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Bone mineral density and fractures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452785/the-risks-of-sarcopenia-falls-and-fractures-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
REVIEW
C Sarodnik, S P G Bours, N C Schaper, J P van den Bergh, T A C M van Geel
Fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased, and the mechanism is multifactorial. Recent research on T2DM-induced bone fragility shows that bone mineral density (BMD) is often normal or even slightly elevated. However, bone turnover may be decreased and bone material and microstructural properties are altered, especially when microvascular complications are present. Besides bone fragility, extra-skeletal factors leading to an increased propensity to experience falls may also contribute to the increased fracture risk in T2DM, such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy and diabetes medication (e...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450584/dietary-patterns-and-longitudinal-change-in-hip-bone-mineral-density-among-older-men
#2
T S Rogers, S Harrison, S Judd, E S Orwoll, L M Marshall, J Shannon, L Langsetmo, N E Lane, J M Shikany
Studying dietary patterns is often more informative than individual nutrients or foods. We found that a Prudent dietary pattern (rich in vegetables and fish) was associated with reduced loss of total hip BMD in older men. A Prudent dietary pattern may be a potential lifestyle strategy for minimizing bone loss. INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to identify baseline dietary patterns using factor analysis in a cohort of older men and to evaluate whether the dietary patterns were associated with bone mineral density change (%ΔBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck over time...
February 15, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445830/bone-health-assessment-in-older-people-with-or-without-muscle-health-impairment
#3
M Locquet, C Beaudart, O Bruyère, J A Kanis, L Delandsheere, J-Y Reginster
This study investigated the relationship between muscle and bone status in elderly individuals. Our results suggested links between sarcopenia and osteoporosis; impairment in muscle status (i.e., muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance) is associated with deterioration in bone mass and texture subsequently leading to an increased risk of fracture. INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence has shown associations between sarcopenia and osteoporosis, but existing studies face inconsistencies in the clinical definition of both conditions...
February 14, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443044/scanning-skeletal-remains-for-bone-mineral-density-in-forensic-contexts
#4
Amanda R Hale, Ann H Ross
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a promising, novel method to aid in the assessment of bone quality in forensically relevant skeletal remains. BMD is an important component of bone's nutritional status and in skeletal remains of both juveniles and adults, and it can provide information about bone quality. For adults remains, it can provide information on pathological conditions or when bone insufficiency may have occurred. In juveniles, it provides a useful metric to elucidate cases of fatal starvation or neglect, which are generally difficult to identify...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440880/comparison-of-three-tools-for-predicting-primary-osteoporosis-in-an-elderly-male-population-in-beijing-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
XiaoDong Zhang, JiSheng Lin, Yong Yang, Hao Wu, Yongjin Li, Xiuquan Yang, Qi Fei
Purpose: In this cross-sectional study, three clinical tools, the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) without bone mineral density (BMD), and body mass index (BMI), for predicting primary osteoporosis (OP) were compared and ideal thresholds for omission of screening BMD were proposed in a community-dwelling elderly Han Beijing male population. Patients and methods: A total of 1,349 community-dwelling elderly Han Beijing males aged ≥50 years were enrolled in this study...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440373/calcium-supplementation-in-osteoporosis-useful-or-harmful
#6
Iacopo Chiodini, Mark J Bolland
Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are important social and economic problems worldwide and are due to both the loss of bone mineral density and sarcopenia. Indeed, fragility fractures are associated with increased disability, morbidity and mortality. It is known that a normal calcium balance together with a normal vitamin D status is important for maintaining well-balanced bone metabolism and for many years calcium and vitamin D has been considered crucial in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439698/a-retrospective-analysis-of-bone-mineral-status-in-patients-requiring-spinal-surgery
#7
Tobias Schmidt, Katharina Ebert, Tim Rolvien, Nicola Oehler, Jens Lohmann, Luca Papavero, Ralph Kothe, Michael Amling, Florian Barvencik, Haider Mussawy
BACKGROUND: Impaired bone quality is associated with poor outcome of spinal surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the bone mineral status of patients scheduled to undergo spinal surgery and to report frequencies of bone mineral disorders. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the bone mineral status of 144 patients requiring spinal surgery including bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as laboratory data with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), parathyroid hormone, calcium, bone specific alkaline phosphate, osteocalcin, and gastrin...
