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Bone mineral density and fractures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097725/increased-cortical-porosity-in-women-with-hip-fracture
#1
D Sundh, A G Nilsson, M Nilsson, L Johansson, D Mellström, M Lorentzon
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures cause increased mortality and disability and consume enormous healthcare resources. Only 46% of hip fracture patients have osteoporosis at the total hip according to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement. Cortical porosity increases with ageing and is believed to be important for bone strength. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether older women with hip fracture have higher cortical porosity than controls, and if so whether this difference is independent of clinical risk factors and areal bone mineral density (aBMD)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097118/femur-neck-fracture-in-a-young-marfan-syndrome-patient
#2
Yong-Uk Kwon, Gyu-Min Kong, Jun-Ho Park
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant and could decrease bone mineral density. So patients with Marfan syndrome could vulnerable to trauma in old ages. We present the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of a rare fracture of the femoral neck with a minor traumatic history in a juvenile Marfan syndrome patient whose physis is still open. Although the patient is young, her bone mineral density was low and the geometry of femur is changed like old ages. The femur neck fracture in children is very rare and only caused by high energy trauma, we concluded that the Marfan syndrome makes the bone weaker in young age and preventative medications to avoid fractures in younger Marfan syndrome patients are necessary in early ages...
December 2016: Hip & Pelvis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096123/current-evidence-on-the-association-of-dietary-patterns-and-bone-health-a-scoping-review
#3
REVIEW
Elham Z Movassagh, Hassan Vatanparast
Nutrition is an important modifiable factor that affects bone health. Diet is a complex mixture of nutrients and foods that correlate or interact with each other. Dietary pattern approaches take into account contributions from various aspects of diet. Findings from dietary pattern studies could complement those from single-nutrient and food studies on bone health. In this study we aimed to conduct a scoping review of the literature that assessed the impact of dietary patterns (derived with the use of both a priori and data-driven approaches) on bone outcomes, including bone mineral status, bone biomarkers, osteoporosis, and fracture risk...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093944/healing-efficacy-of-fracture-targeted-gsk3%C3%AE-inhibitor-loaded-micelles-for-improved-fracture-repair
#4
Stewart A Low, Chris V Galliford, Yava L Jones-Hall, Jyoti Roy, Jiyuan Yang, Philip S Low, Jindřich Kopeček
AIM: To evaluate the fracture healing capabilities of a GSK3β inhibitor, 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, coupled with an aspartic acid octapeptide in a micellar delivery system. MATERIALS & METHODS: The efficacy of the intravenously administered micelles to accelerate healing of femoral fracture in mice was evaluated. Micro-computed tomography analysis was employed to obtain bone density, total volume, relative volume, trabecular thickness and trabecular spacing. RESULTS: Both fracture bone mineral density and volume were significantly higher in the micelle treatment groups when compared with controls...
January 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090446/quantitative-imaging-methods-in-osteoporosis
#5
REVIEW
Ling Oei, Fjorda Koromani, Fernando Rivadeneira, M Carola Zillikens, Edwin H G Oei
Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features...
December 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089422/low-magnitude-mechanical-signals-and-the-spine-a-review-of-current-and-future-applications
#6
REVIEW
Martin H Pham, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey C Wang, Frank L Acosta
Animal and human studies demonstrate the anabolic properties of low-magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) in its ability to improve bone formation by enhancing the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and their subsequent commitment down an osteoblastic lineage. Response to mechanical strains as low as 10μɛ have been seen, illustrating the sensitivity of mechanosensory cells to mechanotransduction pathways. Applications to the spine include treatment of osteoporosis in preparation for instrumented fusion, fracture reduction in spinal cord injury patients to slow bone mineral density loss, and bone tissue engineering and enhancement of bone-implant osseointegration for pseudarthrosis and hardware failure...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088646/bone-microarchitecture-in-adolescent-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Ann M Neumeyer, Natalia Cano Sokoloff, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Christopher J McDougle, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) than typically developing controls (TDC). Studies of volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture provide information about fracture risk beyond that provided by aBMD but are currently lacking in ASD. OBJECTIVES: To assess ultradistal radius and distal tibia vBMD, bone microarchitecture and strength estimates in adolescent boys with ASD compared to TDC. DESIGN/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 34 boys (16 ASD, 18 TDC) that assessed (i) aBMD at the whole body (WB), WB less head (WBLH), hip and spine using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), (ii) vBMD and bone microarchitecture at the ultradistal radius and distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT), and (iii) bone strength estimates (stiffness and failure load) using micro-finite element analysis (FEA)...
