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Thomas Endlein, Aihong Ji, Shanshan Yuan, Iain Hill, Huan Wang, W Jon P Barnes, Zhendong Dai, Metin Sitti
Most studies on the adhesive mechanisms of climbing animals have addressed attachment against flat surfaces, yet many animals can climb highly curved surfaces, like twigs and small branches. Here we investigated whether tree frogs use a clamping grip by recording the ground reaction forces on a cylindrical object with either a smooth or anti-adhesive, rough surface. Furthermore, we measured the contact area of fore and hindlimbs against differently sized transparent cylinders and the forces of individual pads and subarticular tubercles in restrained animals...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Marina Radulaski, Matthias Widmann, Matthias Niethammer, Jingyuan Linda Zhang, Sangyun Lee, Torsten Rendler, Konstantinos G Lagoudakis, Nguyen Tien Son, Erik Janzén, Takeshi Ohshima, Jörg Wrachtrup, Jelena Vuckovic
Silicon carbide is a promising platform for single photon sources, quantum bits (qubits) and nanoscale sensors based on individual color centers. Towards this goal, we develop a scalable array of nanopillars incorporating single silicon vacancy centers in 4H-SiC, readily available for efficient interfacing with free-space objective and lensed-fibers. A commercially obtained substrate is irradiated with 2 MeV electron beams to create vacancies. Subsequent lithographic process forms 800 nm tall nanopillars with 400-1,400 nm diameters...
February 22, 2017: Nano Letters
Youngjo Kim, Nguyen Dinh Lam, Kangho Kim, Won-Kyu Park, Jaejin Lee
Radial junction solar cells with vertically aligned wire arrays have been widely studied to improve the power conversion efficiency. In this work, we report the first Ge nanopillar solar cell. Nanopillar arrays are selectively patterned on p-type Ge (100) substrates using nanosphere lithography and deep reactive ion etching processes. Nanoscale radial and planar junctions are realized by an n-type Ge emitter layer which is epitaxially grown by MOCVD using isobutylgermane. In situ epitaxial surface passivation is employed using an InGaP layer to avoid high surface recombination rates and Fermi level pinning...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shuang Shuang, Zheng Xie, Zhengjun Zhang
CdS nanoparticles (NPs) decorated α-Fe2O3 nanopillar arrays (NPAs) were fabricated through several steps. Fe NPAs were firstly fabricated by glancing angle deposition technique and oxidized in air to gain α-Fe2O3 NPAs. Then these NPAs were decorated by CdS NPs through successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Here we have tested photodegredation of methylene blue (MB) and photoelectrochemical properties under visible light. Especially, when SILAR cycle number reaches to 10, it shows the highest degradation efficiency (94% in 75min on MB) which improves 72% comparing with pure one and the highest photocurrent density (2...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
V Dolores-Calzadilla, B Romeira, F Pagliano, S Birindelli, A Higuera-Rodriguez, P J van Veldhoven, M K Smit, A Fiore, D Heiss
Nanoscale light sources using metal cavities have been proposed to enable high integration density, efficient operation at low energy per bit and ultra-fast modulation, which would make them attractive for future low-power optical interconnects. For this application, such devices are required to be efficient, waveguide-coupled and integrated on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate a metal-cavity light-emitting diode coupled to a waveguide on silicon. The cavity consists of a metal-coated III-V semiconductor nanopillar which funnels a large fraction of spontaneous emission into the fundamental mode of an InP waveguide bonded to a silicon wafer showing full compatibility with membrane-on-Si photonic integration platforms...
February 2, 2017: Nature Communications
Nicholas J Hestand, Frank C Spano
The transport and photophysical properties of organic molecular aggregates, films, and crystals continue to receive widespread attention, driven mainly by expanding commercial applications involving display and wearable technologies as well as the promise of efficient, large-area solar cells. The main blueprint for understanding how molecular packing impacts photophysical properties was drafted over five decades ago by Michael Kasha. Kasha showed that the Coulombic coupling between two molecules, as determined by the alignment of their transition dipoles, induces energetic shifts in the main absorption spectral peak and changes in the radiative decay rate when compared to uncoupled molecules...