February 13, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438824/low-bone-toughness-in-the-tallyho-model-of-juvenile-type-2-diabetes-does-not-worsen-with-age
#8
Amy Creecy, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Mustafa Unal, R Clay Bunn, Paul Voziyan, Jeffry S Nyman
Fracture risk increases as type 2 diabetes (T2D) progresses. With the rising incidence of T2D, in particular early-onset T2D, a representative pre-clinical model is needed to study mechanisms for treating or preventing diabetic bone disease. Towards that goal, we hypothesized that fracture resistance of bone from diabetic TallyHO mice decreases as the duration of diabetes increases. Femurs and lumbar vertebrae were harvested from male, TallyHO mice and male, non-diabetic SWR/J mice at 16 weeks (n ≥ 12 per strain) and 34 weeks (n ≥ 13 per strain) of age...
February 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438136/risk-factors-for-low-bone-mineral-density-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-the-positive-role-of-physical-activity
#9
Stefano Nobile, Richard J Grand, Helen M Pappa
OBJECTIVE: In pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone fractures and the relationship between these are still debated. Our aim was to report data from a cohort of pediatric patients with IBD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional assessment of growth and BMD [(dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)] and retrospective chart review were performed to report the lifetime prevalence of bone fractures and clinical associations with patients' data...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435849/denosumab-a-review-in-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#10
Emma D Deeks
Denosumab (Prolia®; Pralia®) is a human monoclonal antibody targeting the key bone resorption mediator RANKL. The drug is administered via subcutaneous injection once every 6 months and is approved for various indications, including the treatment of postmenopausal (PM) women with osteoporosis at increased/high risk of fracture or failure/intolerance of other osteoporosis therapies (indications featured in this review). Denosumab showed benefit in several phase 3 or 4 studies in PM women with osteoporosis or low bone mineral density (BMD), including the pivotal 3-year double-blind FREEDOM trial and its 7-year open-label extension...
February 12, 2018: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435659/teenagers-and-young-adults-with-nephropathic-cystinosis-display-significant-bone-disease-and-cortical-impairment
#11
Aurélia Bertholet-Thomas, Debora Claramunt-Taberner, Ségolène Gaillard, Georges Deschênes, Elisabeth Sornay-Rendu, Pawel Szulc, Martine Cohen-Solal, Solenne Pelletier, Marie-Christine Carlier, Pierre Cochat, Justine Bacchetta
BACKGROUND: Bone impairment appears to be a novel complication of nephropathic cystinosis despite cysteamine therapy. Its exact underlying pathophysiology is nevertheless unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate bone status among patients included in the French Crystobs study. METHODS: In addition to clinical data, bone status was evaluated using biomarkers (ALP, PTH, 25-D, 1-25D, FGF23), DXA (spine and total body), and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the tibia and radius...
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430846/low-grip-strength-is-a-strong-risk-factor-of-osteoporosis-in-postmenopausal-women
#12
Yi-Zhong Li, Hua-Feng Zhuang, Si-Qing Cai, Chang-Kun Lin, Pei-Wen Wang, Li-Sheng Yan, Jin-Kuang Lin, Hai-Ming Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of grip strength on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Low BMD is related to risk of fracture and falling is the strongest factor for fragility fractures. Handgrip strength is a reliable indicator of muscle strength and muscle strength is associated with falling. METHODS: For the present study 120 women were divided into two groups: those ≤65 years and those >65 years. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), BMD, and handgrip strength were measured to observe the effect of age on 25OHD, grip strength, and BMD, as well as the effect of 25OHD on grip strength and BMD...
February 12, 2018: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429033/implementing-a-fracture-liaison-service-open-model-of-care-utilizing-a-cloud-based-tool
#13
S L Greenspan, A Singer, K Vujevich, B Marchand, D A Thompson, Y-J Hsu, D Vaidya, L S Stern, D Zeldow, D B Lee, S Karp, R Recker
PURPOSE: Although half of women and one-quarter of men aged 50 and older will sustain an acute low-trauma fracture, less than a quarter receive appropriate secondary fracture prevention. The goal of this quality improvement demonstration project was to implement a Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) focused on secondary prevention of an osteoporotic fracture in three open health care systems aided by a cloud-based tool. METHODS: The pre-post study design examined the proportion of men and women over age 50 who received appropriate assessment (bone mineral density, vitamin D levels) and treatment (calcium/vitamin D, pharmacologic therapy) in the six months following a recently diagnosed fracture...
