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Tumour heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444740/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-genomics-and-the-precision-medicine-era
#1
REVIEW
Hussein Ghamlouch, Florence Nguyen-Khac, Olivier A Bernard
Massive genomic analyses have underscored the diversity of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) between patients. Genetic heterogeneity of tumour clones within a patient may fuel tumour evolution. Several recurrently deregulated intra-cellular pathways are candidates for targeted therapies that are very promising and are dramatically changing clinical patients' perspectives. In this review we present an overview of the genetic and epigenetic features of CLL and their clinical and biological implications.
April 25, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443232/a-researcher-s-perspective-on-the-quantity-of-osteosarcoma-in-vitro-studies
#2
Elisabeth F P Peterse, Thed N van Leeuwen, Anne-Marie Cleton-Jansen
Osteosarcoma is a primary malignant bone tumour, for which no improvement in survival rate has been made since the nineteen seventies. We set out to systemically identify the in vitro studies performed in the past two decades describing potential future therapies. Strikingly, we obtained a total of 5282 PubMed hits on this subject. The amount of publications has increased almost exponentially over the past few years. Studies from Chinese institutes are mainly responsible for this huge increase, accounting for 53% of the publications in 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Bone Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440552/review-article-delivering-precision-oncology-in-intermediate-stage-liver-cancer
#3
REVIEW
D J Pinato, J Howell, R Ramaswami, R Sharma
BACKGROUND: Intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), for which trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) constitutes the standard of care, is a patient subgroup with significant heterogeneity in clinical outcome. Sources of variation relate to differences in tumour burden, hepatic reserve, ethnicity and treatment modalities. Increasing research efforts have been dedicated to minimise the clinical diversity of this patient population and enhance optimal provision of treatment. AIM: To comprehensively review the diverse prognostic models that have been proposed to refine the prognostic prediction of patients with HCC undergoing TACE...
April 25, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438795/cystic-tumour-of-the-atrioventricular-node-treatment-dilemma
#4
Wael Abuzeid, Robert B H Myers
An asymptomatic 18-year-old black woman was found to have an incidental finding of third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block on a routine ECG. 2-Dimensional transthoracic echocardiography showed a heterogeneous mass in the region of the peri-membranous septum in the AV node area. A cardiac MRI showed a well-defined cystic mass arising from the right side of the interatrial septal wall. An MRI compatible permanent pacemaker was implanted with plans to monitor the tumour with non-invasive imaging. Cystic tumour of the AV node is a rare primary cardiac tumour...
April 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438099/a-single-centre-review-of-suspected-sudden-infant-death-cases
#5
Janos Bokor, Krisztina Danics, Eszter Bencze, Eva Keller, Zoltan Szollosi
This study aimed to establish the number of deaths in infants under 1 year of age that were being reported for medico-legal examination at a single large academic centre in Hungary, as well as the method of these investigations with special emphasis on histopathology, ancillary techniques and the adherence of our current practice to international recommendations. A single-centre, retrospective audit was conducted on all suspected sudden infant death cases. After the review there were eight infectious background sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases, infectious respiratory tract disease in 14 cases, cardiac septal tumour in one case, and hepatic, possibly metabolic, disorder in one case...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435401/head-and-neck-lymphomas-a-retrospective-ten-year-observation
#6
Marcelina Niemiec, Grażyna Stryjewska-Makuch, Małgorzata Janik, Bogdan Kolebacz, Grażyna Lisowska, Wojciech Ścierski
AIM OF THE STUDY: Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours of lymphoid tissue in which there is an abnormal proliferation of cells of the lymphatic system. The literature notes a gradual increase in the incidence of this type of cancer in the whole population. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the above tendency occurs in the head and neck area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the years 2005-2014, at the Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Department of the Upper Silesian Medical Centre in Katowice, 77 cases of lymphoma were recorded, 58 of which were analysed in terms of location, histological type, age and sex of the patient, and the presence of risk factors...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430287/dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumour-insight-into-the-pathology-and-pathogenesis
#7
Iwona Sontowska, Ewa Matyja, Jacek Malejczyk, Wieslawa Grajkowska
