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Placenta mitochondria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676635/syncytiotrophoblast-derived-extracellular-vesicles-transfer-functional-placental-mirnas-to-primary-human-endothelial-cells
#1
Tina Cronqvist, Dionne Tannetta, Matthias Mörgelin, Mattias Belting, Ian Sargent, Mary Familari, Stefan R Hansson
During the pregnancy associated syndrome preeclampsia (PE), there is increased release of placental syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEVs) and free foetal haemoglobin (HbF) into the maternal circulation. In the present study we investigated the uptake of normal and PE STBEVs by primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and the effects of free HbF on this uptake. Our results show internalization of STBEVs into primary HCAEC, and transfer of placenta specific miRNAs from STBEVs into the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of these recipient cells...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619690/metformin-the-aspirin-of-the-21st-century-its%C3%A2-role-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-prevention-of-preeclampsia-and-cancer-and%C3%A2-the-promotion-of-longevity
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Maik Hüttemann, Eli Maymon, Bogdan Panaitescu, Agustin Conde-Agudelo, Percy Pacora, Bo Hyun Yoon, Lawrence I Grossman
Metformin is everywhere. Originally introduced in clinical practice as an antidiabetic agent, its role as a therapeutic agent is expanding to include treatment of prediabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovarian disease and, more recently, experimental studies and observations in randomized clinical trials suggest that metformin could have a place in the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia. This article provides a brief overview of the history of metformin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, reviews the results of metaanalyses of metformin in gestational diabetes mellitus, and the treatment of obese non-diabetic pregnant women to prevent macrosomia...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573522/embryo%C3%A2-development-after-mitochondrial-supplementation-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Ruiqi Li, Bingqiang Wen, Haijing Zhao, Nengyong Ouyang, Songbang Ou, Wenjun Wang, Jianyong Han, Dongzi Yang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mitochondrial supplementation (MS) on early embryonic development and to assess the safety of MS treatments using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as the mitochondrial donor. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the effect of MS on early embryonic development using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as the donor. Mouse zygotes were injected with either mitochondria from iPSCs or a vehicle solution...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550453/exchange-of-genetic-sequences-between-viruses-and-hosts
#4
Robin A Weiss
Although genetic transfer between viruses and vertebrate hosts occurs less frequently than gene flow between bacteriophages and prokaryotes, it is extensive and has affected the evolution of both parties. With retroviruses, the integration of proviral DNA into chromosomal DNA can result in the activation of adjacent host gene expression and in the transduction of host transcripts into retroviral genomes as oncogenes. Yet in contrast to lysogenic phage, there is little evidence that viral oncogenes persist in a chain of natural transmission or that retroviral transduction is a significant driver of the horizontal spread of host genes...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541534/effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-placental-lipid-metabolism
#5
Virtu Calabuig-Navarro, Maricela Haghiac, Judi Minium, Patricia Glazebrook, Geraldine Cheyana Ranasinghe, Charles Hoppel, Sylvie Hauguel de-Mouzon, Patrick Catalano, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn
Obese women, on average, give birth to babies with high fat mass. Placental lipid metabolism alters fetal lipid delivery, potentially moderating neonatal adiposity, yet how it is affected by maternal obesity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that fatty acid (FA) accumulation (esterification) is higher, and FA oxidation (FAO) is lower, in placentas from obese, compared to lean women. We assessed acylcarnitine profiles (lipid oxidation intermediates) in mother-baby-placenta triads, in addition to lipid content, and mRNA/protein expression of key regulators of FA metabolism pathways, in placentas of lean and obese women with normal glucose tolerance recruited at scheduled term Cesarean delivery...
May 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434777/the-heat-shock-protein-60-promotes-progesterone-synthesis-in-mitochondria-of-jeg-3-cells
#6
Jessica Monreal-Flores, María Teresa Espinosa-García, Alejandro García-Regalado, Fabian Arechavaleta-Velasco, Federico Martínez
Progesterone synthesis in human placenta is essential to maintain pregnancy. The limiting step in placental progesterone synthesis is cholesterol transport from the cytoplasm to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Multiple proteins located in mitochondrial contact sites seem to play a key role in this process. Previously, our group identified the heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) as part of mitochondrial contact sites in human placenta, suggesting its participation in progesterone synthesis. Here, we examined the role of HSP60 in progesterone synthesis...
