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T cell facs phenotyping

F Javier Rubio, Xuan Li, Qing-Rong Liu, Raffaello Cimbro, Bruce T Hope
The study of neuroplasticity and molecular alterations in learned behaviors is switching from the study of whole brain regions to the study of specific sets of sparsely distributed activated neurons called neuronal ensembles that mediate learned associations. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) has recently been optimized for adult rat brain tissue and allowed isolation of activated neurons using antibodies against the neuronal marker NeuN and Fos protein, a marker of strongly activated neurons. Until now, Fos-expressing neurons and other cell types were isolated from fresh tissue, which entailed long processing days and allowed very limited numbers of brain samples to be assessed after lengthy and complex behavioral procedures...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Valentina Perri, Elena Gianchecchi, Riccardo Scarpa, Mariella Valenzise, Maria Manuela Rosado, Ezio Giorda, Antonino Crinò, Marco Cappa, Susi Barollo, Silvia Garelli, Corrado Betterle, Alessandra Fierabracci
APECED is a T-cell mediated disease with increased frequencies of CD8+ effector and reduction of FoxP3+ T regulatory cells. Antibodies against affected organs and neutralizing to cytokines are found in the peripheral blood. The contribution of B cells to multiorgan autoimmunity in Aire-/- mice was reported opening perspectives on the utility of anti-B cell therapy. We aimed to analyse the B cell phenotype of APECED patients compared to age-matched controls. FACS analysis was conducted on PBMC in basal conditions and following CpG stimulation...
September 9, 2016: Immunobiology
Karl A Hassan, Amy K Cain, TaoTao Huang, Qi Liu, Liam D H Elbourne, Christine J Boinett, Anthony J Brzoska, Liping Li, Martin Ostrowski, Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Stephen Baker, Julian Parkhill, Ian T Paulsen
UNLABELLED: Multidrug efflux pumps provide clinically significant levels of drug resistance in a number of Gram-negative hospital-acquired pathogens. These pathogens frequently carry dozens of genes encoding putative multidrug efflux pumps. However, it can be difficult to determine how many of these pumps actually mediate antimicrobial efflux, and it can be even more challenging to identify the regulatory proteins that control expression of these pumps. In this study, we developed an innovative high-throughput screening method, combining transposon insertion sequencing and cell sorting methods (TraDISort), to identify the genes encoding major multidrug efflux pumps, regulators, and other factors that may affect the permeation of antimicrobials, using the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii A dense library of more than 100,000 unique transposon insertion mutants was treated with ethidium bromide, a common substrate of multidrug efflux pumps that is differentially fluorescent inside and outside the bacterial cytoplasm...
2016: MBio
Suresh Gopi Kalathil, Amit Anand Lugade, Austin Miller, Renuka Iyer, Yasmin Thanavala
BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is an oral antiangiogenic agent administered in advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on preclinical and human studies, we hypothesized that, in addition to its antiangiogenic properties, sorafenib may beneficially reduce the extent of the immunosuppressive network in HCC patients. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether alterations in the immunosuppressive burden of advanced-stage HCC patients correlated with clinical outcome. METHODS: In before and after sorafenib treatment, blood samples collected from 19 patients with advanced HCC, the frequency of PD-1(+) T cells, Tregs, and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were quantified by multiparameter FACS...
July 21, 2016: JCI Insight
Itsaso Montalbán Del Barrio, Cornelia Penski, Laura Schlahsa, Roland G Stein, Joachim Diessner, Achim Wöckel, Johannes Dietl, Manfred B Lutz, Michel Mittelbronn, Jörg Wischhusen, Sebastian F M Häusler
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OvCA) tissues show abundant expression of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 which generate immunomodulatory adenosine, thereby inhibiting cytotoxic lymphocytes. Little, however, is known about the effect of adenosine on myeloid cells. Considering that tumor associated macrophages (TAM) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) constitute up to 20 % of OvCA tissue, we investigated the effect of adenosine on myeloid cells and explored a possible contribution of myeloid cells to adenosine generation in vitro and ex vivo...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Babak Nami, Armin Ghasemi-Dizgah, Akbar Vaseghi
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer stem cell with CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phonotype is described having stem cell properties and represented as the main driving factor in breast cancer initiation, growth, metastasis and low response to anti-cancer agents. Glucoseregulated proteins (GRPs) are heat shock protein family chaperons that are charged with regulation of protein machinery and modulation of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis whose important roles in stem cell development and invasion of various cancers have been demonstrated...
