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Bone mineral density and fractures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334709/micronutrients-essential-fatty-acids-and-bone-health-in-phenylketonuria
#1
Serwet Demirdas, Francjan J van Spronsen, Carla E M Hollak, J Hanneke van der Lee, Peter H Bisschop, Fred M Vaz, Nienke M Ter Horst, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Annet M Bosch
INTRODUCTION: In phenylketonuria (PKU), a natural protein-restricted dietary treatment prevents severe cognitive impairment. Nutrient deficiencies may occur due to strict diet. This study is aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and blood concentrations of micronutrients and essential fatty acids (FA), bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture history in patients on long-term dietary treatment. METHODS: Sixty early diagnosed Dutch patients (aged 1-39 years) were included in a multi-center cross-sectional study...
March 24, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334220/effect-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-developed-countries
#2
Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Martin Hewison, Neil J Gittoes
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide with adverse effects on skeletal health. In recent years, there has been great interest in non-classical actions of vitamin D. Basic research has uncovered actions in a range of non-skeletal tissues, and observational studies have identified inverse relationships with risk of a number of disease states including sarcopenia, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Sources of data: PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Systematic Reviews...
March 9, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330908/the-effect-of-dairy-intake-on-bone-mass-and-body-composition-in-early-pubertal-girls-and-boys-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Kara A Vogel, Berdine R Martin, Linda D McCabe, Munro Peacock, Stuart J Warden, George P McCabe, Connie M Weaver
Background: Calcium retention increases with increasing body mass index (BMI) on recommended calcium intakes. Dairy foods are an excellent source of essential nutrients that are needed to increase bone mineral content (BMC) and potentially decrease fracture.Objective: We compared children who were overweight with children who were healthy weight for the accrual of bone mass in response to an extra 3 servings dairy/d compared with usual intake.Design: Participants were 240 healthy boys and girls (64%), aged 8-15...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327171/the-association-of-time-and-medications-with-changes-in-bone-mineral-density-in-the-2%C3%A2-years-after-critical-illness
#4
Neil R Orford, Michael Bailey, Rinaldo Bellomo, Julie A Pasco, Claire Cattigan, Tania Elderkin, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, David J Cooper, Mark A Kotowicz
BACKGROUND: Critical illness is associated with increased risk of fragility fracture and loss of bone mineral density (BMD), although the impact of medication exposures (bone anti-fracture therapy or glucocorticoids) and time remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to describe the association of time after ICU admission, and post-ICU administration of bone anti-fracture therapy or glucocorticoids after critical illness, with change in BMD. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, conducted in a tertiary hospital ICU, we studied adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours and measured BMD annually for 2 years after ICU discharge...
March 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326340/organ-and-tissue-level-properties-are-more-sensitive-to-age-than-osteocyte-lacunar-characteristics-in-rat-cortical-bone
#5
Nina Kølln Wittig, Fiona Linnea Bach-Gansmo, Mie Elholm Birkbak, Malene Laugesen, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Henrik Birkedal
Modeling and remodeling induce significant changes of bone structure and mechanical properties with age. Therefore, it is important to gain knowledge of the processes taking place in bone over time. The rat is a widely used animal model, where much data has been accumulated on age-related changes of bone on the organ and tissue level, whereas features on the nano- and micrometer scale are much less explored. We investigated the age-related development of organ and tissue level bone properties such as bone volume, bone mineral density, and load to fracture and correlated these with osteocyte lacunar properties in rat cortical bone...
June 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325584/development-of-a-surrogate-model-based-on-patient-weight-bone-mass-and-geometry-to-predict-femoral-neck-strains-and-fracture-loads
#6
Mark Taylor, Egon Perilli, Saulo Martelli
Osteoporosis and related bone fractures are an increasing global burden in our ageing society. Areal bone mineral density assessed through dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), the clinically accepted and most used method, is not sufficient to assess fracture risk individually. Finite element (FE) modelling has shown improvements in prediction of fracture risk, better than aBMD from DEXA, but is not practical for widespread clinical use. The aim of this study was to develop an adaptive neural network (ANN)-based surrogate model to predict femoral neck strains and fracture loads obtained from a previously developed population-based FE model...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324131/case-report-fast-reversal-of-severe-osteoporosis-after-correction-of-excessive-levothyroxine-treatment-and-long-term-follow-up
#7
C M Laine, K Landin-Wilhelmsen
This case report describes a 38-year-old woman, who presented with bilateral femoral stress fractures and osteoporosis after years of excessive levothyroxine treatment. Her bone health was restored rapidly and long-lasting with the reduction of levothyroxine dosage. No bone-active treatment was warranted. INTRODUCTION: Hyperthyroidism is a known risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures. Recent studies on patients with serum thyrotropin-suppressive therapy have not, however, indicated adverse effects on bone during long-term follow-up...
