrent generalised tonic-clonic seizures and left hemiparesis. On MRI a dural-based heterogeneously enhancing mass was seen along the falx cerebri mimicking parafalcine meningioma, causing brain parenchymal compression and vasogenic oedema in the right frontal and parietal lobes. The tumour was completely excised and on subsequent investigation it was diagnosed as diffuse large B cell type primary dural lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxyl doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) regimen was started; however, the patient later died from episodes of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, aspiration pneumonia and septic shock...
October 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978038/isolation-and-detection-of-circulating-tumour-cells-from-metastatic-melanoma-patients-using-a-slanted-spiral-microfluidic-device
#15
Carlos A Aya-Bonilla, Gabriela Marsavela, James B Freeman, Chris Lomma, Markus H Frank, Muhammad A Khattak, Tarek M Meniawy, Michael Millward, Majid E Warkiani, Elin S Gray, Mel Ziman
Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) are promising cancer biomarkers. Several methods have been developed to isolate CTCs from blood samples. However, the isolation of melanoma CTCs is very challenging as a result of their extraordinary heterogeneity, which has hindered their biological and clinical study. Thus, methods that isolate CTCs based on their physical properties, rather than surface marker expression, such as microfluidic devices, are greatly needed in melanoma. Here, we assessed the ability of the slanted spiral microfluidic device to isolate melanoma CTCs via label-free enrichment...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977995/distinct-distributions-of-genomic-features-of-the-5-and-3-partners-of-coding-somatic-cancer-gene-fusions-arising-mechanisms-and-functional-implications
#16
Yongzhong Zhao, Won-Min Song, Fan Zhang, Ming-Ming Zhou, Weijia Zhang, Martin J Walsh, Bin Zhang
The genomic features and arising mechanisms of coding cancer somatic gene fusions (CSGFs) largely remain elusive. In this study, we show the gene origin stratification pattern of CSGF partners that fusion partners in human cancers are significantly enriched for genes with the gene age ofEuteleostomes and with the gene family age of Bilateria. GC skew (a measurement of G, C nucleotide content bias, (G-C)/(G+C)) is a useful measurement to indicate the DNA leading strand, lagging strand, replication origin, and replication terminal and DNA-RNA R-loop formation...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974986/managing-sarcoma-where-have-we-come-from-and-where-are-we-going
#17
REVIEW
Jenna S Bleloch, Reyna D Ballim, Serah Kimani, Jeannette Parkes, Eugenio Panieri, Tarryn Willmer, Sharon Prince
Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms of mesenchymal origin. Approximately 80% arise from soft tissue and 20% originate from bone. To date more than 100 sarcoma subtypes have been identified and they vary in molecular characteristics, pathology, clinical presentation and response to treatment. While sarcomas represent <1% of adult cancers, they account for approximately 21% of paediatric malignancies and thus pose some of the greatest risks of mortality and morbidity in children and young adults...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974715/human-cancer-cells-signal-their-competitive-fitness-through-myc-activity
#18
Simone Di Giacomo, Manuela Sollazzo, Dario de Biase, Moira Ragazzi, Paola Bellosta, Annalisa Pession, Daniela Grifoni
MYC-mediated cell competition is a cell-cell interaction mechanism known to play an evolutionary role during development from Drosophila to mammals. Cells expressing low levels of MYC, called losers, are committed to die by nearby cells with high MYC activity, called winners, that overproliferate to compensate for cell loss, so that the fittest cells be selected for organ formation. Given MYC's consolidated role in oncogenesis, cell competition is supposed to be relevant to cancer, but its significance in human malignant contexts is largely uncharacterised...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973155/high-throughput-screening-uncovers-mirnas-enhancing-glioblastoma-cell-susceptibility-to-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#19
Pedro P Cunha, Pedro M Costa, Catarina M Morais, Inês R Lopes, Ana M Cardoso, Ana L Cardoso, Miguel Mano, Amália S Jurado, Maria C Pedroso de Lima
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly and therapy resistant malignant brain tumour, characterized by an aggressive and diffuse growth pattern, which prevents complete surgical resection. Despite advances in the identification of genomic and molecular alterations that fuel the tumour, average patient survival post-diagnosis remains very low (∼14.6-months). In addition to being highly heterogeneous, GBM tumour cells exhibit high adaptive capacity to targeted molecular therapies owing to an established network of signalling cascades with functional redundancy, which provides them with robust compensatory survival mechanisms...
August 16, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970719/autoimmune-hepatitis-standard-treatment-and-systematic-review-of-alternative-treatments
#20
REVIEW
Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani
Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare chronic inflammatory liver disease, affecting all ages, characterised by elevated transaminase and immunoglobulin G levels, positive autoantibodies, interface hepatitis at liver histology and good response to immunosuppressive treatment. If untreated, it has a poor prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence for standard treatment and to provide a systematic review on alternative treatments for adults and children. Standard treatment is based on steroids and azathioprine, and leads to disease remission in 80%-90% of patients...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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