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Placenta mitochondria

Jessica Monreal-Flores, María Teresa Espinosa-García, Alejandro García-Regalado, Fabian Arechavaleta-Velasco, Federico Martínez
Progesterone synthesis in human placenta is essential to maintain pregnancy. The limiting step in placental progesterone synthesis is cholesterol transport from the cytoplasm to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Multiple proteins located in mitochondrial contact sites seem to play a key role in this process. Previously, our group identified the heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) as part of mitochondrial contact sites in human placenta, suggesting its participation in progesterone synthesis. Here, we examined the role of HSP60 in progesterone synthesis...
April 20, 2017: Reproductive Biology
LaShauna Evans, Leslie Myatt
INTRODUCTION: Maternal obesity creates an adverse intrauterine environment, negatively impacts placental respiration, is associated with a higher incidence of pregnancy complications and programs the offspring for disease in adult life in a sexually dimorphic manner. We defined the effect of maternal obesity and fetal sex on pro- and anti-oxidant status in placenta and placental mitochondria. METHODS: Placental villous tissue was collected at term via c-section prior to labor from four groups of patients based on fetal sex and prepregnancy/1st trimester body mass index: lean - BMI 22...
March 2017: Placenta
Daniel G Blackburn, Kristie E Anderson, Amy R Lo, Emily C Marquez, Ian P Callard
Ultrastructure of the placental tissues from redbelly watersnakes (Nerodia erythrogaster) was analyzed during late pregnancy to provide insight into placental development and function. Examination of the chorioallantoic placenta with transmission electron microscopy reveals that chorionic and uterine epithelia are extremely attenuated but intact and that the eggshell membrane is vestigial and lacks a calcareous layer. These features minimize the interhemal diffusion distance across the placenta. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that fetal and maternal components of the placentas are richly vascularized by dense networks of capillaries...
May 2017: Journal of Morphology
Marta Czernik, Paola Toschi, Federica Zacchini, Domenico Iuso, Grażyna Ewa Ptak
In various animal species, the main cause of pregnancy loss in conceptuses obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are placental abnormalities. Most abnormalities described in SCNT pregnancies (such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium) suggest that placental cell degeneration may be triggered by mitochondrial failure. We hypothesized that placental abnormalities of clones obtained by SCNT are related to mitochondrial dysfunction. To test this, early SCNT and control (CTR, from pregnancies obtained by in vitro fertilization) placentae were collected from pregnant ewes (at day 20 and 22 of gestation) and subjected to morphological, mRNA and protein analysis...
2017: PloS One
Mojtaba Beyramzadeh, Zeliha Gunnur Dikmen, Nergiz K Erturk, Zafer Selcuk Tuncer, Filiz Akbiyik
OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is the key energy source for placental functions and fetal growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of placenta in high risk pregnancies by measuring mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (RCC) activities, and to evaluate the correlation between double test risk ratio and RCC activities. METHODS: The placenta samples were collected from 50 pregnant women. The controls consisted of 20 normal uncomplicated pregnancies and the study group (n = 30) consisted of preeclampsia (PE), intrauterin growth restriction (IUGR), advanced maternal age (AMA), twins and preterm deliveries...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rekik A Muluye, Yuhong Bian, Li Wang, Paulos N Alemu, Huantian Cui, Xiaofei Peng, Shanshan Li
Background: Level of fatigue is related to the metabolic energy available to tissues and cells, mainly through mitochondrial respiration, as well fatigue is the most common symptom of poorly functioning mitochondria. Hence, dysfunction of these organelles may be the cause of the fatigue seen in Chronic fatigue (CF). Placenta has been used for treatment of fatigue and various disease, moreover peptides has known protect mitochondrial viability, and alleviate fatigue. These properties of placenta and peptides may link with its effect on mitochondria; therefore, it is highly important to investigate the effectiveness of placenta peptide on fatigue and mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Maria Teresa Mella, Katherine Kohari, Richard Jones, Juan Peña, Lauren Ferrara, Joanne Stone, Luca Lambertini
INTRODUCTION: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) affects 0.2-2% of pregnant women. While the maternal clinical course of ICP is usually benign, the fetal effects can be severe spanning from spontaneous preterm birth to fetal demise to long term effects on the health of the progeny. ICP is characterized by high maternal serum levels of bile acids and placental and hepatic bile acids accumulation. Intrahepatic cholestasis, in the non-pregnant state, has been also linked to alterations of the mitochondrial activity attributed to high oxidative stress rates driven by high intracellular bile acids concentrations...
