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Precision therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051833/anatomical-and-functional-correlation-in-susac-syndrome-multimodal-imaging-assessment
#1
Alexandre G B Azevedo, Luiz H Lima, Léo Müller, Flávio Rezende Filho, Cláudio Zett, André Maia, Luiz Roisman
BACKGROUND: Susac's syndrome (SuS) is an uncommon disease characterized by retinal microangiopathy that may be assessed more accurately with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), a new imaging technique which provides a retinal microvasculature map. The purpose of this case report is to describe the multimodal imaging findings of SuS correlating OCTA with functional tests. CASE PRESENTATION: Retrospective review of one case with clinical and imaging evidence of SuS...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051268/what-is-precision-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Inke R König, Oliver Fuchs, Gesine Hansen, Erika von Mutius, Matthias V Kopp
The term "precision medicine" has become very popular over recent years, fuelled by scientific as well as political perspectives. Despite its popularity, its exact meaning, and how it is different from other popular terms such as "stratified medicine", "targeted therapy" or "deep phenotyping" remains unclear. Commonly applied definitions focus on the stratification of patients, sometimes referred to as a novel taxonomy, and this is derived using large-scale data including clinical, lifestyle, genetic and further biomarker information, thus going beyond the classical "signs-and-symptoms" approach...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051061/precise-laser-poration-to-control-drug-delivery-into-and-through-human-nail
#3
Simon Vanstone, Sarah F Cordery, James M Stone, Sergey N Gordeev, Richard H Guy
Drug treatment of diseases of the human nail remains a difficult challenge; topical therapy, in particular, is limited by very poor transport of active agents across the nail itself. The objective of this research was to examine the potential of controlled, and fibre-optic delivered, femtosecond laser light pulses to provide new pathways and opportunities for drug access to targets within and beneath the nail plate. Optical, confocal fluorescence and scanning electron microscopies demonstrated partial and complete laser poration of human nail samples, with the energy per pore and the exposure duration being the key modulating parameters that determined the extent of ablation achieved...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050983/precision-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-liver-cancer-in-china
#4
Jing Fu, Hongyang Wang
Liver cancer ranks the sixth in cancer incidence and the second in tumor related mortality worldwide, with over half of the new cases and deaths occur in China. Because of difficulties in early diagnosis, rapid progression and lack of targeted drugs, the survival rate of liver cancer is extremely low. The existence of extraordinary heterogeneity has greatly limited the progress in early detection, molecular classification and targeted therapy of live cancer, owing to its varied risk factors, genetic susceptibilities, morphological diversity and microenvironmental discrepancies...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050696/pharmacogenomics-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#5
REVIEW
Shawn H R Lee, Jun J Yang
Pharmacogenomics is a fast-growing field of personalized medicine using a patient's genomic profile to determine drug disposition or response to drug therapy, in order to develop safer and more effective pharmacotherapy. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), being the most common malignancy in childhood, which is treated with uniform and standardized clinical trials, is remarkably poised for pharmacogenomic studies. In the last decade, unbiased genome-wide association studies have identified multiple germline risk factors that strongly modify host response to drug therapy...
September 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050511/efficacy-of-constraint-induced-movement-therapy-compared-with-bimanual-intensive-training-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#6
M H Tervahauta, G L Girolami, G K Øberg
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence on the effect of constraint-induced movement therapy compared with bimanual intensive training in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. DATA SOURCES: Seven electronic databases (Cinahl, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PEDro, PsycINFO, PubMed) were searched from database inception through December 2016. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines...
November 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050366/the-resistance-mechanisms-and-treatment-strategies-for-egfr-mutant-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Wen-Zhao Zhong, Qing Zhou, Yi-Long Wu
Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) have been established as the standard therapy for EGFR-sensitizing mutant advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, patients ultimately develop resistance to these drugs. There are several mechanisms of both primary and secondary resistance to EGFR-TKIs. The primary resistance mechanisms include point mutations in exon 18, deletions or insertions in exon 19, insertions, duplications and point mutations in exon 20 and point mutation in exon 21 of EGFR gene...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050194/update-on-the-pathophysiology-and-management-of-anorectal-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Satish S C Rao
Anorectal disorders are common and present with overlapping symptoms. They include several disorders with both structural and functional dysfunction(s). Because symptoms alone are poor predictors of the underlying pathophysiology, a diagnosis should only be made after evaluating symptoms and physiologic and structural abnormalities. A detailed history, a thorough physical and digital rectal examination and a systematic evaluation with high resolution and/or high definition three-dimensional (3D) anorectal manometry, 3D anal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance defecography and neurophysiology tests are essential to correctly identify these conditions...