January 11, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087216/denosumab-and-alendronate-treatment-in-patients-with-back-pain-due-to-fresh-osteoporotic-vertebral-fractures
#8
Tomoko Tetsunaga, Tomonori Tetsunaga, Keiichiro Nishida, Masato Tanaka, Yoshihisa Sugimoto, Tomoyuki Takigawa, Yoshitaka Takei, Toshifumi Ozaki
INTRODUCTION: Denosumab specifically inhibits the receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), and prevents osteoporotic fractures. Several reports have analyzed the effects of denosumab and alendronate alone on bone mineral density (BMD) or reduction of fracture risk. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of antiresorptive osteoporosis pharmacotherapy on pain relief in patients with fresh vertebral fracture. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study included 80 patients (10 males, 70 females) with fresh osteoporotic vertebral fractures treated using denosumab at a dose of 60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months (40 patients) or alendronate at a dose of 35 mg orally every week (40 patients) for 6 months in our hospital...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079799/risk-factors-for-recollapse-of-the-augmented-vertebrae-after-percutaneous-vertebroplasty-for-osteoporotic-vertebral-fractures-with-intravertebral-vacuum-cleft
#9
Weibo Yu, De Liang, Zhensong Yao, Ting Qiu, Linqiang Ye, Xuecheng Huang, Xiaobing Jiang
To determine risk factors related to recollapse of the augmented vertebrae after percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) with intravertebral vacuum cleft (IVC).Fifty-two patients treated with PVP for single OVCFs with the IVC were retrospectively reviewed. The follow-up period was at least 2 years. Vertebral height loss ≥15% or kyphotic angle ≥10° at the final follow-up in relation to the immediately postoperative values were adopted as a definition of recollapse of the augmented vertebrae...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077497/bone-material-strength-index-as-measured-by-impact-microindentation-is-altered-in-patients-with-acromegaly
#10
Frank Malgo, Neveen Hamdy, Ton J Rabelink, H Kroon, Kim M J A Claessen, Alberto M Pereira, N R Biermasz, Natasha M Appelman-Dijkstra
OBJECTIVE: Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by excess growth hormone (GH) production by a pituitary adenoma. The skeletal complications of GH and IGF-1 excess include increased bone turnover, increased cortical bone mass and deteriorated microarchitecture of trabecular bone, associated with a high risk of vertebral fractures in the presence of relatively normal Bone Mineral Density (BMD). We aimed to evaluate tissue-level properties of bone using impact microindentation (IMI) in well-controlled patients with acromegaly aged ≥18 years compared to 44 controls from the outpatient clinic of the Centre for Bone Quality...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074251/hyponatremia-and-fractures-should-hyponatremia-be-further-studied-as-a-potential-biochemical-risk-factor-to-be-included-in-frax-algorithms
#11
REVIEW
J C Ayus, T Bellido, A L Negri
The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) was developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for metabolic bone diseases to evaluate fracture risk of patients. It is based on patient models that integrate the risk associated with clinical variables and bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck. The clinical risk factors included in FRAX were chosen to include only well-established and independent variables related to skeletal fracture risk. The FRAX tool has acquired worldwide acceptance despite having several limitations...
January 10, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072794/does-percutaneous-vertebroplasty-or-balloon-kyphoplasty-for-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures-increase-the-incidence-of-new-vertebral-fractures-a-meta-analysis
#12
Hui Zhang, Caiyuan Xu, Tongxing Zhang, Zhongyu Gao, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Because of an aging population,osteoporotic vertebral fractures are becoming more frequent.Conservative therapy was considered the gold standard for treating osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) in the past. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) or balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) as minimally invasive techniques are new treatments that are widely used for painful OVCFs. However, an increase in new vertebral compression fractures at non-treated levels following augmentation is of concern...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071822/responses-to-treatment-with-teriparatide-in-patients-with-atypical-femur-fractures-previously-treated-with-bisphosphonates
#13
Nelson B Watts, Deborah Aggers, Edward F McCarthy, Tina Savage, Stephanie Martinez, Rachel Patterson, Erin Carrithers, Paul D Miller
If over-suppression of bone turnover explained the association between bisphosphonate use and atypical subtrochanteric femur fractures (AFF), this could be reversed with anabolic treatment such as teriparatide. We conducted a prospective, open label study in patients previously treated with bisphosphonates who sustained AFF, examining the response to 24 months treatment with teriparatide on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular bone score (TBS), bone turnover markers (BTM) and fracture healing as well as quantitative histomorphometry...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069090/effects-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-for-osteoporosis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Hayden F Atkinson, Rebecca F Moyer, Daniel Yacoub, Dexter Coughlin, Trevor B Birmingham
Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) on bone mineral density (BMD) in persons age 50 and older, with normal pituitary function, with or at risk for developing osteoporosis. We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials (RCTs), searching six databases, and conducted meta-analyses to examine GH effects on BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Data for fracture incidence, bone metabolism biomarkers, and adverse events were also extracted and analysed. Thirteen RCTs met the eligibility criteria...
