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Yong Min Park, Woong Ki Jang, Tae Hwan Shin, Byeong Hee Kim, Young Ho Seo
This paper presents a method to utilize the growth properties of anodic alumina possessing self-formation characteristics to fabricate a nano-textured microstructure and also introduces an application technique of the proposed method. The growth rate of anodic alumina, fabricated on aluminum surfaces, has a strong dependence on the intensity of the applied current density or electric field. The uniformity of the thickness of anodic alumina is determined by its electrical distribution characteristics. Accordingly, microscale structures can be fabricated using the growth rate deviation of anodic alumina...
May 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Shan Gao, Quanwen Liao, Wei Liu, Zhichun Liu
Droplets impact is widespread in life, and modulating the dynamics of impinging droplets is a significant problem in production. However, on textured surfaces, the micromorphologic change and mechanism of impinging nanodroplets is not well understood, furthermore, the accuracy of theoretical model for nanodroplets need to be improved. Here, considering the great challenge of conducting experiments on nanodroplets, a molecular dynamics simulation is performed to visualize the impact process of nanodroplets on nanopillar surfaces...
April 30, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ping Qin, Xingxing Li, Biao Gao, Jijiang Fu, Lu Xia, Xuming Zhang, Kaifu Huo, Wenli Shen, Paul K Chu
Titanium nitride (TiN) is an attractive electrode material in fast charging/discharging supercapacitors because of its excellent conductivity. However, the low capacitance and mechanical brittleness of TiN restricts its further application in flexible supercapacitors with high energy density. Thus, it is still a challenge to rationally design TiN electrodes with both high electrochemical and mechanical properties. Herein, the hierarchical TiN nanoparticles-assembled nanopillars (H-TiN NPs) array as binder free electrodes were obtained by nitriding of hierarchical titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopillars, which was produced by a simple hydrothermal treatment of anodic TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) array in water...
April 27, 2018: Nanoscale
Ming Tan, Yanming Hao, Yuan Deng, Dali Yan, Zehua Wu
The uniquely tilted nanopillar array favorably influence carrier and phonon transport properties. We present an innovative interfacial design concept and a novel tilt-structure of hierarchical Bi1.5 Sb0.5 Te3 nanopillar array comprising unique interfaces from nano-scaled open gaps to coherent grain boundaries, and tilted nanopillars assembled by high-quality nanowires with well oriented growth, utilizing a simple vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The unusual structure Bi1.5 Sb0.5 Te3 nanopillar array with a tilt angle of 45° exhibits a high thermoelectric performance ZT = 1...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hyeok-Chan Kwon, Wooseok Yang, Daehee Lee, Jihoon Ahn, Eunsong Lee, Sunihl Ma, Kyungmi Kim, Seong-Cheol Yun, Jooho Moon
Organometal halide perovskite materials have become an exciting research topic as manifested by intense development of thin film solar cells. While high performance solar cells based planar and mesoscopic configurations have been reported, one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructured perovskite solar cells are rarely investigated despite of their expected promising optoelectrical properties such as enhanced charge transport/extraction. Herein, we have analyzed the 1-D nanostructure effects of organometal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-XClX) on recombination and charge carrier dynamics by utilizing a nanoporous anodized alumina oxide scaffold to fabricate a vertically aligned 1-D nanopillared array with controllable diameters...
April 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Dan He, Cheng Fu, Zhigang Xue
Gold coating is a general operation that is generally applied on non-conductive or low conductive materials, during which the morphology of the materials can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, fatal deficiencies in the materials can result in irreversible distortion and damage. The present study directly characterized different low conductive materials such as hydroxyapatite, modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fiber, and zinc oxide nanopillar by cold field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) without a gold coating...
