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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238577/geometrical-and-dosimetrical-uncertainties-in-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-of-the-lung-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Marco Schwarz, Giovanni Mauro Cattaneo, Livia Marrazzo
The application of high precision hypofractionated regimes (a.k.a. stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)) to the treatment of lung cancer is a 'success story' of radiotherapy. From the technical perspective, lung SBRT is a challenging technique as all aspects of the treatment workflow, from imaging to dose calculation to treatment delivery, should be carefully handled in order to ensure consistency between planned and delivered dose. In this review such technical aspects are presented and discussed, looking at what has been developed over the years...
February 23, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238520/precision-surgery-and-avoiding-over-treatment
#2
REVIEW
A Hosseini, A L Khoury, L J Esserman
Over-diagnosis and over-treatment are consequences of greater awareness about breast cancer, more intensive screening, and the resultant identification of more cases of breast cancer that are low or ultralow risk. This area represents an important opportunity to optimize the delivery of appropriate targeted therapy for breast cancer patients. Despite the evolution of breast cancer care over the last few decades and our ability to tailor treatment to biology, a one-size fits all approach is still prevalent in the local and regional management of and screening for breast cancer, failing to reflect the unique biology and tumor characteristics of each patient...
February 11, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237922/an-adaptive-non-local-means-filter-for-real-time-mr-thermometry
#3
Cornel Zachiu, Mario Ries, Chrit Moonen, Baudouin de Senneville
Proton resonance frequency shift-based magnetic resonance thermometry is a currently used technique for monitoring temperature during targeted thermal therapies. However, in order to provide temperature updates with very short latency times, fast MR acquisition schemes are usually employed, which in turn might lead to noisy temperature measurements. This will, in general, have a direct impact on therapy control and endpoint detection. In the current study we address this problem through an improved non-local filtering technique applied on the temperature images...
February 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237412/importance-of-accommodation-and-eye-dominance-for-measuring-objective-refractions
#4
Yukari Tsuneyoshi, Kazuno Negishi, Kazuo Tsubota
PURPOSE: To explore factors affecting the difference between objective refractive data measured under monocular closed-field viewing and binocular open-field viewing. DESIGN: Prospective observational case series. METHODS: Setting: Institutional. STUDY POPULATION: Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (58 eyes; mean age, 38.4±10.0 years; range, 25-60 years). OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Objective monocular refractions (MR) measured with the Nidek Auto Ref/Keratometer ARK-730A; objective binocular refractions (BR) and objective accommodative amplitude (AA) measured with the Grand Seiko Auto Ref/Keratometer WAM-5500; ocular dominance measured using the hole-in-the-card test; presence and magnitude of far/near (30 cm) phoria evaluated by the cover test and alternating cover test using a prism bar...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236616/nuclear-factor-kb-and-inhibitor-of-kb-acupuncture-protection-against-acute-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rodents
#5
Wei Huang, Zhongyu Zhou, Bijiang Wan, Guang Chen, Jia Li
Context • Acute, focal, cerebral ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Acupuncture is an emerging alternative therapy for treatment of acute brain ischemia. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture has not been elucidated. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cell inhibitor alpha (IκB-α) are involved in cerebral inflammation. However, the involvement of NF-κB and IκB-α in the protective effects of acupuncture on ischemic tolerance remains unknown...
February 27, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236122/effectiveness-of-bronchofiberoscopy-in-diagnosis-of-lung-lesions
#6
Artur Nahorecki, Katarzyna Postrzech-Adamczyk, Ewelina Straszak, Andrzej Szuba, Dariusz Janczak, Mariusz Chabowski
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths. A short survival rate often results from belated diagnosis made in advanced stages. Therapy individualization requires the collection of a viable material for histopathological examination, which often brings difficulties. This study was performed in a group of 110 patients suspected of malignancy in chest computed tomography. All subjects underwent bronchofiberoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and endobronchial brushing were performed in all cases, whereas forceps tissue biopsy was taken if mucous membrane abnormalities were observed...
February 25, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235761/high-throughput-genomic-profiling-of-adult-solid-tumors-reveals-novel-insights-into-cancer-pathogenesis
#7
Ryan J Hartmaier, Lee Albacker, Juliann Chmielecki, Mark Bailey, Jie He, Michael Goldberg, Shakti Ramkissoon, James Suh, Julia A Elvin, Samuel Chiacchia, Garrett M Frampton, Jeffrey S Ross, Vincent Miller, Philip J Stephens, Doron Lipson
Genomic profiling is widely predicted to become a standard of care in clinical oncology, but more effective data sharing to accelerate progress in precision medicine will be required. Here we describe cancer-associated genomic profiles from 18,004 unique adult cancers. The dataset was composed of 162 tumor subtypes including multiple rare and uncommon tumors. Comparison of alteration frequencies to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified some differences and suggested an enrichment of treatment-refractory samples in breast and lung cancer cohorts...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235632/utility-of-comprehensive-genomic-sequencing-for-detecting-her2-positive-colorectal-cancer
#8
Yoshifumi Shimada, Ryoma Yagi, Hitoshi Kameyama, Masayuki Nagahashi, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Yosuke Tajima, Takuma Okamura, Mae Nakano, Masato Nakano, Yo Sato, Takeaki Matsuzawa, Jun Sakata, Takashi Kobayashi, Hitoshi Nogami, Satoshi Maruyama, Yasumasa Takii, Takashi Kawasaki, Kei-Ichi Homma, Hiroshi Izutsu, Keisuke Kodama, Jennifer E Ring, Alexei Protopopov, Stephen Lyle, Shujiro Okuda, Kohei Akazawa, Toshifumi Wakai
HER2-targeted therapy is considered effective for KRAS codon 12/13 wild-type, HER2-positive metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In general, HER2 status is determined by the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Comprehensive genomic sequencing (CGS) enables the detection of gene mutations and copy number alterations including KRAS mutation and HER2 amplification; however, little is known about the utility of CGS for detecting HER2-positive CRC. To assess its utility, we retrospectively investigated 201 patients with stage I-IV CRC...