September 2016: Placenta
Polina A Vishnyakova, Maria A Volodina, Nadezhda V Tarasova, Maria V Marey, Daria V Tsvirkun, Olga V Vavina, Zulfiya S Khodzhaeva, Natalya E Kan, Ramkumar Menon, Mikhail Yu Vysokikh, Gennady T Sukhikh
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome, characterized in general by hypertension with proteinuria or other systemic disturbances. PE is the major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the etiology of PE still remains unclear. Our study involved 38 patients: 14 with uncomplicated pregnancy; 13 with early-onset PE (eoPE); and 11 with late-onset PE (loPE). We characterized the immunophenotype of cells isolated from the placenta and all biopsy samples were stained positive for Cytokeratin 7, SOX2, Nestin, Vimentin, and CD44...
2016: Scientific Reports
Cleanthe Spanaki, Dimitra Kotzamani, Andreas Plaitakis
Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GDH1) (E.C. is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD+ and/or NADP+ to NADH and/or NADPH. It links amino acid with carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to Krebs cycle anaplerosis, energy production, ammonia handling and redox homeostasis. Although GDH1 was one of the first major metabolic enzymes to be studied decades ago, its role in cell biology is still incompletely understood...
January 2017: Neurochemical Research
Ester Gonzalez-Sanchez, Maria J Perez, Nikolaj S Nytofte, Oscar Briz, Maria J Monte, Elisa Lozano, Maria A Serrano, Jose J G Marin
The accumulation of bile acids affects mitochondria causing oxidative stress. Antioxidant defense is accepted to include biotransformation of biliverdin (BV) into bilirubin (BR) through BV reductase α (BVRα). The mutation (c.214C>A) in BLVRA results in a non-functional enzyme (mutBVRα). Consequently, homozygous carriers suffering from cholestasis develop green jaundice. Whether BVRα deficiency reduces BV-dependent protection against bile acids is a relevant question because a screening of the mut-BLVRA allele (a) in 311 individuals in Greenland revealed that this SNP was relatively frequent in the Inuit population studied (1% a/a and 4...
August 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Mairim Alexandra Solis, Yau-Huei Wei, Chiung-Hsin Chang, Chen-Hsiang Yu, Pao-Lin Kuo, Lynn L H Huang
Hyaluronan-coated surfaces preserve the proliferation and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells by prolonging their G1-phase transit, which maintains cells in a slow-proliferative mode. Mitochondria are known to play a crucial role in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this study, for the first time, the metabolic mechanism underlying the hyaluronan-regulated slow-proliferative maintenance of stem cells was investigated by evaluating mitochondrial functions. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSCs) cultured on hyaluronan-coated surfaces at 0...
October 2016: Stem Cells
Ryszard Milczarek, Ewa Sokołowska, Iwona Rybakowska, Krystian Kaletha, Jerzy Klimek
INTRODUCTION: Human placenta mitochondria produces huge amounts of progesterone necessary for maintaining the pregnancy. Lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria inhibits progesterone synthesis and that inhibition can be reversed by superoxide dismutase and other antioxidants. Paraquat (PQ) a highly toxic herbicide generates superoxide radical inside cells and induces lipid peroxidation. Hence, it is supposed to stimulate lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria and in consequence to inhibit a placental mitochondrial steroidogenesis...