October 23, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050066/-roles-of-pathologists-in-era-of-precision-therapy-of-cancer-comments-on-the-food-and-drug-administration-of-the-united-states-approval-of-pembrolizumab-for-microsatellite-instability-high-cancer-therapy
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047029/phase-i-study-of-the-combination-of-crizotinib-as-a-met-inhibitor-and-dasatinib-as-a-c-src-inhibitor-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#10
Shumei Kato, Denis L Jardim, Faye M Johnson, Vivek Subbiah, Sarina Piha-Paul, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Gerald S Falchook, Daniel Karp, Ralph Zinner, Jennifer Wheler, Filip Janku, Siqing Fu, JoAnn Lim, Stacie Bean, Ly Nguyen, Susan Urban, Elsa Browne, Funda Meric-Bernstam, David S Hong
Background Both MET and c-SRC are important mediators of cancer progression and there is cross talk between the two molecules. Preclinical studies have demonstrated combination of MET and c-SRC inhibitors is effective in multiple cancer types. Methods We analyzed the safety and efficacy of administering a c-SRC inhibitor (dasatinib) in combination with a MET inhibitor (crizotinib) in a two-arm concurrent phase I study. Arm A consisted of crizotinib fixed at 250 mg twice per day with escalation of dasatinib...
October 19, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046933/-regional-anesthesia-are-the-standards-changing
#11
REVIEW
T Volk, C Kubulus
Regional anesthesia has undergone many changes over the years and the increasing use of ultrasound has certainly played an important role in this. Apart from individual case reports in the literature of very different blocking options, some new procedures seem to have become established and can be broadly applied. Among these are blockades, by which ultrasound-guided injection of local anesthetics is carried out in fascial or muscular layers rather than around target nerves (e.g. cervical plexus blocks and truncal blocks)...
October 18, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046623/biocompatible-d-a-semiconducting-polymer-nanoparticle-with-light-harvesting-unit-for-highly-effective-photoacoustic-imaging-guided-photothermal-therapy
#12
Jinfeng Zhang, Caixia Yang, Rui Zhang, Rui Chen, Zhenyu Zhang, Wenjun Zhang, Shih-Hao Peng, Xiaoyuan Chen, Gang Liu, Chain-Shu Hsu, Chun-Sing Lee
The development of nanotheranostic agents that integrate diagnosis and therapy for effective personalized precision medicine has obtained tremendous attention in the past few decades. In this report, biocompatible electron donor-acceptor conjugated semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (PPor-PEG NPs) with light-harvesting unit is prepared and developed for highly effective photoacoustic imaging guided photothermal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the concept of light-harvesting unit is exploited for enhancing the photoacoustic signal and photothermal energy conversion in polymer-based theranostic agent...
April 5, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046212/-research-advances-in-hereditary-epilepsy-and-precision-drug-therapy
#13
Ge Lyu, Yun-Li Han
Epilepsy is a common nervous system disease. It has been found that the pathogenesis of epilepsy is associated mutations in various genes, including genes encoding voltage-dependent ion channel, genes encoding ligand-gated ion channel, and solute carrier family genes. Different types of epilepsy caused by different mutations have different responses to drugs, and therefore, diagnosis and medication guidance based on genes are new thoughts for developing therapies. With the application of next-generation sequencing technology, more and more genes will be determined, which helps to further study the pathogenic mechanism of mutant genes and provides a basis for precision drug therapy for epilepsy...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045710/radiation-induced-cognitive-toxicity-pathophysiology-and-interventions-to-reduce-toxicity-in-adults
#14
Christopher Wilke, David Grosshans, Joseph Duman, Paul Brown, Jing Li
Radiotherapy is ubiquitous in the treatment of patients with both primary brain tumors as well as disease which is metastatic to the brain. This therapy is not without cost, however, as cognitive decline is frequently associated with cranial radiation, particularly with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The precise mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced morbidity remain incompletely understood and continue to be an active area of ongoing research. In this article, we review the hypothetical means by which cranial radiation induces cognitive decline as well as potential therapeutic approaches to prevent, minimize or reverse treatment-induced cognitive deterioration...