April 20, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292470/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-antioxidant-defense-mechanisms-in-the-human-placenta
#7
LaShauna Evans, Leslie Myatt
INTRODUCTION: Maternal obesity creates an adverse intrauterine environment, negatively impacts placental respiration, is associated with a higher incidence of pregnancy complications and programs the offspring for disease in adult life in a sexually dimorphic manner. We defined the effect of maternal obesity and fetal sex on pro- and anti-oxidant status in placenta and placental mitochondria. METHODS: Placental villous tissue was collected at term via c-section prior to labor from four groups of patients based on fetal sex and prepregnancy/1st trimester body mass index: lean - BMI 22...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145561/placentation-in-watersnakes-ii-placental-ultrastructure-in-nerodia-erythrogaster-colubridae-natricinae
#8
Daniel G Blackburn, Kristie E Anderson, Amy R Lo, Emily C Marquez, Ian P Callard
Ultrastructure of the placental tissues from redbelly watersnakes (Nerodia erythrogaster) was analyzed during late pregnancy to provide insight into placental development and function. Examination of the chorioallantoic placenta with transmission electron microscopy reveals that chorionic and uterine epithelia are extremely attenuated but intact and that the eggshell membrane is vestigial and lacks a calcareous layer. These features minimize the interhemal diffusion distance across the placenta. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that fetal and maternal components of the placentas are richly vascularized by dense networks of capillaries...
May 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076382/deregulated-expression-of-mitochondrial-proteins-mfn2-and-bcnl3l-in-placentae-from-sheep-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-scnt-conceptuses
#9
Marta Czernik, Paola Toschi, Federica Zacchini, Domenico Iuso, Grażyna Ewa Ptak
In various animal species, the main cause of pregnancy loss in conceptuses obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are placental abnormalities. Most abnormalities described in SCNT pregnancies (such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium) suggest that placental cell degeneration may be triggered by mitochondrial failure. We hypothesized that placental abnormalities of clones obtained by SCNT are related to mitochondrial dysfunction. To test this, early SCNT and control (CTR, from pregnancies obtained by in vitro fertilization) placentae were collected from pregnant ewes (at day 20 and 22 of gestation) and subjected to morphological, mRNA and protein analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915495/placental-respiratory-chain-complex-activities-in-high-risk-pregnancies
#10
Mojtaba Beyramzadeh, Zeliha Gunnur Dikmen, Nergiz K Erturk, Zafer Selcuk Tuncer, Filiz Akbiyik
OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is the key energy source for placental functions and fetal growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of placenta in high risk pregnancies by measuring mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (RCC) activities, and to evaluate the correlation between double test risk ratio and RCC activities. METHODS: The placenta samples were collected from 50 pregnant women. The controls consisted of 20 normal uncomplicated pregnancies and the study group (n = 30) consisted of preeclampsia (PE), intrauterin growth restriction (IUGR), advanced maternal age (AMA), twins and preterm deliveries...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729861/placenta-peptide-can-protect-mitochondrial-dysfunction-through-inhibiting-ros-and-tnf-%C3%AE-generation-by-maintaining-mitochondrial-dynamic-network-and-by-increasing-il-6-level-during-chronic-fatigue
#11
Rekik A Muluye, Yuhong Bian, Li Wang, Paulos N Alemu, Huantian Cui, Xiaofei Peng, Shanshan Li
Background: Level of fatigue is related to the metabolic energy available to tissues and cells, mainly through mitochondrial respiration, as well fatigue is the most common symptom of poorly functioning mitochondria. Hence, dysfunction of these organelles may be the cause of the fatigue seen in Chronic fatigue (CF). Placenta has been used for treatment of fatigue and various disease, moreover peptides has known protect mitochondrial viability, and alleviate fatigue. These properties of placenta and peptides may link with its effect on mitochondria; therefore, it is highly important to investigate the effectiveness of placenta peptide on fatigue and mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577705/mitochondrial-gene-expression-profiles-are-associated-with-intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy
#12
Maria Teresa Mella, Katherine Kohari, Richard Jones, Juan Peña, Lauren Ferrara, Joanne Stone, Luca Lambertini
INTRODUCTION: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) affects 0.2-2% of pregnant women. While the maternal clinical course of ICP is usually benign, the fetal effects can be severe spanning from spontaneous preterm birth to fetal demise to long term effects on the health of the progeny. ICP is characterized by high maternal serum levels of bile acids and placental and hepatic bile acids accumulation. Intrahepatic cholestasis, in the non-pregnant state, has been also linked to alterations of the mitochondrial activity attributed to high oxidative stress rates driven by high intracellular bile acids concentrations...
September 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573305/mitochondrial-role-in-adaptive-response-to-stress-conditions-in-preeclampsia
#13
Polina A Vishnyakova, Maria A Volodina, Nadezhda V Tarasova, Maria V Marey, Daria V Tsvirkun, Olga V Vavina, Zulfiya S Khodzhaeva, Natalya E Kan, Ramkumar Menon, Mikhail Yu Vysokikh, Gennady T Sukhikh
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome, characterized in general by hypertension with proteinuria or other systemic disturbances. PE is the major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the etiology of PE still remains unclear. Our study involved 38 patients: 14 with uncomplicated pregnancy; 13 with early-onset PE (eoPE); and 11 with late-onset PE (loPE). We characterized the immunophenotype of cells isolated from the placenta and all biopsy samples were stained positive for Cytokeratin 7, SOX2, Nestin, Vimentin, and CD44...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422263/widening-spectrum-of-cellular-and-subcellular-expression-of-human-glud1-and-glud2-glutamate-dehydrogenases-suggests-novel-functions
#14
Cleanthe Spanaki, Dimitra Kotzamani, Andreas Plaitakis
Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GDH1) (E.C. 1.4.1.3) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD+ and/or NADP+ to NADH and/or NADPH. It links amino acid with carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to Krebs cycle anaplerosis, energy production, ammonia handling and redox homeostasis. Although GDH1 was one of the first major metabolic enzymes to be studied decades ago, its role in cell biology is still incompletely understood...