February 1, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Chaturanga D Bandara, Sanjleena Singh, Isaac O Afara, Tuquabo Tesfamichael, Annalena Wolff, Kostya Ken Ostrikov, Adekunle Oloyede
Nano-textured surfaces (NTS) are critical to organisms as self-adaptation and survival tools. These NTS have been actively mimicked in the process of developing bactericidal surfaces for diverse biomedical and hygiene applications. To design and fabricate bactericidal topographies effectively for various applications, understanding the bactericidal mechanism of NTS in nature is essential. The current mechanistic explanations on natural bactericidal activity of nanopillars have not utilized recent advances in microscopy to study the natural interaction...
January 31, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
C Bran, Yu P Ivanov, J Kosel, O Chubykalo-Fesenko, M Vazquez
Arrays of multisegmented Co/Au nanowires with designed segment lengths and diameters have been prepared by electrodeposition into aluminum oxide templates. The high quality of the Co/Au interface and the crystallographic structure of Co segments have determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show larger coercivity and squareness of multisegmented nanowires as compared to single segment Co nanowires. The complementary micromagnetic simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results, confirming that the magnetic behavior is defined mainly by magnetostatic coupling between different segments...
March 3, 2017: Nanotechnology
M Khorasaninejad, Z Shi, A Y Zhu, W T Chen, V Sanjeev, A Zaidi, F Capasso
In this Letter, we experimentally report an achromatic metalens (AML) operating over a continuous bandwidth in the visible. This is accomplished via dispersion engineering of dielectric phase shifters: titanium dioxide nanopillars tiled on a dielectric spacer layer above a metallic mirror. The AML works in reflection mode with a focal length independent of wavelength from λ = 490 to 550 nm. We also design a metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion, where the focal length increases as the wavelength increases, contrary to conventional diffractive lenses...
February 6, 2017: Nano Letters
Waleed A Hassanain, Emad L Izake, Michael S Schmidt, Godwin A Ayoko
A highly sensitive nanosensing method for the combined selective capture and SERS detection of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in blood plasma has been developed. The new method utilizes gold coated magnetic nanoparticles that are functionalized with anti MC-LR antibody Fab' fragments for the selective capture of MC-LR from aqueous media and blood plasma. Using an oriented immobilization approach, the Fab' fragments are covalently attached to gold surface to form a monolayer with high capture efficiency towards the toxin...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Xing Li, Shaobo Cheng, Shiqing Deng, Xianlong Wei, Jing Zhu, Qing Chen
Catalyst-free methods are important for the fabrication of pure nanowires (NWs). However, the growth mechanism remains elusive due to the lack of crucial information on the growth dynamics at atomic level. Here, the noncatalytic growth process of ZnO NWs is studied through in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We observe the layer-by-layer growth of ZnO nanopillars along the polar [0001] direction under electron beam irradiation, while no growth is observed along the radial directions, indicating an anisotropic growth mechanism...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Elena I Liang, Emma J Mah, Albert F Yee, Michelle A Digman
Selective cell adhesion is desirable to control cell growth and migration on biomedical implants. Mesenchymal cell migration is regulated through focal adhesions (FAs) and can be modulated by their microenvironment, including changes in surface topography. We use the Number and Molecular Brightness (N&B) imaging analysis to provide a unique perspective on FA assembly and disassembly. This imaging analysis generates a map of real-time fluctuations of protein monomers, dimers, and higher order aggregates of FA proteins, such as paxillin during assembly and disassembly...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Xuehui Pang, Hongjun Bian, Weijie Wang, Cheng Liu, Malik Saddam Khan, Qiao Wang, Jianni Qi, Qin Wei, Bin Du
Herein, TiO2 nanopillars (NPs)/N-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs)/g-C3N4 QDs heterojunction efficiently suppressed the photogenerated charges recombination and improved photo-to-current conversion efficiency. The introduced N-GQDs and g-C3N4 QDs could result in more effective separation of the photogenerated charges, and thus produce a further increase of the photocurrent. TiO2 NPs/N-GQDs/g-C3N4 QDs were firstly applied as the photoactive materials for the fabrication of the biosensors, and the primers of pcDNA3-HBV were then adsorbed on the TiO2 NPs/N-GQDs/g-C3N4 QDs modified electrode under the activation of EDC/NHS...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Hsin-Ya Lou, Wenting Zhao, Lindsey Hanson, Connie Zeng, Yi Cui, Bianxiao Cui
Clinical studies of circulating tumor cells (CTC) have stringent demands for high capture purity and high capture efficiency. Nanostructured surfaces have been shown to significantly increase the capture efficiency yet suffer from low capture purity. Here we introduce a dual-functional lipid coating on nanostructured surfaces. The lipid coating serves both as an effective passivation layer that helps prevent nonspecific cell adhesion and as a functionalized layer for antibody-based specific cell capture. In addition, the fluidity of lipid bilayers enables antibody clustering that enhances the cell-surface interaction for efficient cell capture...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zhengjun Liu, Ali Shah, Tapani Alasaarela, Nikolai Chekurov, Hele Savin, Ilkka Tittonen
In this work, focused ion beam (FIB) lithography was developed for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) silicon dioxide SiO2 hard mask. The PEALD process greatly decreases the deposition temperature of the SiO2 hard mask. FIB Ga(+) ion implantation on the deposited SiO2 layer increases the wet etch resistivity of the irradiated region. A programmed exposure in FIB followed by development in a wet etchant enables the precisely defined nanoscale patterning. The combination of FIB exposure parameters and the development time provides greater freedom for optimization...