2016: BioImpacts: BI
Young-Hee Kim, Thi-Anh-Thuy Tran, Hyun-Ju Lee, Sook-In Jung, Je-Jung Lee, Wool-Youl Jang, Kyung-Sub Moon, In-Young Kim, Shin Jung, Tae-Young Jung
We investigated the use of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes in peptide immunotherapy for glioblastoma. Three peptides (ERBB2, BIRC5 and CD99) were selected based on their peptide-T2 cell binding affinities and combined in a multipeptide cocktail or a branched multipeptide synthesized with mini-polyethylene glycol spacers. Dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with the multipeptide cocktail or branched multipeptide were compared based on their immunophenotype and cytokine secretion. FACS analysis of alpha-type 1 polarized dendritic cells (αDC1s) revealed that both groups highly expressed CD80, CD83 and CD86, indicating that both treatments efficiently generated mature αDC1s with the expected phenotype...
July 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Jonathan Vinet, Ilia D Vainchtein, Carlotta Spano, Carmela Giordano, Domenico Bordini, Giulia Curia, Massimo Dominici, Hendrikus W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen, Giuseppe Biagini
Activated microglia, astrogliosis, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage and peripheral immune cell infiltration are features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Numerous studies correlated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines with the activated morphology of microglia, attributing them a pro-epileptogenic role. However, microglia and myeloid cells such as macrophages have always been difficult to distinguish due to an overlap in expressed cell surface molecules. Thus, the detrimental role in epilepsy that is attributed to microglia might be shared with myeloid infiltrates...
August 2016: Glia
Rui Liu, Jingbo Wang, Yan Yang, Inamullah Khan, Yue Dong, Naishuo Zhu
Besides rabies virus neutralizing antibody, non-neutralizing antibody to internal vital proteins, interferon, and possibly cell-mediated immunity also have a critical role in preventing the infection by rabies virus (RV). We identified novel CTL and Th epitopes which could induce lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ, IL-4 production, and designed linear and branched lipopeptides with these selected CTL and Th epitopes. Compared to linear construct, branched lipopeptides, especially Lipo C, stimulate stronger phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, as well as more efficient CD8(+) T cell responses, evaluating by using FACS, G333-341 tetramer staining and specific CTL assay...
August 2, 2016: Virus Research
Roman Rombo, Hans Weiher, Ingo G H Schmidt-Wolf
We examined the cytotoxic effects of chaetocin on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells and the possibility to combine the effects of chaetocin with the effects of cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK) assayed by MTT assay and FACS analysis. Chaetocin is a thiodioxopiperazine produced by fungi belonging to the chaetomiaceae family. In 2007, it was first reported that chaetocin shows potent and selective ex vivo anti-cancer activity by inducing reactive oxygen species. CIK cells are generated from CD3+/CD56- T lymphocytes with double negative CD4-/CD8- phenotype that are isolated from human blood...
2016: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
Hanaa Nafady-Hego, Ying Li, Hidenori Ohe, Hamed Elgendy, Xiangdong Zhao, Shimon Sakaguchi, G Alex Bishop, Takaaki Koshiba
Loss of cell surface expression of CD127 on CD4(+)CD25(++) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) may be a useful marker to efficiently isolate Tregs. As FOXP3 was specifically used to identify Tregs, combining these two markers could give better identification for patient with operational tolerance (OT) after liver transplantation. To testify this mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), the function of circulating CD4(+)CD25(++)CD127(dim) cells (CD127(dim) cells) was examined in immunosuppression (IS)-free pediatric recipients after liver transplantation (LTx) (group operational tolerance: OT) (Gr-tol n=25) compared to recipients who could not stop IS due to clinically overt rejection (group intolerance) (Gr-intol n=18), recipients who were weaning IS (Gr-weaning n=11) and age-matched healthy volunteers (Gr-vol n=11)...
May 2016: Transplant Immunology
Fatima Barragan, Juan C Irwin, Shaina Balayan, David W Erikson, Joseph C Chen, Sahar Houshdaran, Terhi T Piltonen, Trimble L B Spitzer, Ashley George, Joseph T Rabban, Camran Nezhat, Linda C Giudice
Human endometrium undergoes cyclic regeneration involving stem/progenitor cells, but the role of resident endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSC) as progenitors of endometrial stromal fibroblasts (eSF) has not been definitively demonstrated. In endometriosis, eSF display progesterone (P4) resistance with impaired decidualization in vivo and in vitro. To investigate eMSC as precursors of eSF and whether endometriosis P4 resistance is inherited from eMSC, we analyzed transcriptomes of eutopic endometrium eMSC and eSF isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from endometriosis (eMSCendo, eSFendo) and controls (eMSCcontrol, eSFcontrol) and their derived primary cultures...
May 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Giovanni Ferrara, Mariella Errede, Francesco Girolamo, Sara Morando, Federico Ivaldi, Nicolò Panini, Caterina Bendotti, Roberto Perris, Roberto Furlan, Daniela Virgintino, Nicole Kerlero de Rosbo, Antonio Uccelli
In adult CNS, nerve/glial-antigen 2 (NG2) is expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and is an early marker of pericyte activation in pathological conditions. NG2 could, therefore, play a role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease associated with increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, inflammatory infiltrates, and CNS damage. We induced EAE in NG2 knock-out (NG2KO) mice and used laser confocal microscopy immunofluorescence and morphometry to dissect the effect of NG2 KO on CNS pathology...
