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Membrane curvature

Theresa Louise Boye, Kenji Maeda, Weria Pezeshkian, Stine Lauritzen Sønder, Swantje Christin Haeger, Volker Gerke, Adam Cohen Simonsen, Jesper Nylandsted
Efficient cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential for maintaining membrane integrity and thus for cell life. Here we show that the Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding proteins annexin A4 and A6 are involved in plasma membrane repair and needed for rapid closure of micron-size holes. We demonstrate that annexin A4 binds to artificial membranes and generates curvature force initiated from free edges, whereas annexin A6 induces constriction force. In cells, plasma membrane injury and Ca(2+) influx recruit annexin A4 to the vicinity of membrane wound edges where its homo-trimerization leads to membrane curvature near the edges...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Matthew R Elkins, Jonathan K Williams, Martin D Gelenter, Peng Dai, Byungsu Kwon, Ivan V Sergeyev, Bradley L Pentelute, Mei Hong
The influenza M2 protein not only forms a proton channel but also mediates membrane scission in a cholesterol-dependent manner to cause virus budding and release. The atomic interaction of cholesterol with M2, as with most eukaryotic membrane proteins, has long been elusive. We have now determined the cholesterol-binding site of the M2 protein in phospholipid bilayers using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Chain-fluorinated cholesterol was used to measure cholesterol proximity to M2 while sterol-deuterated cholesterol was used to measure bound-cholesterol orientation in lipid bilayers...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ernest Y Lee, Michelle W Lee, Benjamin M Fulan, Andrew L Ferguson, Gerard C L Wong
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse class of well-studied membrane-permeating peptides with important functions in innate host defense. In this short review, we provide a historical overview of AMPs, summarize previous applications of machine learning to AMPs, and discuss the results of our studies in the context of the latest AMP literature. Much work has been recently done in leveraging computational tools to design new AMP candidates with high therapeutic efficacies for drug-resistant infections...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
Javier H Hervás, Ane Landajuela, Zuriñe Antón, Anna V Shnyrova, Felix M Goñi, Alicia Alonso
Specific protein-lipid interactions lead to a gradual recruitment of AuTophaGy-related (ATG) proteins to the nascent membrane during autophagosome (AP) formation. ATG3, a key protein in the movement of LC3 towards the isolation membrane, has been proposed to facilitate LC3/GABARAP lipidation in highly curved membranes. In this work we have performed a biophysical study of human ATG3 interaction with membranes containing phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and anionic phospholipids. We have found that ATG3 interacts more strongly with negatively-charged phospholipid vesicles or nanotubes than with electrically neutral model membranes, cone-shaped anionic phospholipids (cardiolipin and phosphatidic acid) being particularly active in promoting binding...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Weria Pezeshkian, Lina J Nåbo, John H Ipsen
The B subunit of the bacterial cholera toxin (CTxB) is responsible for the toxin binding to the cell membrane and its intracellular trafficking. CTxB binds to the monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside at the plasma membrane of the target cell and mediates toxin internalization by endocytosis. CTxB induces a local membrane curvature that is essential for its clathrin-independent uptake. Using all-atom molecular dynamics, we show that CTxB induces local curvature, with the radius of curvature around 36 nm. The main feature of the CTxB molecular structure that causes membrane bending is the protruding alpha helices in the middle of the protein...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Takashi Hirama, Stella M Lu, Jason G Kay, Masashi Maekawa, Michael M Kozlov, Sergio Grinstein, Gregory D Fairn
The plasma membrane is uniquely enriched in phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). This anionic phospholipid is restricted almost exclusively to the inner leaflet of the plasmalemma. Because of their high density, the headgroups of anionic lipids experience electrostatic repulsion that, being exerted asymmetrically, is predicted to favor membrane curvature. We demonstrate that cholesterol limits this repulsion and tendency to curve. Removal of cholesterol or insertion of excess PtdSer increases the charge density of the inner leaflet, generating foci of enhanced charge and curvature where endophilin and synaptojanin are recruited...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
Anne M Sendecki, Matthew F Poyton, Alexis J Baxter, Tinglu Yang, Paul S Cremer
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is notoriously difficult to incorporate into model membrane systems, such as fluid supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), at high concentrations because of its intrinsic negative curvature. Using fluorescence-based techniques, we demonstrate that having fewer sites of unsaturation in the lipid tails leads to high-quality SLBs because these lipids help to minimize the curvature. Moreover, shorter saturated chains can help maintain the membranes in the fluid phase. Using these two guidelines, we find that up to 70 mol % PE can be incorporated into SLBs at room temperature and up to 90 mol % PE can be incorporated at 37 °C...