April 6, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Hayder Amin, Michele Dipalo, Francesco De Angelis, Luca Berdondini
A controlled geometry of in vitro neuronal networks allows investigation of the cellular mechanisms that underlie neuron-to-neuron and neuron-extracellular matrix interactions, which are essential to biomedical research. Herein, we report a selective guidance of primary hippocampal neurons by using arrays of three-dimensional vertical nanopillars (NPs) functionalized with a specific adhesion-promoting molecule-poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO). We show that 90% of neuronal cells are guided exclusively on the combinatorial PDLO/NP substrate...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Soonmin Yim, Hyeuk Jin Han, Jaebeom Jeon, Kiung Jeon, Dong Min Sim, Yeon Sik Jung
Despite the outstanding physical and chemical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, due to their extremely thin nature, eliminating detrimental substrate effects such as serious degradation of charge-carrier mobility or light-emission yield remains a major challenge. However, previous approaches have suffered from limitations such as structural instability or the need of costly and high-temperature deposition processes. Herein, we propose a new strategy based on the insertion of high-density topographic nanopatterns as a nano-gap-containing supporter between 2D materials and substrate to minimize their contact and to block the substrate-induced undesirable effects...
April 3, 2018: Nano Letters
Myeong-Su Ahn, Taerin Chung, Ki-Hun Jeong
Structural coloration of natural surfaces often originates from the change of reflected colors depending on the viewing or illumination angle. Recently, the structural coloration of nanoplasmonic structures has attracted a great deal of attention due to high compactness, robust stability and high color-tunability, as well as high sensitivity to the incidence angle. Here we report complementary plasmonic structures (CPS) for transmission structural coloration by tailoring a single spectral peak depending on the incidence angle of light...
March 28, 2018: Nanoscale
Yidenekachew J Donie, Michael Smeets, Amos Egel, Florian Lentz, Jan B Preinfalk, Adrian Mertens, Vladimir Smirnov, Uli Lemmer, Karsten Bittkau, Guillaume Gomard
In this work, we have improved the absorption properties of thin film solar cells by introducing light trapping reflectors deposited onto self-assembled nanostructures. The latter consist of a disordered array of nanopillars and are fabricated by polymer blend lithography. Their broadband light scattering properties are exploited to enhance the photocurrent density of thin film devices, here based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon active layers. We demonstrate that these light scattering nanopillars yield a short-circuit current density increase of +33%rel with respect to equivalent solar cells processed on a planar reflector...
March 27, 2018: Nanoscale
Martyna Michalska, Francesca Gambacorta, Ralu Divan, Igor S Aranson, Andrey Sokolov, Philippe Noirot, Philip D Laible
Nature has amassed an impressive array of structures that afford protection from microbial colonization/infection when displayed on the exterior surfaces of organisms. Here, controlled variation of the features of mimetics derived from etched silicon allows for tuning of their antimicrobial efficacy. Materials with nanopillars up to 7 μm in length are extremely effective against a wide range of microbial species and exceed the performance of natural surfaces; in contrast, materials with shorter/blunter nanopillars (<2 μm) selectively killed specific species...
March 27, 2018: Nanoscale
Younghyun Cho, Helen K Minsky, Yijie Jiang, Kaiyang Yin, Kevin T Turner, Shu Yang
Tapered nanopillars with various cross sections, including cone-shaped, stepwise, and pencil-like structures (300 nm in diameter at the base of the pillars and 1.1 μm in height), are prepared from epoxy resin templated by nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The effect of pillar geometry on the shear adhesion behavior of these nanopillar arrays is investigated via sliding experiments in a nanoindentation system. In a previous study of arrays with the same geometry, it was shown that cone-shaped nanopillars exhibit the highest adhesion under normal loading while stepwise and pencil-like nanopillars exhibit lower normal adhesion strength due to significant deformation of the pillars that occurs with increasing indentation depth...