July 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Danielle L Peacock Brooks, Luciana P Schwab, Raisa Krutilina, Deanna N Parke, Aarti Sethuraman, David Hoogewijs, Alexandra Schörg, Lauren Gotwald, Meiyun Fan, Roland H Wenger, Tiffany N Seagroves
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are well-established mediators of tumor growth, the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. In several types of solid tumors, including breast cancers, the HIFs play a critical role in maintaining cancer stem cell (CSC) activity. Thus, we hypothesized that HIFs may also regulate transcription of markers of breast CSC activity. One approach to enrich for breast cells with stem-like phenotypes is FACS sorting, in which sub-populations of live cells are gated based on the expression of cell surface antigens, including various integrin subunits...
2016: Molecular Cancer
Irena Roci, Hector Gallart-Ayala, Angelika Schmidt, Jeramie Watrous, Mohit Jain, Craig E Wheelock, Roland Nilsson
Biological samples such as tissues, blood, or tumors are often complex and harbor heterogeneous populations of cells. Separating out specific cell types or subpopulations from such complex mixtures to study their metabolic phenotypes is challenging because experimental procedures for separation may disturb the metabolic state of cells. To address this issue, we developed a method for analysis of cell subpopulations using stable isotope tracing and fluorescence-activated cell sorting followed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry...
March 1, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Catharina Bartmann, Markus Junker, Sabine E Segerer, Sebastian F Häusler, Mathias Krockenberger, Ulrike Kämmerer
PROBLEM: Human pregnancy needs a remarkable local immune tolerance toward the conceptus. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are important players promoting cancer initiation and progression by suppressing T-cell functions and thus inducing immune tolerance. Therefore, MDSC were expected within decidua. METHODS: Subpopulations of CD33(+) immune cells were isolated from human early pregnancy decidua and characterized phenotypically and functionally by microscopy, FACS analysis, RT-PCR, Western blotting and in the coculture with T cells...
May 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Uma Chandrasekaran, Woelsung Yi, Sanjay Gupta, Chien-Huan Weng, Eugenia Giannopoulou, Yurii Chinenov, Rolf Jessberger, Casey T Weaver, Govind Bhagat, Alessandra B Pernis
OBJECTIVE: Treg cells need to acquire an effector phenotype to function in settings of inflammation. Whether effector Treg cells can limit disease severity in lupus is unknown. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) is an essential controller of effector Treg cells and regulates their ability to express interleukin-10 (IL-10). In non-Treg cells, IRF-4 activity is modulated by interactions with DEF-6 and its homolog switch-associated protein 70 (SWAP-70). Although mice lacking both DEF-6 and SWAP-70 (double-knockout [DKO] mice) develop lupus, they display normal survival, suggesting that in DKO mice, Treg cells can moderate disease development...
June 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Hanaa Bakir, Doaa Yones, Lamia Galal, Enas Huseein
BACKGROUND: In an effort to understand what limits the virulence of malaria parasites in relation to the host genetic and immunogenic background, we investigated the possibility that the parasite and host genotype crossover interactions constrain virulence. METHODS: Two groups of mice from different genotypes were used (C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 mice). The mice were infected with a virulent parasite line Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (P. yoelii 17XL). Parasitemia, hematocrit value and lymphocytes yielded by livers and spleens were evaluated...
October 2015: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Graham G Walmsley, Zeshaan N Maan, Michael S Hu, David A Atashroo, Alexander J Whittam, Dominik Duscher, Ruth Tevlin, Owen Marecic, H Peter Lorenz, Geoffrey C Gurtner, Michael T Longaker
Fibroblasts are the principle cell type responsible for secreting extracellular matrix and are a critical component of many organs and tissues. Fibroblast physiology and pathology underlie a spectrum of clinical entities, including fibroses in multiple organs, hypertrophic scarring following burns, loss of cardiac function following ischemia, and the formation of cancer stroma. However, fibroblasts remain a poorly characterized type of cell, largely due to their inherent heterogeneity. Existing methods for the isolation of fibroblasts require time in cell culture that profoundly influences cell phenotype and behavior...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
J Bryan Iorgulescu, Michael E Ivan, Michael Safaee, Andrew T Parsa
Tumor-derived microvesicular exosomes permit intercellular communication both locally and systemically by delivering a snapshot of the tumor cell's constituents. We thus investigated whether exosomes mediate malignant glioma's facility for inducing peripheral immunosuppression. In Western blot and RT-PCR analyses, glioma-derived exosomes displayed exosome-specific markers, but failed to recapitulate the antigen-presentation machinery, surface co-modulatory signals, or immunosuppressive mediator status of their parent tumor cells...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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