November 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Patrick J Lariviere, Piotr Szwedziak, Christopher R Mahone, Jan Löwe, Erin D Goley
During bacterial division, polymers of the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ assemble at midcell to form the cytokinetic Z-ring, which coordinates peptidoglycan (PG) remodeling and envelope constriction. Curvature of FtsZ filaments promotes membrane deformation in vitro, but its role in division in vivo remains undefined. Inside cells, FtsZ directs PG insertion at the division plane, though it is unclear how FtsZ structure and dynamics are mechanistically coupled to PG metabolism. Here we study FzlA, a division protein that stabilizes highly curved FtsZ filaments, as a tool for assessing the contribution of FtsZ filament curvature to constriction...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Alexander J Pak, John M A Grime, Prabuddha Sengupta, Antony K Chen, Aleksander E P Durumeric, Anand Srivastava, Mark Yeager, John A G Briggs, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Gregory A Voth
The packaging and budding of Gag polyprotein and viral RNA is a critical step in the HIV-1 life cycle. High-resolution structures of the Gag polyprotein have revealed that the capsid (CA) and spacer peptide 1 (SP1) domains contain important interfaces for Gag self-assembly. However, the molecular details of the multimerization process, especially in the presence of RNA and the cell membrane, have remained unclear. In this work, we investigate the mechanisms that work in concert between the polyproteins, RNA, and membrane to promote immature lattice growth...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pablo M Rodi, Bruno Maggio, Luis A Bagatolli
We compared the lateral structure of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of three pseudo binary mixtures of different glycosphingolipid (GSL), i.e. sulfatide, asialo-GM1 or GM1, with POPC. These sphingolipids possess similar hydrophobic residues but differ in the size and charge of their polar head group. Fluorescence microscopy experiments using LAURDAN and DiIC18 show coexistence of micron sized domains in a molar fraction range that depends on the nature of the GSLs. In all cases, experiments with LAURDAN show that the membrane lateral structure resembles the coexistence of solid ordered and liquid disordered phases...
October 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Edward Y Kim, Erin R Tyndall, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Fang Tian, Kumaran S Ramamurthi
In Bacillus subtilis, sporulation requires that the 26-amino acid protein SpoVM embeds specifically into the forespore membrane, a structure with convex curvature. How this nanometer-sized protein can detect curves on a micrometer scale is not well understood. Here, we report that SpoVM exploits a "dash-and-recruit" mechanism to preferentially accumulate on the forespore. Using time-resolved imaging and flow cytometry, we observe that SpoVM exhibits a faster adsorption rate onto membranes of higher convex curvature...
November 22, 2017: Cell Systems
Kevin S Cannon, Benjamin L Woods, Amy S Gladfelter
Membrane curvature is a fundamental feature of cells and their organelles. Much of what we know about how cells sense curved surfaces comes from studies examining nanometer-sized molecules on nanometer-scale curvatures. We are only just beginning to understand how cells recognize curved topologies at the micron scale. In this review, we provide the reader with an overview of our current understanding of how cells sense and respond to micron-scale membrane curvature.
October 28, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Lachit Saikia, Tanmoy Sarkar, Meera Thomas, V A Raghunathan, Anirban Sain, Prerna Sharma
Buckling and wrinkling instabilities are failure modes of elastic sheets that are avoided in the traditional material design. Recently, a new paradigm has appeared where these instabilities are instead being utilized for high-performance applications. Multiple approaches such as heterogeneous gelation, capillary stresses, and confinement have been used to shape thin macroscopic elastic sheets. However, it remains a challenge to shape two-dimensional self-assembled monolayers at colloidal or molecular length scales...