<i>Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) is categorized as a benign glioneuronal neoplasm affecting children and young adults with chronic epileptic seizures. It is characterized by predominant intracortical localization and nodular architecture. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour usually demonstrates a distinctive morphological pattern with a specific glioneuronal element but occasionally, its morphological picture is heterogeneous and unspecific. Thus, considering the morphology of DNT, three different histopathological subtypes are distinguished: simple, complex, and non-specific and diffuse...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429735/phylogenetic-analysis-of-metastatic-progression-in-breast-cancer-using-somatic-mutations-and-copy-number-aberrations
#8
David Brown, Dominiek Smeets, Borbála Székely, Denis Larsimont, A Marcell Szász, Pierre-Yves Adnet, Françoise Rothé, Ghizlane Rouas, Zsófia I Nagy, Zsófia Faragó, Anna-Mária Tőkés, Magdolna Dank, Gyöngyvér Szentmártoni, Nóra Udvarhelyi, Gabriele Zoppoli, Lajos Pusztai, Martine Piccart, Janina Kulka, Diether Lambrechts, Christos Sotiriou, Christine Desmedt
Several studies using genome-wide molecular techniques have reported various degrees of genetic heterogeneity between primary tumours and their distant metastases. However, it has been difficult to discern patterns of dissemination owing to the limited number of patients and available metastases. Here, we use phylogenetic techniques on data generated using whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of primary and multiple-matched metastatic tumours from ten autopsied patients to infer the evolutionary history of breast cancer progression...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427516/prognostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-neuroendocrine-tumours
#9
REVIEW
David L Chan, Stephen J Clarke, Connie I Diakos, Paul J Roach, Dale L Bailey, Simron Singh, Nick Pavlakis
Neuroendocrine tumours are extremely heterogeneous malignancies. Despite marked heterogeneity in clinical course and prognosis, few biomarkers exist to help predict prognosis and guide treatment. Many tumour-based biomarkers (Ki-67, mitotic count, genetic/epigenetic changes and microRNAs) exist, but only Ki-67 and mitotic count have strong evidence to support their routine use. Blood-based markers are easily repeatable, but currently established biomarkers (chromogranin A and urinary 5-HIAA) are difficult to measure accurately in practice...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425943/beneficial-effect-of-voluntary-exercise-on-experimental-colitis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-the-role-of-irisin-adiponectin-and-proinflammatory-biomarkers
#10
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Jan Bilski, Dagmara Wojcik, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Surmiak, Magdalena Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Anna Chmura, Marcin Magierowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Mach, Tomasz Brzozowski
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424513/super-multiplex-vibrational-imaging
#11
Lu Wei, Zhixing Chen, Lixue Shi, Rong Long, Andrew V Anzalone, Luyuan Zhang, Fanghao Hu, Rafael Yuste, Virginia W Cornish, Wei Min
The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424486/meta-analysis-reveals-the-prognostic-value-of-circulating-tumour-cells-detected-in-the-peripheral-blood-in-patients-with-non-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#12
Yan-Jun Lu, Peng Wang, Jing Peng, Xiong Wang, Yao-Wu Zhu, Na Shen
Detecting circulating tumour cells (CTCs) is considered as effective and minimally invasive technique to predict the prognosis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), but its clinical validity is still conflicting in patients without metastasis. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate whether detection of CTCs in the peripheral blood can be used as a prognostic marker for patients with non-metastatic CRC. We performed a comprehensive search of the EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases (up to September 2016)...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424422/limited-impact-of-intratumour-heterogeneity-on-molecular-risk-assignment-in-endometrial-cancer
#13
Manouk van Esterik, Inge C Van Gool, Cor D de Kroon, Remi A Nout, Carien L Creutzberg, Vincent T H B M Smit, Tjalling Bosse, Ellen Stelloo
INTRODUCTION: Individual prediction of tumour behaviour based on molecular markers may refine adjuvant treatment strategies in endometrial cancer (EC). As these molecular alterations are determined in a small tumour fraction, high intratumour heterogeneity may interfere with correct risk prediction. This study aimed to investigate to which extent intratumour heterogeneity exists for molecular markers and whether it affects the molecular risk assignment in EC. METHODS: Forty-nine ECs (three tumour blocks/case) were selected with alterations in POLE (n=10), CTNNB1 (n=8), p53 (n=10), mismatch repair (n=11), L1CAM (n=10), and ECs without any of these markers (n=9)...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421972/-a-tumour-mistaken-for-a-scar
#14
A C van den Brand, A Erceg
BACKGROUND: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare type of cutaneous soft tissue sarcoma. The tumour metastasises rarely, but the percentage of recurrences is high and the tumour can be locally very aggressive. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 50-year-old man was referred to our clinic for a long existing scar on his back, which had become painful in the last few weeks. In the hospital we decided to take a biopsy. Based on the histopathological investigation, the diagnosis DFSP was made...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418605/the-g534e-variant-in-habp2-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-familial-nonmedullary-thyroid-cancer-in-brazilian-kindreds