February 21, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231575/individual-biomarkers-using-molecular-personalized-medicine-approaches
#9
Hans P Zenner
Molecular personalized medicine tries to generate individual predictive biomarkers to assist doctors in their decision making. These are thought to improve the efficacy and lower the toxicity of a treatment. The molecular basis of the desired high-precision prediction is modern "omex" technologies providing high-throughput bioanalytical methods. These include genomics and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, imaging, and functional analyses. In most cases, producing big data also requires a complex biomathematical analysis...
2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231574/biomarkers-in-allergic-airway-disease-simply-complex
#10
Adam M Chaker, Ulrich M Zissler, Martin Wagenmann, Carsten Schmidt-Weber
Clinical diagnoses of allergic airway disease need confirmation of a relevant sensitization to allergens. Serum-based component-resolved diagnosis has become increasingly popular and allows the precise assessment of specific IgE to molecular allergens. Molecular allergen diagnosis has improved our understanding of disease phenotypes in allergic patients, including cross-reactive patterns and food allergy. Beyond sensitization profiles, characterization of the (endo-)type and severity of a local allergic disease is useful for targeted therapy with biologics in advanced allergic airway disease...
2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230206/mirna-21-mediates-the-antiangiogenic-activity-of-metformin-through-targeting-pten-and-smad7-expression-and-pi3k-akt-pathway
#11
Mao Luo, Xiaoyong Tan, Lin Mu, Yulin Luo, Rong Li, Xin Deng, Ni Chen, Meiping Ren, Yongjie Li, Liqun Wang, Jianbo Wu, Qin Wan
Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug commonly used for type 2 diabetes therapy, is associated with anti-angiogenic effects in conditions beyond diabetes. miR-21 has been reported to be involved in the process of angiogenesis. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms by which the metformin-induced endothelial suppression and its effects on miR-21-dependent pathways are still unclear. Bioinformatic analysis and identification of miR-21 and its targets and their effects on metformin-induced antiangiogenic activity were assessed using luciferase assays, quantitative real-time PCR, western blots, scratch assays, CCK-8 assays and tubule formation assays...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229364/molecular-subtyping-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-closer-to-an-approach-of-precision-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Reem Karmali, Leo I Gordon
It has become clear that there is immense biological heterogeneity in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Developing technology has allowed better characterization of patient subsets at a molecular level, allowing for a link of phenotype and clinical outcomes to oncogenic mechanisms and biologic signatures. Cell of origin and double hit status are able to identify aggressive subsets, with molecular profiling allowing for a clearer understanding of biologic pathways that contribute to cellular resistance to conventional treatment in these subsets...
February 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229253/the-biology-of-uveal-melanoma
#13
Adriana Amaro, Rosaria Gangemi, Francesca Piaggio, Giovanna Angelini, Gaia Barisione, Silvano Ferrini, Ulrich Pfeffer
Uveal melanoma (UM), a rare cancer of the eye, is distinct from cutaneous melanoma by its etiology, the mutation frequency and profile, and its clinical behavior including resistance to targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockers. Primary disease is efficiently controlled by surgery or radiation therapy, but about half of UMs develop distant metastasis mostly to the liver. Survival of patients with metastasis is below 1 year and has not improved in decades. Recent years have brought a deep understanding of UM biology characterized by initiating mutations in the G proteins GNAQ and GNA11...