February 10, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428552/high-bone-mineral-density-in-sickle-cell-disease-prevalence-and-characteristics
#14
Gonzalo De Luna, Brigitte Ranque, Marie Courbebaisse, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Djamal Khimoud, Sidonie Dupeux, Jonathan Silvera, Lucile Offredo, Jacques Pouchot, Jean-Benoît Arlet
BACKGROUND: Osteosclerosis (OSC) is a rarely studied complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of high bone mineral density (BMD) and its radiological features in adult SCD patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted from May 2007 to May 2016 in consecutive patients with steady-state SCD at two university hospitals. The BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and right femoral neck was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
February 8, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424257/romosozumab-treatment-in-postmenopausal-women-with-osteoporosis-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Y Liu, Y Cao, S Zhang, W Zhang, B Zhang, Q Tang, Z Li, J Wu
AIM: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of romosozumab in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. METHOD: A comprehensive literature review was performed of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, and Web of Science for RCTs. Outcome measures were changes in lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), incidence of fractures and adverse events...
February 9, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423715/modeling-and-simulation-of-bone-mineral-density-in-japanese-osteoporosis-patients-treated-with-zoledronic-acid-using-tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase-5b-a-bone-resorption-marker
#16
Y Mori, H Kasai, A Ose, M Serada, M Ishiguro, M Shiraki, Y Tanigawara
Annual intravenous administration of zoledronic acid is used in the treatment of osteoporosis. A mathematical model was developed to predict bone mineral density up to 2 years after two annual doses of zoledronic acid from the early values of a bone resorption marker in osteoporosis patients. INTRODUCTION: The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) has been used as a surrogate marker instead of the observation of incident fractures to detect the efficacy of treatment. However, this method requires a long time to obtain significant changes...
February 8, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417015/prevalence-of-osteoporosis-and-osteopenia-in-stable-patients-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-sub-himalayan-region-of-himachal-pradesh-india
#17
Nishant Nayyar, R G Sood, Malay Sarkar, Ashwani Tomar, Vijay Thakur, Rohit Bhoil
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lifestyle-related chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are common observations in COPD and degree of the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) has been found to be proportionate to the severity of the disease. Objectives: Our objective was to study the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in stable COPD patients in Indian Sub-Himalayan population...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416218/the-trabecular-bone-score-predicts-spine-fragility-fractures-in-postmenopausal-caucasian-women-without-osteoporosis-independently-of-bone-mineral-density
#18
Claudio Ripamonti, Lucia Lisi, Angela Buffa, Saverio Gnudi, Renata Caudarella
Introduction: The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural metric that can be extracted from the two-dimensional lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) image. TBS is related to bone microarchitecture. Several literature data suggest that TBS predicts fracture risk as well as lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) measurements in postmenopausal women. Objective: A retrospective case-control study assessing the ability of the TBS to predict spine fragility fractures (SFF) in postmenopausal women with or without osteoporosis (diagnosed by T-score≤-2...
February 2018: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414436/how-does-the-femoral-cortex-depend-on-bone-shape-a-methodology-for-the-joint-analysis-of-surface-texture-and-shape
#19
A H Gee, G M Treece, K E S Poole
In humans, there is clear evidence of an association between hip fracture risk and femoral neck bone mineral density, and some evidence of an association between fracture risk and the shape of the proximal femur. Here, we investigate whether the femoral cortex plays a role in these associations: do particular morphologies predispose to weaker cortices? To answer this question, we used cortical bone mapping to measure the distribution of cortical mass surface density (CMSD, mg/cm2) in a cohort of 125 females...
February 2, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411304/efficacy-of-anti-osteoporotic-medications-in-patients-with-type-1-and-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Stavroula A Paschou, Nifon N Gkekas, Aikaterini-Maria Artzouchaltzi, Konstantinos Christou, Dimitrios Stogiannou, Andromachi Vryonidou, Michael Potoupnis, Dimitrios G Goulis
PURPOSE: Both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with bone fragility and increased fracture risk. However, little is known regarding the effect of anti-osteoporotic treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and/or fracture risk in these patients. We aimed to systematically investigate the efficacy of anti-osteoporotic medications in patients with diabetes in comparison with non-diabetic subjects. METHODS: MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched (up to 31st October 2017)...
February 6, 2018: Endocrine
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