#15
Luis Eduardo Barbalho de Mello, Aline Neves Araujo, Camila Xavier Alves, Fernando José de Pinto Paiva, José Brandão-Neto, Janete M Cerutti
Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases that includes both syndromic and nonsyndromic associated tumours. The syndromic group is characterized by a preponderance of nonthyroidal tumours and is associated with Mendelian cancer syndromes. Nonsyndromic groups, which account for 95% of the cases, are characterized by a significantly increased rate of benign or malignant thyroid tumours of follicular-cell origin in the same family and are not associated with other Mendelian cancer syndromes...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417956/establishment-and-characterization-of-an-orthotopic-patient-derived-group-3-medulloblastoma-model-for-preclinical-drug-evaluation
#16
Emma Sandén, Cecilia Dyberg, Cecilia Krona, Gabriel Gallo-Oller, Thale Kristin Olsen, Julio Enríquez Pérez, Malin Wickström, Atosa Estekizadeh, Marcel Kool, Edward Visse, Tomas J Ekström, Peter Siesjö, John Inge Johnsen, Anna Darabi
Medulloblastomas comprise a heterogeneous group of tumours and can be subdivided into four molecular subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group 3 and Group 4) with distinct prognosis, biological behaviour and implications for targeted therapies. Few experimental models exist of the aggressive and poorly characterized Group 3 tumours. In order to establish a reproducible transplantable Group 3 medulloblastoma model for preclinical therapeutic studies, we acquired a patient-derived tumour sphere culture and inoculated low-passage spheres into the cerebellums of NOD-scid mice...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416092/cytokines-and-c-reactive-protein-alterations-with-respect-to-cognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Bartłomiej Stańczykiewicz, Kamila Kotowicz, Janusz K Rybakowski, Jerzy Samochowiec, Dorota Frydecka
BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to perform a systematic review of studies investigating the association between peripheral levels of cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokine gene polymorphisms and cognition in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: The following databases: PubMed, CINAHL Complete, Academic Search Complete, ERIC and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition databases were searched according to the PRISMA guidelines...
April 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411962/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-malignancy-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#18
REVIEW
A Tak Manesh, G Azizi, A Heydari, F Kiaee, M Shaghaghi, N Hossein-Khannazer, R Yazdani, H Abolhassani, A Aghamohammadi
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a diagnostic category of primary immunodeficiency (PID) which may present with heterogeneous disorders including recurrent infections, autoimmunity, granulomatous diseases, lymphoid and other types of malignancies. Generally, the incidence of malignancy in CVID patients is around 1.5-20.7% and usually occurs during the 4th-6th decade of life. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most frequent malignancy, followed by epithelial tumours of stomach, breast, bladder and cervix...
April 12, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408301/impact-of-braf-kinase-inhibitors-on-the-mirnomes-and-transcriptomes-of-melanoma-cells
#19
Ines Kozar, Giulia Cesi, Christiane Margue, Demetra Philippidou, Stephanie Kreis
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with increasing incidence worldwide. The development of BRAF kinase inhibitors as targeted treatments for patients with BRAF-mutant tumours contributed profoundly to an improved overall survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. Despite these promising results, the emergence of rapid resistance to targeted therapy remains a serious clinical issue. METHODS: To investigate the impact of BRAF inhibitors on miRNomes and transcriptomes, we used in vitro melanoma models consisting of BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant cell lines generated in our laboratory...
April 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407110/prognostic-and-predictive-value-of-primary-tumour-side-in-patients-with-ras-wild-type-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-treated-with-chemotherapy-and-egfr-directed-antibodies-in-six-randomised-trials
#20
D Arnold, B Lueza, J-Y Douillard, M Peeters, H-J Lenz, A Venook, V Heinemann, E Van Cutsem, J-P Pignon, J Tabernero, A Cervantes, F Ciardiello
Background: There is increasing evidence that metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a genetically heterogeneous disease and that tumours arising from different sides of the colon (left versus right) have different clinical outcomes. Furthermore, previous analyses comparing the activity of different classes of targeted agents in patients with KRAS wild-type (wt) or RAS wt mCRC suggest that primary tumour location (side), might be both prognostic and predictive for clinical outcome. Methods: This retrospective analysis investigated the prognostic and predictive influence of the localisation of the primary tumour in patients with unresectable RAS wt mCRC included in six randomised trials (CRYSTAL, FIRE-3, CALGB 80405, PRIME, PEAK and 20050181), comparing chemotherapy plus EGFR antibody therapy (experimental arm) with chemotherapy or chemotherapy and bevacizumab (control arms)...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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