January 3, 2017: Nanotechnology
Eungkyu Lee, Teng Zhang, Taehee Yoo, Zhi Guo, Tengfei Luo
The efficiency of thermal transport across solid interfaces presents large challenges for modern technologies such as thermal management of electronics. In this paper, we report the first demonstration of significant enhancement of thermal transport across solid interfaces by introducing interfacial nanostructures. Analogous to fins that have been used for macroscopic heat transfer enhancement in heat exchangers, the nanopillar arrays patterned at the interface help interfacial thermal transport by the enlarged effective contact area...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ronggang Cai, Vlad-Andrei Antohe, Zhijun Hu, Bernard Nysten, Luc Piraux, Alain M Jonas
A nanopatterned hybrid layer is designed, wherein the electric polarization can be flipped at room temperature by a magnetic field aided by an electrical field. This is achieved by embedding ferromagnetic nanopillars in a continuous organic ferroelectric layer, and amplifying the magnetostriction-generated stress gradients by scaling down the supracrystalline cell of the material.
December 5, 2016: Advanced Materials
Ana L Hernández, Rafael Casquel, Miguel Holgado, Iñaki Cornago, Fátima Fernández, Paula Ciaurriz, Francisco J Sanza, Beatriz Santamaría, María V Maigler, María Fe Laguna
In our previous work we demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the experimental capability of resonant nanopillars (R-NP) arrays as biochemical transducers. In this Letter, we provide evidence of the capability and suitability of R-NP arrays on a chip to function as label-free optical multiplexed biosensors. R-NP are based on Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> Bragg reflectors with a cavity of SiO<sub>2</sub>. In order to demonstrate the biosensing performance, R-NP were biofunctionalized by the immobilization of IgG antibodies acting as a bioreceptor...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Jo Hee Yoon, Seok Bok Hong, Seok-Oh Yun, Seok Jae Lee, Tae Jae Lee, Kyoung G Lee, Bong Gill Choi
Flexible pH sensor technologies have attracted a great deal of attention in many applications, such as, wearable health care devices and monitors for chemical and biological processes. Here, we fabricated flexible and thin pH sensors using a two electrode configuration comprised of a polyaniline nanopillar (PAN) array working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. In order to provide nanostructure, soft lithography using a polymeric blend was employed to create a flexible nanopillar backbone film. Polyaniline-sensing materials were deposited on a patterned-nanopillar array by electrochemical deposition...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Weitao Jiang, Biao Lei, Hongzhong Liu, Dong Niu, Tingting Zhao, Bangdao Chen, Lei Yin, Yongsheng Shi, Xiaokang Liu
Directional nanopillars with high-aspect-ratio have wide applications in home or industrial appliances and biomimetic robots. Their fabrication, however, is a challenge for conventional methods. In this study, we propose a simple stretching imprint process to prepare controllable directional (30°-90° in a slanted angle) nanopillars (200-800 nm in diameter) with high aspect ratio (>30) using a microcavity mold, beyond the conventional nanoimprint process, for 1 : 1 pattern transfer from the mold to the replica...
November 18, 2016: Nanoscale
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