February 22, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227101/high-density-penetrating-electrode-arrays-for-autonomic-nerves
#14
John Burns, Yee-Hsee Hsieh, Andrew Mueller, Juliette Chevallier, T S Sriram, Stephen J Lewis, Daniel Chew, Anil Achyuta, Jason Fiering, John Burns, Yee-Hsee Hsieh, Andrew Mueller, Juliette Chevallier, T S Sriram, Stephen J Lewis, Daniel Chew, Anil Achyuta, Jason Fiering, Daniel Chew, Yee-Hsee Hsieh, Andrew Mueller, Jason Fiering, T S Sriram, Juliette Chevallier, Stephen J Lewis, Anil Achyuta
Electrode arrays for recording and stimulation in the central nervous system have enabled numerous advances in basic science and therapeutic strategies. In particular, micro-fabricated arrays with precision size and spacing offer the benefit of accessing single neurons and permit mapping of neuronal function. Similar advances are envisioned toward understanding the autonomic nervous system and developing therapies based on its modulation, but appropriate electrode arrays are lacking. Here, we present for the first time, a multi-channel electrode array suitable for penetration of peripheral nerves having diameters as small as 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227080/a-comparison-between-four-techniques-to-measure-cardiac-output
#15
A Pironet, P C Dauby, J G Chase, P Morimont, N Janssen, B Lambermont, S Davidson, T Desaive, A Pironet, P C Dauby, J G Chase, P Morimont, N Janssen, B Lambermont, S Davidson, T Desaive, T Desaive, B Lambermont, P C Dauby, N Janssen, P Morimont, A Pironet, J G Chase, S Davidson
Cardiac output is an important variable when monitoring hemodynamic status. In particular, changes in cardiac output represent the goal of several circulatory management therapies. Unfortunately, cardiac output is very difficult to estimate, either in experimental or clinical settings. The goal of this work is to compare four techniques to measure cardiac output: pressure-volume catheter, aortic flow probe, thermodilution, and the PiCCO monitor. These four techniques were simultaneously used during experiments of fluid and endotoxin administration on 7 pigs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226842/controlling-interfered-area-in-interferential-current-stimulation-by-electrode-area-patterning
#16
S Bounyong, S Adachi, T Yoshimoto, T Ota, J Ozawa, S Bounyong, S Adachi, T Yoshimoto, T Ota, J Ozawa, T Yoshimoto, T Ota, S Bounyong, J Ozawa, S Adachi
Interferential current therapy is a noninvasive therapy using simultaneously two or more medium-frequency currents passing through tissue. By controlling the interfered area of the current flows, selective stimulation is possible in target muscles, including deep muscles. However, controlling the interfered area or the intensity of the current precisely is still lacking. Using simulations based on a biological model of the thigh as well as electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) experiments, we investigated the influence of electrode area ratio in changing the interfered area of the currents...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223364/protein-kinase-c-regulates-twist1-expression-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Masaki Shiota, Akira Yokomizo, Ario Takeuchi, Eiji Kashiwagi, Takashi Dejima, Junichi Inokuchi, Katsunori Tatsugami, Takeshi Uchiumi, Masatoshi Eto
The progression of prostate cancer to metastatic and castration-resistant disease represents a critical step. We previously showed that protein kinase C (PKC) activation followed by Twist1 and androgen receptor (AR) induction played a critical role in castration resistance, but the precise molecular mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the relevant molecular mechanism, focusing on NF-κB transcription factor. We examined the activity of NF-κB after PKC inhibition, and the expression of Twist1 and AR after inhibition of NF-κB in human prostate cancer cells...
February 21, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223228/drug-discovery-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-models-of-neurodegenerative-and-ocular-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Sandy S C Hung, Shahnaz Khan, Camden Y Lo, Alex W Hewitt, Raymond C B Wong
The revolution of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology provides a platform for development of cell therapy, disease modeling and drug discovery. Recent technological advances now allow us to reprogram a patient's somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Together with methods to differentiate these iPSCs into the disease-relevant cell types, we are now able to model disease in vitro using iPSCs. Importantly, this represents a robust in vitro platform using patient-specific cells, providing opportunity for personalized precision medicine...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223001/rethinking-ckd-evaluation-should-we-be-quantifying-basal-or-stimulated-gfr-to-maximize-precision-and-sensitivity
#19
Bruce A Molitoris
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing clinical problem. Although clinical risk factors and biomarkers for the development and progression of CKD have been identified, there is no commercial surveillance technology to definitively diagnose and quantify the severity and progressive loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in CKD. This has limited the study of potential therapies to late stages of CKD when FDA-registerable events are more likely. Because patient outcomes, including the rate of CKD progression, correlate with disease severity and effective therapy may require early intervention, being able to diagnose and stratify patients by their level of decreased kidney function early on is key for translational progress...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222693/characterization-of-brca1-and-brca2-variants-in-multi-ethnic-asian-cohort-from-a-malaysian-case-control-study
#20
Kah Nyin Lai, Weang Kee Ho, In Nee Kang, Peter Choon Eng Kang, Sze Yee Phuah, Shivaani Mariapun, Cheng-Har Yip, Nur Aishah Mohd Taib, Soo-Hwang Teo
BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 has led to the accurate identification of individuals at higher risk of cancer and the development of new therapies. Approximately 10-20% of the genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 leads to the identification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS), with higher proportions in Asians. We investigated the functional significance of 7 BRCA1 and 25 BRCA2 variants in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort using a case-control approach. METHODS: The MassARRAY genotyping was conducted in 1,394 Chinese, 406 Malay and 310 Indian breast cancer cases and 1,071 Chinese, 167 Malay and 255 Indian healthy controls...
February 22, 2017: BMC Cancer
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