March 21, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324062/gene-hormone-therapy-interaction-and-fracture-risk-in-postmenopausal-women
#8
Youjin Wang, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Leah Preus, Kathleen M Hovey, Jing Nie, Rebecca D Jackson, Samuel K Handelman, Rami Nassir, Carolyn J Crandall, Heather M Ochs-Balcom
Context: Evidence supports a protective effect of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) on bone. However, whether genetic susceptibility modifies the association of HT and fracture risk is not sufficiently explored. Objective: The objective was to test an interaction between genetic susceptibility and HT on fracture risk. Design: We constructed two weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) based on 16 fracture-associated variants (Fx-GRS) and 50 bone mineral density (BMD) variants (BMD-GRS)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324004/bone-turnover-is-suppressed-in-insulin-resistance-independent-of-adiposity
#9
K T Tonks, C P White, J R Center, D Samocha-Bonet, J R Greenfield
Context: The contribution of insulin resistance vs. adiposity to bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover and fractures in humans remains unclear. Objective: Evaluate BMD and bone turnover markers (BTM) in lean (n=18) and overweight/obese individuals with (n=17) and without type 2 diabetes (n=34, deemed insulin-sensitive [Obsensitive, n=15] or insulin-resistant [Obresistant, n=19] by HOMA-IR). Design: Observational study. Outcome measures: Insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; whole body BMD and fat mass (FM) by DXA; and BTM (osteocalcin [OC], procollagen type-1 propeptide [P1NP] and collagen type-1 cross-linked C-telopeptide [CTx]) fasting and during clamp hyperinsulinemia...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323974/phenotypic-spectrum-in-osteogenesis-imperfecta-due-to-mutations-in-tmem38b-unravelling-a-complex-cellular-defect
#10
Emma A Webb, Meena Balasubramanian, Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Wayne A Cabral, Hannah Titheradge, Atif Alsaedi, Vrinda Saraff, Julie Vogt, Trevor Cole, Susan Stewart, Nicola J Crabtree, Brandi M Sargent, Sonja Gamsjaeger, Eleftherios P Paschalis, Paul Roschger, Klaus Klaushofer, Nick J Shaw, Joan C Marini, Wolfgang Högler
Context: Recessive mutations in TMEM38B cause type XIV osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) by dysregulating intracellular calcium flux. Objectives: Clinical and bone material phenotype description and osteoblast differentiation studies. Design and Setting: Natural history study in paediatric research centres. Patients: Eight patients with type XIV OI. Main Outcome Measures: Clinical examinations included: bone mineral density, radiographs, echocardiography and muscle biopsy...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323711/effect-of-bone-cement-volume-fraction-on-adjacent-vertebral-fractures-after-unilateral-percutaneous-kyphoplasty
#11
Dasheng Lin, Jianming Hao, Lin Li, Lei Wang, Huantang Zhang, Weitao Zou, Kejian Lian
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Complications of the bone cement used in vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty procedures have received increasingly more attention, especially for bone cement volume. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess the relationship between bone cement volume fraction and adjacent vertebral fracture (AVF) after unilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2006 and 2011, 495 patients with single-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) were surgically treated by unilateral PKP and had completed 12-month follow-up in our hospital...
April 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323146/hypogonadal-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-have-smaller-bone-size-and-lower-bone-turnover
#12
Georgia Colleluori, Lina Aguirre, Richard Dorin, David Robbins, Dean Blevins, Yoann Barnouin, Rui Chen, Clifford Qualls, Dennis T Villareal, Reina Armamento-Villareal
INTRODUCTION: Both hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are associated with increased fracture risk. Emerging data support the negative effect of low testosterone on glucose metabolism, however, there is little information on the bone health of hypogonadal men with diabetes. We evaluated the bone mineral density (BMD), bone geometry and bone turnover of hypogonadal men with T2D compared to hypogonadal men without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study, men 40-74years old, with average morning testosterone (done twice) of<300ng/dl...
March 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323142/zoledronic-acid-improves-bone-histomorphometry-in-a-murine-model-of-rett-syndrome
#13
Jay R Shapiro, Adele L Boskey, Stephen B Doty, Lyudmila Lukashova, Mary E Blue
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder predominately affecting young females, caused by deficiency of the global transcriptional protein methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Osteoblasts express MeCP2 and girls with RTT experience early onset osteoporosis, decreased bone mass and an increased fracture risk. There is no defined treatment for osteoporosis associated with RTT. The present study evaluated the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA), a third generation nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate with primarily anti-osteoclastic activity, in a mouse model of MeCP2 deficiency...