October 14, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044908/tumor-radiomic-heterogeneity-multiparametric-functional-imaging-to-characterize-variability-and-predict-response-following-cervical-cancer-radiation-therapy
#15
Stephen R Bowen, William T C Yuh, Daniel S Hippe, Wei Wu, Savannah C Partridge, Saba Elias, Guang Jia, Zhibin Huang, George A Sandison, Dennis Nelson, Michael V Knopp, Simon S Lo, Paul E Kinahan, Nina A Mayr
BACKGROUND: Robust approaches to quantify tumor heterogeneity are needed to provide early decision support for precise individualized therapy. PURPOSE: To conduct a technical exploration of longitudinal changes in tumor heterogeneity patterns on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and FDG positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT), and their association to radiation therapy (RT) response in cervical cancer...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044017/-crispr-cas9-and-gene-therapy
#16
Luciana E Giono
The development of techniques that allow the precise and efficient edition of the genome of living cells is one of the main goals of biomedical research. Over the last few decades, a number of genome editing tools have been developed, the most prominent being the CRISPR/Cas9 system, a bacterial defense mechanism that has been redesigned for its use in other cellular systems. The accessibility, both technical and economical, and the enormous potential of CRISPR/Cas9 have contributed to an almost unprecedented revolution in the biomedical sciences and represent an important step forward in the field of gene therapy that needs, however, to be taken cautiously...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043461/effect-of-anti-angiogenesis-induced-by-chemotherapeutic-monotherapy-chemotherapeutic-bisphosphonate-combination-therapy-and-anti-vegfa-mab-therapy-on-tooth-extraction-socket-healing-in-mice
#17
Yuri Akita, Shinichiro Kuroshima, Kazunori Nakajima, Hiroki Hayano, Riho Kanai, Muneteru Sasaki, Takashi Sawase
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), which is a rare but severe adverse effect, mainly occurs in oncology patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents and bisphosphonates. However, the combined impact of chemotherapy and bisphosphonates on wound healing after tooth extraction remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the precise etiology of ONJ induced by chemotherapy and bisphosphonate combination therapy. Mice received zoledronate (ZA) monotherapy, cyclophosphamide (CY) monotherapy or CY/ZA combination therapy...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043083/a-framework-for-continuous-target-tracking-during-mr-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-thermal-ablations-in-the-abdomen
#18
Cornel Zachiu, Baudouin Denis de Senneville, Ivan D Dmitriev, Chrit T W Moonen, Mario Ries
BACKGROUND: During lengthy magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRg-HIFU) thermal ablations in abdominal organs, the therapeutic work-flow is frequently hampered by various types of physiological motion occurring at different time-scales. If left un-addressed this can lead to an incomplete therapy and/or to tissue damage of organs-at-risk. While previous studies focus on correction schemes for displacements occurring at a particular time-scale within the work-flow of an MRg-HIFU therapy, in the current work we propose a motion correction strategy encompassing the entire work-flow...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042468/evaluation-of-step-and-shoot-and-continuous-bed-motion-pet-modes-of-acquisition-for-limited-view-organ-scans
#19
Wendy Siman, Srinivas Cheenu Kappadath
Rationale: Continuous bed motion (CBM) acquisition mode has been made commercially available in Siemens Biograph mCT positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners. CBM mode is designed for whole-body imaging with a long scan length (multiple axial fields of view [aFOVs]) and short acquisition duration (2-3 min/aFOV). PET/CT has recently been used following (90)Y-microsphere therapy to quantify (90)Y activity distribution in the liver. Here we compared counting efficiencies along the bed-motion direction (z axis) between CBM and step-and-shoot (SS) acquisition modes for limited-view organ scans, such as (90)Y PET/CT liver studies, that have short scan lengths (≤2 aFOVs) and long acquisition durations (10-30 min/aFOV)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041034/inhaled-versus-systemic-corticosteroids-for-preventing-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-ventilated-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-neonates
#20
REVIEW
Sachin S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Vibhuti S Shah
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants and inflammation plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. The use of inhaled corticosteroids may modulate the inflammatory process without concomitant high systemic steroid concentrations and less risk of adverse effects. This is an update of a review published in 2012 (Shah 2012). We recently updated the related review on "Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for treating bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm neonates"...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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