October 27, 2017: Nature Communications
Víctor G Almendro-Vedia, Paolo Natale, Michael Mell, Stephanie Bonneau, Francisco Monroy, Frederic Joubert, Iván López-Montero
ATP synthase is a rotating membrane protein that synthesizes ATP through proton-pumping activity across the membrane. To unveil the mechanical impact of this molecular active pump on the bending properties of its lipid environment, we have functionally reconstituted the ATP synthase in giant unilamellar vesicles and tracked the membrane fluctuations by means of flickering spectroscopy. We find that ATP synthase rotates at a frequency of about 20 Hz, promoting large nonequilibrium deformations at discrete hot spots in lipid vesicles and thus inducing an overall membrane softening...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ludger Johannes
The cellular entry of the bacterial Shiga toxin and the related verotoxins has been scrutinized in quite some detail. This is due to their importance as a threat to human health. At the same time, the study of Shiga toxin has allowed the discovery of novel molecular mechanisms that also apply to the intracellular trafficking of endogenous proteins at the plasma membrane and in the endosomal system. In this review, the individual steps that lead to Shiga toxin uptake into cells will first be presented from a purely mechanistic perspective...
October 25, 2017: Toxins
Writoban Basu Ball, John K Neff, Vishal M Gohil
Mitochondrial structure and function are influenced by the unique phospholipid composition of its membranes. While mitochondria contain all the major classes of phospholipids, recent studies have highlighted specific roles of the non-bilayer forming phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and cardiolipin (CL) in the assembly and activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes. The non-bilayer phospholipids are cone-shaped molecules that introduce curvature stress in the bilayer membrane and have been shown to impact mitochondrial fusion and fission...
October 25, 2017: FEBS Letters
Jean A Smith, Allison E Hall, Mark D Rose
Cell fusion is ubiquitous in eukaryotic fertilization and development. The highly conserved Rho-GTPase Cdc42p promotes yeast fusion through interaction with Fus2p, a pheromone-induced amphiphysin-like protein. We show that in prezygotes, Cdc42p forms a novel Fus2p-dependent focus at the center of the zone of cell fusion (ZCF) and remains associated with remnant cell walls after initial fusion. At the ZCF and during fusion, Cdc42p and Fus2p colocalized. In contrast, in shmoos, both proteins were near the cortex but spatially separate...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Abir Maarouf Kabbani, Xinxin Woodward, Christopher V Kelly
Recent advances in nanoengineering and super-resolution microscopy have enabled new capabilities for creating and observing membrane curvature. However, the effects of curvature on single-lipid diffusion have yet to be revealed. The simulations presented here describe the capabilities of varying experimental methods for revealing the effects of nanoscale curvature on single-molecule mobility. Traditionally, lipid mobility is revealed through fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), and single particle tracking (SPT)...
October 18, 2017: Membranes
Michael Mikucki, Y C Zhou
This work presents a mathematical model for the localization of multiple species of diffusion molecules on membrane surfaces. Morphological change of bilayer membrane in vivo is generally modulated by proteins. Most of these modulations are associated with the localization of related proteins in the crowded lipid environments. We start with the energetic description of the distributions of molecules on curved membrane surface, and define the spontaneous curvature of bilayer membrane as a function of the molecule concentrations on membrane surfaces...
2017: SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics
Galo E Balatti, Ernesto E Ambroggio, Gerardo D Fidelio, M Florencia Martini, Mónica Pickholz
In this work; we investigated the differential interaction of amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid structures by means of extensive molecular dynamics simulations. By using a coarse-grained (CG) model within the MARTINI force field; we simulated the peptide-lipid system from three different initial configurations: (a) peptides in water in the presence of a pre-equilibrated lipid bilayer; (b) peptides inside the hydrophobic core of the membrane; and (c) random configurations that allow self-assembled molecular structures...
October 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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