March 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321531/bone-quality-in-beta-thalassemia-intermedia-relationships-with-bone-quantity-and-endocrine-and-hematologic-variables
#14
Marina Baldini, A Marcon, F M Ulivieri, S Seghezzi, R Cassin, C Messina, M D Cappellini, G Graziadei
We report the first evaluation of bone quality in 70 thalassemia intermedia (TI) patients (37 males, 33 females, age 41 ± 12 years). Thirty-three patients (47%) had been transfused, 34 (49%) had been splenectomized, 39 (56%) were on iron chelation therapy, and 11 (16%) were on hydroxyurea. Mean hemoglobin was 9.2 ± 1.5 g/dl, median ferritin 537 ng/dl (range 14-4893), and mean liver iron concentration 7.6 ± 6.4 mg Fe/g dw. Fifteen patients (21%) had endocrinopathies, and 29 (41%) had vitamin D deficiency...
March 20, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321507/the-relationship-between-cumulative-lifetime-ultraviolet-radiation-exposure-bone-mineral-density-falls-risk-and-fractures-in-older-adults
#15
M J W Thompson, D A Aitken, P Otahal, J Cicolini, T M Winzenberg, G Jones
Data linking cumulative lifetime vitamin D status with skeletal outcomes are lacking. We show that increasing cumulative sun exposure was associated with higher bone mineral density in younger males and protective against fractures in females independent of current vitamin D. This supports the concept that cumulative sun exposure is an important contributor to skeletal health. INTRODUCTION: While low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with increased fracture risk, this reflects only recent sun exposure...
March 20, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321061/effects-of-denosumab-on-bone-metabolic-markers-and-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-treated-with-glucocorticoids
#16
Masato Sawamura, Atsushi Komatsuda, Masaru Togashi, Hideki Wakui, Naoto Takahashi
Objective We performed a prospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of denosumab on bone metabolic indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in 29 patients receiving long-term glucocorticoids (GCs) who had clinical risk factors for fracture. Methods Among these patients, 16 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 6 RA, 4 other autoimmune diseases, and 3 renal diseases. All patients received donosumab 60 mg at baseline and 6 months. Serum N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels were measured as bone metabolic indices...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316964/the-fixation-method-according-to-the-fracture-type-of-the-greater-trochanter-in-unstable-intertrochanteric-fractures-undergoing-arthroplasty
#17
Doohoon Sun, Byeong-Seop Park, Gun-Il Jang, Bongjoo Lee
PURPOSE: We conducted a study on patients who underwent hip joint arthroplasty because of unstable femur intertrochanteric fractures with greater trochanter bony fragments. After dividing patients into three groups depending on their fracture patterns, we evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of different operation methods applied to each of these groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Evan's classification, we defined an unstable intertrochanteric fracture as those characterized as stage 4 or 5...
March 2017: Hip & Pelvis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316103/identification-of-hip-bmd-loss-and-fracture-risk-markers-through-population-based-serum-proteomics
#18
Carrie M Nielson, Jack Wiedrick, Jian Shen, Jon Jacobs, Erin S Baker, Aaron Baraff, Paul Piehowski, Christine G Lee, Arie Baratt, Vladislav Petyuk, Shannon McWeeney, Jeong Youn Lim, Douglas C Bauer, Nancy E Lane, Peggy M Cawthon, Richard D Smith, Jodi Lapidus, Eric S Orwoll
Serum proteomics analysis may lead to the discovery of novel osteoporosis biomarkers. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) comprises men ≥65 in the US who have had repeated BMD measures and have been followed for incident fracture. High-throughput quantitative proteomic analysis was performed on baseline fasting serum samples from non-Hispanic white men using a multi-dimensional approach coupling liquid chromatography, ion-mobility separation, and mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS). We followed the participants for a mean of 4...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315954/trends-in-osteoporosis-and-low-bone-mass-in-older-us-adults-2005-2006-through-2013-2014
#19
A C Looker, N Sarafrazi Isfahani, B Fan, J A Shepherd
This study examined trends in osteoporosis and low bone mass in older US adults between 2005 and 2014 using bone mineral density (BMD) data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Osteoporosis and low bone mass appear to have increased at the femur neck but not at the lumbar spine during this period. INTRODUCTION: Recent preliminary data from Medicare suggest that the decline in hip fracture incidence among older US adults may have plateaued in 2013-2014, but comparable data on BMD trends for this time period are currently lacking...
March 18, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304090/osteoporosis-treatment-efficacy-for-men-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Smita Nayak, Susan L Greenspan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of treatment options to reduce osteoporotic fracture risk in men. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Randomized clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of a treatment for osteoporosis or low bone mineral density for adult men and reported fracture outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Men. MEASUREMENTS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant studies...
March 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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