March 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Thien-Binh Nguyen, Dongdong Liu, Md Imrul Kayes, Baomin Wang, Nabeel Rashin, Paul W Leu, Tuan Tran
Boiling is a key heat transfer process for a variety of power generation and thermal management technologies. We show that nanopillar arrays fabricated on a substrate enhance both the critical heat flux (CHF) and the critical temperature at CHF of the substrate and thus, effectively increase the limit of boiling before the boiling crisis is triggered. We reveal that the enhancement in both the CHF and the critical temperature results from an intensified rewetting process which increases with the height of nanopillars...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiangwei Wang, Yanming Wang, Wei Cai, Jixue Li, Ze Zhang, Scott X Mao
Shear band in metallic crystals is localized deformation with high dislocation density, which is often observed in nanopillar deformation experiments. The shear band dynamics coupled with dislocation activities, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigate the dynamic processes of dislocation and shear band in body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten nanowires via an integrated approach of in situ nanomechanical testing and atomistic simulation. We find a strong effect of surface orientation on dislocation nucleation in tungsten nanowires, in which {111} surfaces act as favorite sites under high strain...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qinyu Qian, Ying Yan, Chinhua Wang
We report on a monolithic, all-metallic, and flexible metasurface perfect absorber [black nickel (Ni)] based on coupled Mie resonances originated from vertically stepped Ni nanopillars homoepitaxially grown on an Ni substrate. Coupled Mie resonances are generated from Ni nanopillars with different sizes such that Mie resonances of the stepped two sets of Ni nanopillars occur complementarily at different wavelengths to realize polarization-independent broadband absorption over the entire visible wavelength band (400-760 nm) within an ultra-thin surface layer of only 162 nm thick in total...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Shan Zhang, Baojin Ma, Feng Liu, Jiazhi Duan, Shicai Wang, Jichuan Qiu, Dong Li, Yuanhua Sang, Chao Liu, Duo Liu, Hong Liu
Numerous studies have determined that physical cues, especially the nanotopography of materials, play key roles in directing stem cell differentiation. However, most research on nanoarrays for stem cell fate regulation is based on nonbiodegradable materials, such as silicon wafers, TiO2 , and poly(methyl methacrylate), which are rarely used as tissue engineering biomaterials. In this study, we prepared biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) nanopillar arrays with different diameters but the same center-to-center distance using a series of anodic aluminum oxide nanowell arrays as templates...
April 11, 2018: Nano Letters
Aizhen Liao, Huichao He, Lanqin Tang, Yichang Li, Jiyuan Zhang, Jiani Chen, Lan Chen, Chunfeng Zhang, Yong Zhou, Zhigang Zou
A facile rapid dehydration (RD) strategy is explored for quasi-topotactic transformation of FeOOH nanorods to robust Fe2 O3 porous nanopillars, avoiding collapse, shrink, and coalescence, and compared with a conventional treatment route. Additionally, the so-called RD process is capable of generating a beneficial porous structure for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. The obtained RD-Fe2 O3 photoanode exhibits a photocurrent density as high as 2.0 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and a saturated photocurrent density of 3...
March 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guohua Dong, Ziyao Zhou, Mengmeng Guan, Xu Xue, Mingfeng Chen, Jing Ma, Zhongqiang Hu, Wei Ren, Zuo-Guang Ye, Ce-Wen Nan, Ming Liu
Traditional magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminated composites rely on the two-dimensional interface that transfers stress/strain to achieve the large magnetoelectric (ME) coupling, nevertheless, they suffer from the theoretical limitation of the strain effect and of the substrate clamping effect in real ME applications. In this work, 3D NZFO/BTO-pillar nanocomposite films were grown on SrTiO3 by template-assisted pulsed laser deposition, where BaTiO3 (BTO) nanopillars appeared in an array with distinct phase transitions as the cores were covered by NiZn ferrite (NZFO) layer...
April 24, 2018: ACS Nano
Songmei Wu, Flavia Zuber, Katharina Maniura-Weber, Juergen Brugger, Qun Ren
BACKGROUND: Due to the increased emergence of antimicrobial resistance, alternatives to minimize the usage of antibiotics become attractive solutions. Biophysical manipulation of material surface topography to prevent bacterial adhesion is one promising approach. To this end, it is essential to understand the relationship between surface topographical features and bactericidal properties in order to develop antibacterial surfaces. RESULTS: In this work a systematic study of topographical effects on bactericidal activity of nanostructured surfaces is presented...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Shuli Wang, Yongshun Liu, Peng Ge, Qiqi Kan, Nianzuo Yu, Jing Wang, Jingjie Nan, Shunsheng Ye, Junhu Zhang, Weiqing Xu, Bai Yang
This article shows a new strategy for the fabrication of nanofluidics based on nanoscale gaps in nanopillar arrays. Silicon nanopillar arrays are prepared in a designed position by combining conventional photolithography with colloidal lithography. The nanogaps between the pillars are used as nanochannels for the connection of two polydimethylsiloxane-based microchannels in microfluidics. The gap between neighbouring nanopillars can be accurately controlled by changing the size of initial colloidal spheres and by an etching process, which further determines the dimensions of the nanochannels...
March 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
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