January 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387768/protective-role-of-biliverdin-against-bile-acid-induced-oxidative-stress-in-liver-cells
#15
Ester Gonzalez-Sanchez, Maria J Perez, Nikolaj S Nytofte, Oscar Briz, Maria J Monte, Elisa Lozano, Maria A Serrano, Jose J G Marin
The accumulation of bile acids affects mitochondria causing oxidative stress. Antioxidant defense is accepted to include biotransformation of biliverdin (BV) into bilirubin (BR) through BV reductase α (BVRα). The mutation (c.214C>A) in BLVRA results in a non-functional enzyme (mutBVRα). Consequently, homozygous carriers suffering from cholestasis develop green jaundice. Whether BVRα deficiency reduces BV-dependent protection against bile acids is a relevant question because a screening of the mut-BLVRA allele (a) in 311 individuals in Greenland revealed that this SNP was relatively frequent in the Inuit population studied (1% a/a and 4...
August 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354288/hyaluronan-upregulates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-reduces-adenoside-triphosphate-production-for-efficient-mitochondrial-function-in-slow-proliferating-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Mairim Alexandra Solis, Yau-Huei Wei, Chiung-Hsin Chang, Chen-Hsiang Yu, Pao-Lin Kuo, Lynn L H Huang
Hyaluronan-coated surfaces preserve the proliferation and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells by prolonging their G1-phase transit, which maintains cells in a slow-proliferative mode. Mitochondria are known to play a crucial role in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this study, for the first time, the metabolic mechanism underlying the hyaluronan-regulated slow-proliferative maintenance of stem cells was investigated by evaluating mitochondrial functions. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSCs) cultured on hyaluronan-coated surfaces at 0...
October 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324098/paraquat-inhibits-progesterone-synthesis-in-human-placental-mitochondria
#17
Ryszard Milczarek, Ewa Sokołowska, Iwona Rybakowska, Krystian Kaletha, Jerzy Klimek
INTRODUCTION: Human placenta mitochondria produces huge amounts of progesterone necessary for maintaining the pregnancy. Lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria inhibits progesterone synthesis and that inhibition can be reversed by superoxide dismutase and other antioxidants. Paraquat (PQ) a highly toxic herbicide generates superoxide radical inside cells and induces lipid peroxidation. Hence, it is supposed to stimulate lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria and in consequence to inhibit a placental mitochondrial steroidogenesis...
July 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241350/methylmercury-induced-developmental-toxicity-is-associated-with-oxidative-stress-and-cofilin-phosphorylation-cellular-and-human-studies
#18
Beatriz Caballero, Nair Olguin, Francisco Campos, Marcelo Farina, Ferran Ballester, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Sabrina Llop, Eduard Rodríguez-Farré, Cristina Suñol
Environmental exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) during development is of concern because it is easily incorporated in children's body both pre- and post-natal, it acts at several levels of neural pathways (mitochondria, cytoskeleton, neurotransmission) and it causes behavioral impairment in child. We evaluated the effects of prolonged exposure to 10-600nM MeHg on primary cultures of mouse cortical (CCN) and of cerebellar granule cells (CGC) during their differentiation period. In addition, it was studied if prenatal MeHg exposure correlated with altered antioxidant defenses and cofilin phosphorylation in human placentas (n=12) from the INMA cohort (Spain)...
May 27, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26939719/alteration-of-syncytiotrophoblast-mitochondria-function-and-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-in-the-placenta-of-rural-residents
#19
Valeria L Rivero Osimani, Susana R Valdez, Natalia Guiñazú, Gladis Magnarelli
The impact of environmental organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure on respiratory complexes, enzymatic antioxidant defense activities, and oxidative damage markers in the syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast mitochondria was evaluated. Placental progesterone (PG) levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression were studied. Samples from women non-exposed (control group-CG) and women living in a rural area (rural group-RG) were collected during pesticide spraying season (RG-SS) and non-spraying season (RG-NSS)...
June 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26895036/differential-proteomic-expression-of-human-placenta-and-fetal-development-following-e-waste-lead-and-cadmium-exposure-in-utero
#20
Long Xu, Jingjing Ge, Xia Huo, Yuling Zhang, Andy T Y Lau, Xijin Xu
Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool...
April 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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