January 10, 2017: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067882/skeletal-outcome-in-long-term-survivors-of-childhood-high-risk-neuroblastoma-treated-with-high-dose-therapy-and-autologous-stem-cell-rescue
#15
P Utriainen, A Vatanen, S Toiviainen-Salo, U Saarinen-Pihkala, O Mäkitie, K Jahnukainen
High-dose therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have been shown to improve survival rates in high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL), but may cause adverse effects on the growing skeleton. We studied skeletal health in a national cohort of long-term survivors of HR-NBL (n=21; age 16-30 years, median 22 years) and in 20 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. In addition to clinical evaluation and measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we performed spinal magnetic resonance imaging...
January 9, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067411/understanding-bone-strength-is-not-enough
#16
C J Hernandez, M C H van der Meulen
Increases in fracture risk beyond what are expected from bone mineral density (BMD) are often attributed to poor "bone quality" such as impaired bone tissue strength. Recent studies, however, have highlighted the importance of tissue material properties other than strength, such as fracture toughness. Here we review the concepts behind failure properties other than strength and the physical mechanisms through which they cause mechanical failure: strength describes failure from a single overload; fracture toughness describes failure from a modest load combined with a pre-existing flaw or damage; and fatigue strength describes failure from thousands to millions of cycles of small loads...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064540/romosozumab-for-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#17
Leonardo Bandeira, E Michael Lewiecki, John P Bilezikian
Sclerostin, a glycoprotein produced primarily by osteocytes, blocks the canonical Wnt signaling bone formation pathway. Romosozumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to sclerostin that binds to sclerostin, permitting the engagement of Wnt ligands with their co-receptors, resulting in an increase in bone formation and bone mineral density (BMD). Clinical studies with romosozumab have shown dramatic improvements in BMD at the spine and hip. Romosozumab is associated with improvement in bone strength through mechanisms that include increases in bone formation and, different from classical osteoanabolic agents, suppression of bone resorption...
January 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063842/relationship-between-urinary-calcium-and-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-calcium-nephrolithiasis
#18
Khashayar Sakhaee, Naim M Maalouf, John Poindexter, Beverley Adams-Huet, Orson W Moe
BACKGROUND: Calcium nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Hypercalciuria has been assumed to be pathogenic for bone loss in kidney stone formers (KSF), although this association was shown in small cross-sectional studies. We explored the association of urine calcium (UCaV) with bone mineral density (BMD) in KSF. METHODS: We retrospectively studied BMD in KSF. Excluded were subjects with hypercalcemia, chronic bowel disease, primary hyperparathyroidism, distal renal tubular acidosis or endogenous creatinine clearance <40 ml/min...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063675/high-prevalence-of-simultaneous-rib-and-vertebral-fractures-in-patients-with-hip-fracture
#19
Bong-Gun Lee, Yoon-Kyoung Sung, Dam Kim, Yun Young Choi, Hunchul Kim, Yeesuk Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture using bone scans in patients with hip fracture and to determine the risk factors associated with simultaneous fracture. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred eighty two patients with hip fracture were reviewed for this study. Clinical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were investigated. To identify acute simultaneous fracture, a bone scan was performed at 15...
December 29, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059033/independent-relationship-of-osteocalcin-circulating-levels-with-obesity-type-2-diabetes-hypertension-and-hdl-cholesterol
#20
Giovanni De Pergola, Vincenzo Triggiani, Nicola Bartolomeo, Adele Nardecchia, Vito Angelo Giagulli, Irene Bruno, Domenico Caccavo, Franco Silvestris
BACKGROUND: Osteocalcin, a protein synthesized by osteoblasts during the bone formation phase of bone remodeling, is used as a biomarker for the bone production process, and its serum levels are positively correlated with bone mineral density during treatment with anabolic bone drugs for osteoporosis. Higher fat mass has been shown to be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures and body fat and bone interplay through several adipokines and bone-derived molecules, regulating bone remodeling, adipogenesis, body weight control, and glucose homeostasis...
January 6, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
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