July 2016: Placenta
Beatriz Caballero, Nair Olguin, Francisco Campos, Marcelo Farina, Ferran Ballester, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Sabrina Llop, Eduard Rodríguez-Farré, Cristina Suñol
Environmental exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) during development is of concern because it is easily incorporated in children's body both pre- and post-natal, it acts at several levels of neural pathways (mitochondria, cytoskeleton, neurotransmission) and it causes behavioral impairment in child. We evaluated the effects of prolonged exposure to 10-600nM MeHg on primary cultures of mouse cortical (CCN) and of cerebellar granule cells (CGC) during their differentiation period. In addition, it was studied if prenatal MeHg exposure correlated with altered antioxidant defenses and cofilin phosphorylation in human placentas (n=12) from the INMA cohort (Spain)...
May 27, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Valeria L Rivero Osimani, Susana R Valdez, Natalia Guiñazú, Gladis Magnarelli
The impact of environmental organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure on respiratory complexes, enzymatic antioxidant defense activities, and oxidative damage markers in the syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast mitochondria was evaluated. Placental progesterone (PG) levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression were studied. Samples from women non-exposed (control group-CG) and women living in a rural area (rural group-RG) were collected during pesticide spraying season (RG-SS) and non-spraying season (RG-NSS)...
June 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Long Xu, Jingjing Ge, Xia Huo, Yuling Zhang, Andy T Y Lau, Xijin Xu
Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool...
April 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Fiona C Brownfoot, Roxanne Hastie, Natalie J Hannan, Ping Cannon, Laura Tuohey, Laura J Parry, Sevvandi Senadheera, Sebastian E Illanes, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Stephen Tong
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is associated with placental ischemia/hypoxia and secretion of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin into the maternal circulation. This causes widespread endothelial dysfunction that manifests clinically as hypertension and multisystem organ injury. Recently, small molecule inhibitors of hypoxic inducible factor 1α have been found to reduce soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin secretion. However, their safety profile in pregnancy is unknown...
March 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
María del Consuelo Figueroa-García, María Teresa Espinosa-García, Federico Martinez-Montes, Martín Palomar-Morales, Ricardo Mejía-Zepeda
It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6-7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances...
2015: PloS One
Priyadarshini Pantham, Chez A Viall, Qi Chen, Torsten Kleffmann, Cristin G Print, Lawrence W Chamley
INTRODUCTION: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are autoantibodies that increase the risk of women developing the hypertensive disorder pre-eclampsia. aPL are internalised by the syncytiotrophoblast and increase extrusion of necrotic multinucleated syncytial nuclear aggregates (SNAs), which may trigger endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia. The mechanisms by which aPL alter death processes in the syncytiotrophoblast leading to extrusion of SNAs are unknown. METHODS: First trimester human placentae (n = 10) were dissected into explants and cultured either with aPL (50 μg/mL), isotype-matched control antibody (50 μg/mL), or media for 24 h...
December 2015: Placenta
Federico Martinez, Sofia Olvera-Sanchez, Mercedes Esparza-Perusquia, Erika Gomez-Chang, Oscar Flores-Herrera
The human placenta plays a central role in pregnancy, and the syncytiotrophoblast cells are the main components of the placenta that support the relationship between the mother and fetus, in apart through the production of progesterone. In this review, the metabolic processes performed by syncytiotrophoblast mitochondria associated with placental steroidogenesis are described. The metabolism of cholesterol, specifically how this steroid hormone precursor reaches the mitochondria, and its transformation into progesterone are reviewed...
November 2015: Steroids
Luca Lambertini, Jia Chen, Yoko Nomura
BACKGROUND: Gene-environment interactions mediate through the placenta and shape the fetal brain development. Between the environmental determinants of the fetal brain, maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy has been shown to negatively influence the infant temperament development. This in turn may have adverse consequences on the infant neurodevelopment extending throughout the entire life-span. However little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms of the effects of maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy on infant temperament...
2015: PloS One
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